**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**220

# Search results for: radial velocity.

##### 220 Gas Pressure Evaluation through Radial Velocity Measurement of Fluid Flow Modeled by Drift Flux Model

**Authors:**
Aicha Rima Cheniti,
Hatem Besbes,
Joseph Haggege,
Christophe Sintes

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we consider a drift flux mixture model of the blood flow. The mixture consists of gas phase which is carbon dioxide and liquid phase which is an aqueous carbon dioxide solution. This model was used to determine the distributions of the mixture velocity, the mixture pressure, and the carbon dioxide pressure. These theoretical data are used to determine a measurement method of mean gas pressure through the determination of radial velocity distribution. This method can be applicable in experimental domain.

**Keywords:**
Mean carbon dioxide pressure,
mean mixture pressure,
mixture velocity,
radial velocity.

##### 219 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

**Authors:**
Aicha Rima Cheniti,
Hatem Besbes,
Joseph Haggege,
Christophe Sintes

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Mean carbon dioxide pressure,
mean mixture pressure,
mixture velocity,
radial velocity difference.

##### 218 Group Invariant Solutions for Radial Jet Having Finite Fluid Velocity at Orifice

**Abstract:**

The group invariant solution for Prandtl-s boundary layer equations for an incompressible fluid governing the flow in radial free, wall and liquid jets having finite fluid velocity at the orifice are investigated. For each jet a symmetry is associated with the conserved vector that was used to derive the conserved quantity for the jet elsewhere. This symmetry is then used to construct the group invariant solution for the third-order partial differential equation for the stream function. The general form of the group invariant solution for radial jet flows is derived. The general form of group invariant solution and the general form of the similarity solution which was obtained elsewhere are the same.

**Keywords:**
Two-dimensional jets,
radial jets,
group invariant solution.

##### 217 Cold Model Experimental Research on Particle Velocity Distribution in Gas-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed for Methanol-to-Olefins Process

**Authors:**
Yongzheng Li,
Hongfang Ma,
Qiwen Sun,
Haitao Zhang,
Weiyong Ying

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Circulating fluidized bed,
laser doppler velocimeter,
particle velocity,
radial profile.

##### 216 Handwriting Velocity Modeling by Artificial Neural Networks

**Authors:**
Mohamed Aymen Slim,
Afef Abdelkrim,
Mohamed Benrejeb

**Abstract:**

The handwriting is a physical demonstration of a complex cognitive process learnt by man since his childhood. People with disabilities or suffering from various neurological diseases are facing so many difficulties resulting from problems located at the muscle stimuli (EMG) or signals from the brain (EEG) and which arise at the stage of writing. The handwriting velocity of the same writer or different writers varies according to different criteria: age, attitude, mood, writing surface, etc. Therefore, it is interesting to reconstruct an experimental basis records taking, as primary reference, the writing speed for different writers which would allow studying the global system during handwriting process. This paper deals with a new approach of the handwriting system modeling based on the velocity criterion through the concepts of artificial neural networks, precisely the Radial Basis Functions (RBF) neural networks. The obtained simulation results show a satisfactory agreement between responses of the developed neural model and the experimental data for various letters and forms then the efficiency of the proposed approaches.

**Keywords:**
ElectroMyoGraphic (EMG) signals,
Experimental
approach,
Handwriting process,
Radial Basis Functions (RBF) neural
networks,
Velocity Modeling.

##### 215 Measurements of Radial Velocity in Fixed Fluidized Bed for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using LDV

**Authors:**
Xiaolai Zhang,
Haitao Zhang,
Qiwen Sun,
Weixin Qian,
Weiyong Ying

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
LDV,
fixed fluidized bed,
velocity,
Fischer-Tropsch
synthesis.

##### 214 Effects of Injection Velocity and Entrance Airflow Velocity on Droplets Sizing in a Duct

**Authors:**
M. M. Doustdar ,
M. Mojtahedpoor

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Ramjet,
droplet sizing,
injection velocity,
air flow
velocity,
efficient mass fraction.

##### 213 Productive Design and Calculation of Intermittent Mechanisms with Radial Parallel Cams

**Authors:**
Pavel Dostrašil,
Petr Jirásko

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Cam mechanism,
displacement diagram,
intermittentmechanism,
radial parallel cam

##### 212 Mean Velocity Modeling of Open-Channel Flow with Submerged Rigid Vegetation

**Authors:**
M. Morri,
A. Soualmia,
P. Belleudy

**Abstract:**

Vegetation affects the mean and turbulent flow structure. It may increase flood risks and sediment transport. Therefore, it is important to develop analytical approaches for the bed shear stress on vegetated bed, to predict resistance caused by vegetation. In the recent years, experimental and numerical models have both been developed to model the effects of submerged vegetation on open-channel flow. In this paper, different analytic models are compared and tested using the criteria of deviation, to explore their capacity for predicting the mean velocity and select the suitable one that will be applied in real case of rivers. The comparison between the measured data in vegetated flume and simulated mean velocities indicated, a good performance, in the case of rigid vegetation, whereas, Huthoff model shows the best agreement with a high coefficient of determination (R2=80%) and the smallest error in the prediction of the average velocities.

**Keywords:**
Analytic Models,
Comparison,
Mean Velocity,
Vegetation.

##### 211 Characteristics of Turbulent Round Jets in its Potential-Core Region

**Authors:**
S. Sivakumar,
Ravikiran Sangras,
Vasudevan Raghavan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Contoured nozzle,
hot-wire anemometer,
Reynolds
number,
velocity fluctuations,
velocity spectra.

##### 210 Vehicle Velocity Estimation for Traffic Surveillance System

**Authors:**
H. A. Rahim,
U. U. Sheikh,
R. B. Ahmad,
A. S. M. Zain

**Abstract:**

This paper describes an algorithm to estimate realtime vehicle velocity using image processing technique from the known camera calibration parameters. The presented algorithm involves several main steps. First, the moving object is extracted by utilizing frame differencing technique. Second, the object tracking method is applied and the speed is estimated based on the displacement of the object-s centroid. Several assumptions are listed to simplify the transformation of 2D images from 3D real-world images. The results obtained from the experiment have been compared to the estimated ground truth. From this experiment, it exhibits that the proposed algorithm has achieved the velocity accuracy estimation of about ± 1.7 km/h.

**Keywords:**
camera calibration,
object tracking,
velocity estimation,
video image processing

##### 209 Terminal Velocity of a Bubble Rise in a Liquid Column

**Authors:**
Mário A. R. Talaia

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bubbles,
terminal velocity,
two phase-flow,
vertical
column.

##### 208 Velocity Distribution in Open Channels with Sand: An Experimental Study

**Authors:**
E. Keramaris

**Abstract:**

In this study, laboratory experiments in open channel flows over a sand bed were conducted. A porous bed (sand bed) with porosity of ε=0.70 and porous thickness of s΄=3 cm was tested. Vertical distributions of velocity were evaluated by using a two-dimensional (2D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity profiles are measured above the impermeable bed and above the sand bed for the same different total water heights (h= 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) and for the same slope S=1.5. Measurements of mean velocity indicate the effects of the bed material used (sand bed) on the flow characteristics (Velocity distribution and Reynolds number) in comparison with those above the impermeable bed.

**Keywords:**
Particle image velocimetry,
sand bed,
velocity distribution,
Reynolds number.

##### 207 Measuring Pressure Wave Velocity in a Hydraulic System

**Authors:**
Lari Kela,
Pekka Vähäoja

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bulk modulus,
pressure wave,
sound velocity.

##### 206 Investigation on Nanoparticle Velocity in Two Phase Approach

**Authors:**
E. Mat Tokit,
Yusoff M. Z,
Mohammed H.

**Abstract:**

Numerical investigation on the generality of nanoparticle velocity equation had been done on the previous published work. The three dimensional governing equations (continuity, momentum and energy) were solved using finite volume method (FVM). Parametric study of thermal performance between pure water-cooled and nanofluid-cooled are evaluated for volume fraction in the range of 1% to 4%, and nanofluid type of gamma-Al_{2}O_{3 }at Reynolds number range of 67.41 to 286.77. The nanofluid is modeled using single and two phase approach. Three different existing Brownian motion velocities are applied in comparing the generality of the equation for a wide parametric condition. Deviation in between the Brownian motion velocity is identified to be due to the different means of mean free path and constant value used in diffusion equation.

**Keywords:**
Brownian nanoparticle velocity,
heat transfer enhancement,
nanofluid,
two phase model.

##### 205 Distributed Generator Placement and Sizing in Unbalanced Radial Distribution System

**Authors:**
J. B. V. Subrahmanyam,
C. Radhakrishna

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Distributed generator,
unbalanced radial distributionsystem,
voltage index analysis,
variational algorithm.

##### 204 Angular-Coordinate Driven Radial Tree Drawing

**Authors:**
Farshad Ghassemi Toosi,
Nikola S. Nikolov

**Abstract:**

We present a visualization technique for radial drawing of trees consisting of two slightly different algorithms. Both of them make use of node-link diagrams for visual encoding. This visualization creates clear drawings without edge crossing. One of the algorithms is suitable for real-time visualization of large trees, as it requires minimal recalculation of the layout if leaves are inserted or removed from the tree; while the other algorithm makes better utilization of the drawing space. The algorithms are very similar and follow almost the same procedure but with different parameters. Both algorithms assign angular coordinates for all nodes which are then converted into 2D Cartesian coordinates for visualization. We present both algorithms and discuss how they compare to each other.

**Keywords:**
Radial Tree Drawing,
Real-Time Visualization,
Angular Coordinates,
Large Trees.

##### 203 Forming the Differential-Algebraic Model of Radial Power Systems for Simulation of both Transient and Steady-State Conditions

**Authors:**
Saleh A. Al-Jufout

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Mathematical Modelling,
Radial Power System,
Steady-State,
Transients

##### 202 Computational Simulation of Imploding Current Sheath Trajectory at the Radial Phase of Plasma Focus Performance

**Authors:**
R. Amrollahi,
M. Habibi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Radial compression,
Shock wave trajectory,
Current
sheath,
Slog model.

##### 201 Radial Basis Surrogate Model Integrated to Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Computation Intensive Black-Box Problems

**Authors:**
Abdulbaset Saad,
Adel Younis,
Zuomin Dong

**Abstract:**

For design optimization with high-dimensional expensive problems, an effective and efficient optimization methodology is desired. This work proposes a series of modification to the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm for solving computation Intensive Black-Box Problems. The proposed methodology is called Radial Basis Meta-Model Algorithm Assisted Differential Evolutionary (RBF-DE), which is a global optimization algorithm based on the meta-modeling techniques. A meta-modeling assisted DE is proposed to solve computationally expensive optimization problems. The Radial Basis Function (RBF) model is used as a surrogate model to approximate the expensive objective function, while DE employs a mechanism to dynamically select the best performing combination of parameters such as differential rate, cross over probability, and population size. The proposed algorithm is tested on benchmark functions and real life practical applications and problems. The test results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is promising and performs well compared to other optimization algorithms. The proposed algorithm is capable of converging to acceptable and good solutions in terms of accuracy, number of evaluations, and time needed to converge.

**Keywords:**
Differential evolution,
engineering design,
expensive computations,
meta-modeling,
radial basis function,
optimization.

##### 200 Adaptive Shape Parameter (ASP) Technique for Local Radial Basis Functions (RBFs) and Their Application for Solution of Navier Strokes Equations

**Authors:**
A. Javed,
K. Djidjeli,
J. T. Xing

**Abstract:**

The concept of adaptive shape parameters (ASP) has been presented for solution of incompressible Navier Strokes equations using mesh-free local Radial Basis Functions (RBF). The aim is to avoid ill-conditioning of coefficient matrices of RBF weights and inaccuracies in RBF interpolation resulting from non-optimized shape of basis functions for the cases where data points (or nodes) are not distributed uniformly throughout the domain. Unlike conventional approaches which assume globally similar values of RBF shape parameters, the presented ASP technique suggests that shape parameter be calculated exclusively for each data point (or node) based on the distribution of data points within its own influence domain. This will ensure interpolation accuracy while still maintaining well conditioned system of equations for RBF weights. Performance and accuracy of ASP technique has been tested by evaluating derivatives and laplacian of a known function using RBF in Finite difference mode (RBFFD), with and without the use of adaptivity in shape parameters. Application of adaptive shape parameters (ASP) for solution of incompressible Navier Strokes equations has been presented by solving lid driven cavity flow problem on mesh-free domain using RBF-FD. The results have been compared for fixed and adaptive shape parameters. Improved accuracy has been achieved with the use of ASP in RBF-FD especially at regions where larger gradients of field variables exist.

**Keywords:**
CFD,
Meshless Particle Method,
Radial Basis Functions,
Shape Parameters

##### 199 Finite Element Analysis of Low-Velocity Impact Damage on Stiffened Composite Panels

**Authors:**
Xuan Sun,
Mingbo Tong

**Abstract:**

To understand the factors which affect impact damage on composite structures, particularly the effects of impact position and ribs. In this paper, a finite element model (FEM) of low-velocity impact damage on the composite structure was established via the nonlinear finite element method, combined with the user-defined materials subroutine (VUMAT) of the ABAQUS software. The structural elements chosen for the investigation comprised a series of stiffened composite panels, representative of real aircraft structure. By impacting the panels at different positions relative to the ribs, the effect of relative position of ribs was found out. Then the simulation results and the experiments data were compared. Finally, the factors which affect impact damage on the structures were discussed. The paper was helpful for the design of stiffened composite structures.

**Keywords:**
Stiffened,
Low-velocity,
Impact,
Abaqus,
Impact Energy.

##### 198 Comparison and Improvement of the Existing Cone Penetration Test Results: Shear Wave Velocity Correlations for Hungarian Soils

**Authors:**
Ákos Wolf,
Richard P. Ray

**Abstract:**

Due to the introduction of Eurocode 8, the structural design for seismic and dynamic effects has become more significant in Hungary. This has emphasized the need for more effort to describe the behavior of structures under these conditions. Soil conditions have a significant effect on the response of structures by modifying the stiffness and damping of the soil-structural system and by modifying the seismic action as it reaches the ground surface. Shear modulus (*G*) and shear wave velocity (*v _{s}*), which are often measured in the field, are the fundamental dynamic soil properties for foundation vibration problems, liquefaction potential and earthquake site response analysis. There are several laboratory and in-situ measurement techniques to evaluate dynamic soil properties, but unfortunately, they are often too expensive for general design practice. However, a significant number of correlations have been proposed to determine shear wave velocity or shear modulus from Cone Penetration Tests (CPT), which are used more and more in geotechnical design practice in Hungary. This allows the designer to analyze and compare CPT and seismic test result in order to select the best correlation equations for Hungarian soils and to improve the recommendations for the Hungarian geologic conditions. Based on a literature review, as well as research experience in Hungary, the influence of various parameters on the accuracy of results will be shown. This study can serve as a basis for selecting and modifying correlation equations for Hungarian soils. Test data are taken from seven locations in Hungary with similar geologic conditions. The shear wave velocity values were measured by seismic CPT. Several factors are analyzed including soil type, behavior index, measurement depth, geologic age etc. for their effect on the accuracy of predictions. The final results show an improved prediction method for Hungarian soils

**Keywords:**
CPT correlation,
dynamic soil properties,
seismic CPT,
shear wave velocity.

##### 197 Performance Optimization of Data Mining Application Using Radial Basis Function Classifier

**Authors:**
M. Govindarajan,
R. M.Chandrasekaran

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Text Data Mining,
Comparative Cross-validation,
Radial Basis Function,
runtime,
accuracy.

##### 196 Estimation of Shock Velocity and Pressure of Detonations and Finding Their Flow Parameters

**Authors:**
Mahmoud Zarrini,
R. N. Pralhad

**Abstract:**

In this paper, mathematical modeling of detonation in the ground is studied. Estimation of flow parameters such as velocity, maximum velocity, acceleration, maximum acceleration, shock pressure as a result of an explosion in the ground have been computed in an appropriate dynamic model approach. The variation of these parameters with the diameter of detonation place (L), density of earth or stone (¤ü), time decay of detonation (T), peak pressure (Pm), and time (t) have been analyzed. The model has been developed from the concept of underwater explosions [Refs. [1]-[3]] with appropriate changes to the present model requirements.

**Keywords:**
Shock velocity,
detonation,
shock acceleration,
shock pressure.

##### 195 The Effect of Mixture Velocity and Droplet Diameter on Oil-water Separator using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

**Authors:**
M. Abdulkadir,
V. Hernandez-Perez

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
CFD,
droplet diameter,
mixture velocity

##### 194 Using Radial Basis Function Neural Networks to Calibrate Water Quality Model

**Authors:**
Lihui Ma,
Kunlun Xin,
Suiqing Liu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Metamodeling,
model calibration,
radial basisfunction,
water distribution system,
water quality model.

##### 193 Performance of Neural Networks vs. Radial Basis Functions When Forming a Metamodel for Residential Buildings

**Authors:**
Philip Symonds,
Jon Taylor,
Zaid Chalabi,
Michael Davies

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Neural Networks,
Radial Basis Functions,
Metamodelling,
Python machine learning libraries.

##### 192 A Localized Interpolation Method Using Radial Basis Functions

**Authors:**
Mehdi Tatari

**Abstract:**

Finding the interpolation function of a given set of nodes is an important problem in scientific computing. In this work a kind of localization is introduced using the radial basis functions which finds a sufficiently smooth solution without consuming large amount of time and computer memory. Some examples will be presented to show the efficiency of the new method.

**Keywords:**
Radial basis functions,
local interpolation method,
closed form solution.

##### 191 Velocity Filter Banks using 3-D FFT

**Authors:**
G. Koukiou,
V. Anastassopoulos

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Velocity filters,
filter banks,
3-D FFT.