Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: performance ratio

7 Recycled Cellulosic Fibers and Lignocellulosic Aggregates for Sustainable Building Materials

Authors: N. Stevulova, I. Schwarzova, V. Hospodarova, J. Junak, J. Briancin

Abstract:

Sustainability is becoming a priority for developers and the use of environmentally friendly materials is increasing. Nowadays, the application of raw materials from renewable sources to building materials has gained a significant interest in this research area. Lignocellulosic aggregates and cellulosic fibers are coming from many different sources such as wood, plants and waste. They are promising alternative materials to replace synthetic, glass and asbestos fibers as reinforcement in inorganic matrix of composites. Natural fibers are renewable resources so their cost is relatively low in comparison to synthetic fibers. With the consideration of environmental consciousness, natural fibers are biodegradable so their using can reduce CO2 emissions in the building materials production. The use of cellulosic fibers in cementitious matrices have gained importance because they make the composites lighter at high fiber content, they have comparable cost - performance ratios to similar building materials and they could be processed from waste paper, thus expanding the opportunities for waste utilization in cementitious materials. The main objective of this work is to find out the possibility of using different wastes: hemp hurds as waste of hemp stem processing and recycled fibers obtained from waste paper for making cement composite products such as mortars based on cellulose fibers. This material was made of cement mortar containing organic filler based on hemp hurds and recycled waste paper. In addition, the effects of fibers and their contents on some selected physical and mechanical properties of the fiber-cement plaster composites have been investigated. In this research organic material have used to mortars as 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 % replacement of cement weight. Reference sample is made for comparison of physical and mechanical properties of cement composites based on recycled cellulosic fibers and lignocellulosic aggregates. The prepared specimens were tested after 28 days of curing in order to investigate density, compressive strength and water absorbability. Scanning Electron Microscopy examination was also carried out.

Keywords: Hemp hurds, organic filler, recycled paper, sustainable building materials.

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6 Performance Evaluation of Single Basin Solar Still

Authors: Prem Singh, Jagdeep Singh

Abstract:

In an attempt to investigate the performance of single basin solar still for climate conditions of Ludhiana a single basin solar still was designed, fabricated and tested. The energy balance equations for various parts of the still are solved by Gauss-Seidel iteration method. Computer model was made and experimentally validated. The validated computer model was used to estimate the annual distillation yield and performance ratio of the still for Ludhiana. The Theoretical and experimental distillation yield were 4318.79 ml and 3850 ml respectively for the typical day. The predicted distillation yield was 12.5% higher than the experimental yield. The annual distillation yield per square metre aperture area and annual performance ratio for single basin solar still is 1095 litres and 0.43 respectively. The payback period for micro-stepped solar still is 2.5 years.

Keywords: Solar distillation, solar still, single basin, still.

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5 A Real Time Comparison of Standalone and Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic Generation Systems

Authors: Sachin Vrajlal Rajani, Vivek Pandya, Ankit Suvariya

Abstract:

Green and renewable energy is getting extraordinary consideration today, because of ecological concerns made by blazing of fossil powers. Photovoltaic and wind power generation are the basic decisions for delivering power in this respects. Producing power by the sun based photovoltaic systems is known to the world, yet control makers may get confounded to pick between on-grid and off-grid systems. In this exploration work, an endeavor is made to compare the off-grid (stand-alone) and on-grid (grid-connected) frameworks. The work presents relative examination, between two distinctive PV frameworks situated at V.V.P. Engineering College, Rajkot. The first framework is 100 kW remain solitary and the second is 60 kW network joined. The real-time parameters compared are; output voltage, load current, power in-flow, power output, performance ratio, yield factor, and capacity factor. The voltage changes and the power variances in both frameworks are given exceptional consideration and the examination is made between the two frameworks to judge the focal points and confinements of both the frameworks.

Keywords: Standalone PV systems, grid connected PV systems, comparison, real time data analysis.

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4 Performance of Nine Different Types of PV Modules in the Tropical Region

Authors: Jiang Fan

Abstract:

With growth of PV market in tropical region, it is necessary to investigate the performance of different types of PV technology under the tropical weather conditions. Singapore Polytechnic was funded by Economic Development Board (EDB) to set up a solar PV test-bed for the research on performance of different types of PV modules in the country. The PV test-bed installed the nine different types of PV systems that are integrated to power utility grid for monitoring and analyzing their operating performances. This paper presents the 12 months operational data of nine different PV systems and analyses on performances of installed PV systems using energy yield and performance ratio. The nine types of PV systems under test have shown their energy yields ranging from 2.67 to 3.36 kWh/kWp and their performance ratios (PRs) ranging from 70% to 88%.

Keywords: Monocrystalline, Multicrystalline, Amorphous Silicon, Cadmium Telluride and thin film PV.

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3 Heat Transfer Enhancement Studies in a Circular Tube Fitted with Right-Left Helical Inserts with Spacer

Authors: P. K. Nagarajan, P. Sivashanmugam

Abstract:

Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of circular tube fitted with 300 right-left helical screw inserts with 100 mm spacer of different twist ratio has been presented for laminar and turbulent flow.. The experimental data obtained were compared with those obtained from plain tube published data. The heat transfer coefficient enhancement for 300 RL inserts with 100 mm spacer is quite comparable with for 300 R-L inserts. Performance evaluation analysis has been made and found that the performance ratio increases with increasing Reynolds number and decreasing twist ration with the maximum for the twist ratio 2.93. Also, the performance ratio of more than one indicates that the type of twist inserts can be used effectively for heat transfer augmentation.

Keywords: Heat transfer augmentation, right-left helical screw inserts with spacer, Twist ratio, Heat Transfer

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2 Performance and Availability Analyses of PV Generation Systems in Taiwan

Authors: H. S. Huang, J. C. Jao, K. L. Yen, C. T. Tsai

Abstract:

The purpose of this article applies the monthly final energy yield and failure data of 202 PV systems installed in Taiwan to analyze the PV operational performance and system availability. This data is collected by Industrial Technology Research Institute through manual records. Bad data detection and failure data estimation approaches are proposed to guarantee the quality of the received information. The performance ratio value and system availability are then calculated and compared with those of other countries. It is indicated that the average performance ratio of Taiwan-s PV systems is 0.74 and the availability is 95.7%. These results are similar with those of Germany, Switzerland, Italy and Japan.

Keywords: availability, performance ratio, PV system, Taiwan

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1 Performance Analysis of List Scheduling in Heterogeneous Computing Systems

Authors: Keqin Li

Abstract:

Given a parallel program to be executed on a heterogeneous computing system, the overall execution time of the program is determined by a schedule. In this paper, we analyze the worst-case performance of the list scheduling algorithm for scheduling tasks of a parallel program in a mixed-machine heterogeneous computing system such that the total execution time of the program is minimized. We prove tight lower and upper bounds for the worst-case performance ratio of the list scheduling algorithm. We also examine the average-case performance of the list scheduling algorithm. Our experimental data reveal that the average-case performance of the list scheduling algorithm is much better than the worst-case performance and is very close to optimal, except for large systems with large heterogeneity. Thus, the list scheduling algorithm is very useful in real applications.

Keywords: Average-case performance, list scheduling algorithm, mixed-machine heterogeneous computing system, worst-case performance.

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