Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: fluidized bed reactor

10 Hydrodynamic Analysis with Heat Transfer in Solid Gas Fluidized Bed Reactor for Solar Thermal Applications

Authors: Sam Rasoulzadeh, Atefeh Mousavi

Abstract:

Fluidized bed reactors are known as highly exothermic and endothermic according to uniformity in temperature as a safe and effective mean for catalytic reactors. In these reactors, a wide range of catalyst particles can be used and by using a continuous operation proceed to produce in succession. Providing optimal conditions for the operation of these types of reactors will prevent the exorbitant costs necessary to carry out laboratory work. In this regard, a hydrodynamic analysis was carried out with heat transfer in the solid-gas fluidized bed reactor for solar thermal applications. The results showed that in the fluid flow the input of the reactor has a lower temperature than the outlet, and when the fluid is passing from the reactor, the heat transfer happens between cylinder and solar panel and fluid. It increases the fluid temperature in the outlet pump and also the kinetic energy of the fluid has been raised in the outlet areas.

Keywords: Heat transfer, solar reactor, fluidized bed reactor, CFD.

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9 Reaction Rate of Olive Stone during Combustion in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed

Authors: A. Soria-Verdugo, M. Rubio-Rubio, J. Arrieta, N. García-Hernando

Abstract:

Combustion of biomass is a promising alternative to reduce the high pollutant emission levels associated to the combustion of fossil flues due to the net null emission of CO2 attributed to biomass. However, the biomass selected should also have low contents of nitrogen and sulfur to limit the NOx and SOx emissions derived from its combustion. In this sense, olive stone is an excellent fuel to power combustion reactors with reduced levels of pollutant emissions. In this work, the combustion of olive stone particles is analyzed experimentally in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor (BFB). The bubbling fluidized bed reactor was installed over a scale, conforming a macro-TGA. In both equipment, the evolution of the mass of the samples was registered as the combustion process progressed. The results show a much faster combustion process in the bubbling fluidized bed reactor compared to the thermogravimetric analyzer measurements, due to the higher heat transfer coefficient and the abrasion of the fuel particles by the bed material in the BFB reactor.

Keywords: Olive stone, combustion, reaction rate, thermogravimetric analysis, fluidized bed.

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8 Experimental Study on Effects of Addition of Rice Husk on Coal Gasification

Authors: M. Bharath, Vasudevan Raghavan, B. V. S. S. S. Prasad, S. R. Chakravarthy

Abstract:

In this experimental study, effects of addition of rice husk on coal gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, operating at atmospheric pressure with air as gasifying agent, are reported. Rice husks comprising of 6.5% and 13% by mass are added to coal. Results show that, when rice husk is added the methane yield increases from volumetric percentage of 0.56% (with no rice husk) to 2.77% (with 13% rice husk). CO and H2 remain almost unchanged and CO2 decreases with addition of rice husk. The calorific value of the synthetic gas is around 2.73 MJ/Nm3. All performance indices, such as cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion, increase with addition of rice husk.

Keywords: Bubbling fluidized bed reactor, coal gasification, calorific value, rice husk.

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7 Combustion and Emissions Performance of Syngas Fuels Derived from Palm Kernel Shell and Polyethylene (PE) Waste via Catalytic Steam Gasification

Authors: Chaouki Ghenai

Abstract:

Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the burning of syngas fuels derived from biomass and plastic solid waste mixture through gasification process is presented in this paper. The syngas fuel is burned in gas turbine can combustor. Gas turbine can combustor with swirl is designed to burn the fuel efficiently and reduce the emissions. The main objective is to test the impact of the alternative syngas fuel compositions and lower heating value on the combustion performance and emissions. The syngas fuel is produced by blending palm kernel shell (PKS) with polyethylene (PE) waste via catalytic steam gasification (fluidized bed reactor). High hydrogen content syngas fuel was obtained by mixing 30% PE waste with PKS. The syngas composition obtained through the gasification process is 76.2% H2, 8.53% CO, 4.39% CO2 and 10.90% CH4. The lower heating value of the syngas fuel is LHV = 15.98 MJ/m3. Three fuels were tested in this study natural gas (100%CH4), syngas fuel and pure hydrogen (100% H2). The power from the combustor was kept constant for all the fuels tested in this study. The effect of syngas fuel composition and lower heating value on the flame shape, gas temperature, mass of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) per unit of energy generation is presented in this paper. The results show an increase of the peak flame temperature and NO mass fractions for the syngas and hydrogen fuels compared to natural gas fuel combustion. Lower average CO2 emissions at the exit of the combustor are obtained for the syngas compared to the natural gas fuel.

Keywords: CFD, Combustion, Emissions, Gas Turbine Combustor, Gasification, Solid Waste, Syngas and Waste to Energy.

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6 Experimental Investigation of a Novel Reaction in Reduction of Sulfates by Natural Gas as a Reducing Agent

Authors: Ali Ghiaseddin , Akram Nemati

Abstract:

In a pilot plant scale of a fluidized bed reactor, a reduction reaction of sodium sulfate by natural gas has been investigated. Natural gas is applied in this study as a reductant. Feed density, feed mass flow rate, natural gas and air flow rate (independent parameters)and temperature of bed and CO concentration in inlet and outlet of reactor (dependent parameters) were monitored and recorded at steady state. The residence time was adjusted close to value of traditional reaction [1]. An artificial neural network (ANN) was established to study dependency of yield and carbon gradient on operating parameters. Resultant 97% accuracy of applied ANN is a good prove that natural gas can be used as a reducing agent. Predicted ANN model for relation between other sources carbon gradient (accuracy 74%) indicates there is not a meaningful relation between other sources carbon variation and reduction process which means carbon in granule does not have significant effect on the reaction yield.

Keywords: reduction by natural gas, fluidized bed, sulfate, sulfide, artificial neural network

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5 Design of a Grid for Preparation of high Density Granules from Dispersed Materials

Authors: Bogdan Il. Bogdanov, Dimitar R.Rusev, Yancho H. Hristov, Irena G. Markovska, Dimitar P.Georgiev

Abstract:

New design of a grid for preparation of high density granules with enhanced mechanical strength by granulation of dispersed materials is suggested. A method for hydrodynamic dimensioning of the grid depending on granulation conditions, hydrodynamic regime of the operation, dispersity and physicochemical characteristics of the materials to be granulated was suggested. The aim of the grid design is to solve the problems arising by the granulation of disperse materials.

Keywords: fluidized bed reactor, granulation, porous silicatematerials.

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4 Optimum Operating Conditions for Direct Oxidation of H2S in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Fahimeh Golestani, Mohammad Kazemeini, Moslem Fattahi, Ali Amjadian

Abstract:

In this research a mathematical model for direct oxidization of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur in a fluidized bed reactor with external circulation was developed. As the catalyst is deactivated in the fluidized bed, it might be placed in a reduction tank in order to remove sulfur through heating above its dew point. The reactor model demonstrated via MATLAB software. It was shown that variations of H2S conversion as well as; products formed were reasonable in comparison with corresponding results of a fixed bed reactor. Through analyzing results of this model, it became possible to propose the main optimized operating conditions for the process considered. These conditions included; the temperature range of 100-130ºC and utilizing the catalyst as much as possible providing the highest bed density respect to dimensions of bed, economical aspects that the bed ever remained in fluidized mode. A high active and stable catalyst under the optimum conditions exhibited 100% conversion in a fluidized bed reactor.

Keywords: Direct oxidization, Fluidized bed, H2S, Mathematical modeling, Optimum conditions.

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3 Study of Heat Transfer in the Poly Ethylene Fluidized Bed Reactor Numerically and Experimentally

Authors: Mahdi Hamzehei

Abstract:

In this research, heat transfer of a poly Ethylene fluidized bed reactor without reaction were studied experimentally and computationally at different superficial gas velocities. A multifluid Eulerian computational model incorporating the kinetic theory for solid particles was developed and used to simulate the heat conducting gas–solid flows in a fluidized bed configuration. Momentum exchange coefficients were evaluated using the Syamlal– O-Brien drag functions. Temperature distributions of different phases in the reactor were also computed. Good agreement was found between the model predictions and the experimentally obtained data for the bed expansion ratio as well as the qualitative gas–solid flow patterns. The simulation and experimental results showed that the gas temperature decreases as it moves upward in the reactor, while the solid particle temperature increases. Pressure drop and temperature distribution predicted by the simulations were in good agreement with the experimental measurements at superficial gas velocities higher than the minimum fluidization velocity. Also, the predicted time-average local voidage profiles were in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The study showed that the computational model was capable of predicting the heat transfer and the hydrodynamic behavior of gas-solid fluidized bed flows with reasonable accuracy.

Keywords: Gas-solid flows, fluidized bed, Hydrodynamics, Heat transfer, Turbulence model, CFD

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2 Zinc Sulfide Concentrates and Optimization of their Roasting in Fluidezed Bed Reactor

Authors: B.S.Boyanov, M.P.Sandalski, K.I.Ivanov

Abstract:

The production of glass, ceramic materials and many non-ferrous metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, etc.), ferrous metals (pig iron) and others is connected with the use of a considerable number of initial solid raw materials. Before carrying out the basic technological processes (oxidized roasting, melting, agglomeration, baking) it is necessary to mix and homogenize the raw materials that have different chemical and phase content, granulometry and humidity. For this purpose zinc sulfide concentrates differing in origin are studied for their more complete characteristics using chemical, X-ray diffraction analyses, DTA and TGA as well as Mössbauer spectroscopy. The phases established in most concentrates are: β-ZnS, mZnS.nFeS, FeS2, CuFeS2, PbS, SiO2 (α-quartz). With the help of the developed by us a Web-based information system for a continued period of time different mix proportions from zinc concentrates are calculated and used in practice (roasting in fluidized bed reactor), which have to conform to the technological requirements of the zinc hydrometallurgical technological scheme.

Keywords: fluidized bed reactor, roasting, Web-based information system, zinc concentrates.

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1 Solid Concentration in Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor for the MTO Process

Authors: Biao Wang, Tao Li, Qi-wen Sun, Wei-yong Ying, Ding-ye Fang

Abstract:

Methanol-to-olefins (MTO) coupled with transformation of coal or natural gas to methanol gives an interesting and promising way to produce ethylene and propylene. To investigate solid concentration in gas-solid fluidized bed for methanol-to-olefins process catalyzed by SAPO-34, a cold model experiment system is established in this paper. The system comprises a gas distributor in a 300mm internal diameter and 5000mm height acrylic column, the fiber optic probe system and series of cyclones. The experiments are carried out at ambient conditions and under different superficial gas velocity ranging from 0.3930m/s to 0.7860m/s and different initial bed height ranging from 600mm to 1200mm. The effects of radial distance, axial distance, superficial gas velocity, initial bed height on solid concentration in the bed are discussed. The effects of distributor shape and porosity on solid concentration are also discussed. The time-averaged solid concentration profiles under different conditions are obtained.

Keywords: Branched pipe distributor, distributor porosity, gas-solid fluidized bed, solid concentration.

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