Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1545

Search results for: Quantum Computer Simulation

1545 A Post Processing Method for Quantum Prime Factorization Algorithm based on Randomized Approach

Authors: Mir Shahriar Emami, Mohammad Reza Meybodi

Abstract:

Prime Factorization based on Quantum approach in two phases has been performed. The first phase has been achieved at Quantum computer and the second phase has been achieved at the classic computer (Post Processing). At the second phase the goal is to estimate the period r of equation xrN ≡ 1 and to find the prime factors of the composite integer N in classic computer. In this paper we present a method based on Randomized Approach for estimation the period r with a satisfactory probability and the composite integer N will be factorized therefore with the Randomized Approach even the gesture of the period is not exactly the real period at least we can find one of the prime factors of composite N. Finally we present some important points for designing an Emulator for Quantum Computer Simulation.

Keywords: Quantum Prime Factorization, RandomizedAlgorithms, Quantum Computer Simulation, Quantum Computation.

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1544 A Computer Model of Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Hans H. Diel

Abstract:

This paper describes a computer model of Quantum Field Theory (QFT), referred to in this paper as QTModel. After specifying the initial configuration for a QFT process (e.g. scattering) the model generates the possible applicable processes in terms of Feynman diagrams, the equations for the scattering matrix, and evaluates probability amplitudes for the scattering matrix and cross sections. The computations of probability amplitudes are performed numerically. The equations generated by QTModel are provided for demonstration purposes only. They are not directly used as the base for the computations of probability amplitudes. The computer model supports two modes for the computation of the probability amplitudes: (1) computation according to standard QFT, and (2) computation according to a proposed functional interpretation of quantum theory.

Keywords: Computational Modeling, Simulation of Quantum Theory, Quantum Field Theory, Quantum Electrodynamics

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1543 Problems and Possible Solutions with the Development of a Computer Model of Quantum Theory

Authors: Hans H. Diel

Abstract:

A computer model of Quantum Theory (QT) has been developed by the author. Major goal of the computer model was support and demonstration of an as large as possible scope of QT. This includes simulations for the major QT (Gedanken-) experiments such as, for example, the famous double-slit experiment. Besides the anticipated difficulties with (1) transforming exacting mathematics into a computer program, two further types of problems showed up, namely (2) areas where QT provides a complete mathematical formalism, but when it comes to concrete applications the equations are not solvable at all, or only with extremely high effort; (3) QT rules which are formulated in natural language and which do not seem to be translatable to precise mathematical expressions, nor to a computer program. The paper lists problems in all three categories and describes also the possible solutions or circumventions developed for the computer model.

Keywords: Computability, Foundation of Quantum Mechanics, Measurement Process, Modeling.

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1542 A Programmer’s Survey of the Quantum Computing Paradigm

Authors: Philippe Jorrand

Abstract:

Research in quantum computation is looking for the consequences of having information encoding, processing and communication exploit the laws of quantum physics, i.e. the laws which govern the ultimate knowledge that we have, today, of the foreign world of elementary particles, as described by quantum mechanics. This paper starts with a short survey of the principles which underlie quantum computing, and of some of the major breakthroughs brought by the first ten to fifteen years of research in this domain; quantum algorithms and quantum teleportation are very biefly presented. The next sections are devoted to one among the many directions of current research in the quantum computation paradigm, namely quantum programming languages and their semantics. A few other hot topics and open problems in quantum information processing and communication are mentionned in few words in the concluding remarks, the most difficult of them being the physical implementation of a quantum computer. The interested reader will find a list of useful references at the end of the paper.

Keywords: Quantum information processing, quantum algorithms, quantum programming languages.

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1541 Eight-State BB84: A C# Simulation

Authors: Liliana Zisu

Abstract:

The first and best known quantum protocol BB84, whose security is unconditional allows the transmission of a key with a length equal to that of the message. This key used with an encryption algorithm leads to an unbreakable cryptographic scheme. Despite advantages the protocol still can be improved in at least two aspects: its efficiency which is of about 50%, only half of the photons transmitted are used to create the encryption key and the second aspect refers to the communication that takes place on the classic channel, as it must be reduced or even eliminated. The paper presents a method that improves the two aspects of the BB84 protocol by using quantum memory and eight states of polarization. The implementation of both the proposed method and the BB84 protocol was done through a C# application.

Keywords: BB84, protocol, quantum cryptography, quantum key distribution.

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1540 Implementation of the Outputs of Computer Simulation to Support Decision-Making Processes

Authors: Jiří Barta

Abstract:

At the present time, awareness, education, computer simulation and information systems protection are very serious and relevant topics. The article deals with perspectives and possibilities of implementation of emergence or natural hazard threats into the system which is developed for communication among members of crisis management staffs. The Czech Hydro-Meteorological Institute with its System of Integrated Warning Service resents the largest usable base of information. National information systems are connected to foreign systems, especially to flooding emergency systems of neighboring countries, systems of European Union and international organizations where the Czech Republic is a member. Use of outputs of particular information systems and computer simulations on a single communication interface of information system for communication among members of crisis management staff and setting the site interoperability in the net will lead to time savings in decision-making processes in solving extraordinary events and crisis situations. Faster managing of an extraordinary event or a crisis situation will bring positive effects and minimize the impact of negative effects on the environment.

Keywords: Computer simulation, communication, continuity, critical infrastructure, information systems, safety.

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1539 Numerical Calculation of the Ionization Energy of Donors in a Cubic Quantum well and Wire

Authors: Sara Sedaghat, Mahmood Barati, Iraj Kazeminezhad

Abstract:

The ionization energy in semiconductor systems in nano scale was investigated by using effective mass approximation. By introducing the Hamiltonian of the system, the variational technique was employed to calculate the ground state and the ionization energy of a donor at the center and in the case that the impurities are randomly distributed inside a cubic quantum well. The numerical results for GaAs/GaAlAs show that the ionization energy strongly depends on the well width for both cases and it decreases as the well width increases. The ionization energy of a quantum wire was also calculated and compared with the results for the well.

Keywords: quantum well, quantum wire, quantum dot, impuritystate

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1538 An Authentication Protocol for Quantum Enabled Mobile Devices

Authors: Natarajan Venkatachalam, Subrahmanya V. R. K. Rao, Vijay Karthikeyan Dhandapani, Swaminathan Saravanavel

Abstract:

The quantum communication technology is an evolving design which connects multiple quantum enabled devices to internet for secret communication or sensitive information exchange. In future, the number of these compact quantum enabled devices will increase immensely making them an integral part of present communication systems. Therefore, safety and security of such devices is also a major concern for us. To ensure the customer sensitive information will not be eavesdropped or deciphered, we need a strong authentications and encryption mechanism. In this paper, we propose a mutual authentication scheme between these smart quantum devices and server based on the secure exchange of information through quantum channel which gives better solutions for symmetric key exchange issues. An important part of this work is to propose a secure mutual authentication protocol over the quantum channel. We show that our approach offers robust authentication protocol and further our solution is lightweight, scalable, cost-effective with optimized computational processing overheads.

Keywords: Quantum cryptography, quantum key distribution, wireless quantum communication, authentication protocol, quantum enabled device, trusted third party.

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1537 The Magnetized Quantum Breathing in Cylindrical Dusty Plasma

Authors: A. Abdikian

Abstract:

A quantum breathing mode has been theatrically studied in quantum dusty plasma. By using linear quantum hydrodynamic model, not only the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode but also void structure has been derived in the presence of an external magnetic field. Although the phase velocity of the magnetized quantum breathing mode is greater than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode, attenuation of the magnetized quantum breathing mode along radial distance seems to be slower than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode. Clearly, drawing the quantum breathing mode in the presence and absence of a magnetic field, we found that the magnetic field alters the distribution of dust particles and changes the radial and azimuthal velocities around the axis. Because the magnetic field rotates the dust particles and collects them, it could compensate the void structure.

Keywords: The linear quantum hydrodynamic model, the magnetized quantum breathing mode, the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode, void structure.

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1536 3D Quantum Numerical Simulation of Horizontal Rectangular Dual Metal Gate\Gate All Around MOSFETs

Authors: M. Khaouani, A. Guen-Bouazza, B. Bouazza, Z. Kourdi

Abstract:

The integrity and issues related to electrostatic performance associated with scaling Si MOSFET bulk sub 10nm channel length promotes research in new device architectures such as SOI, double gate and GAA MOSFET. In this paper, we present some novel characteristic of horizontal rectangular gate\gate all around MOSFETs with dual metal of gate we obtained using SILVACO TCAD tools. We will also exhibit some simulation results we obtained relating to the influence of some parameters variation on our structure, that having a direct impact on their threshold voltage and drain current. In addition, our TFET showed reasonable ION/IOFF ratio of (104) and low drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) of 39 mV/V.

Keywords: GAA, SILVACO, QUANTUM, MOSFETs.

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1535 Proposal of Optimality Evaluation for Quantum Secure Communication Protocols by Taking the Average of the Main Protocol Parameters: Efficiency, Security and Practicality

Authors: Georgi Bebrov, Rozalina Dimova

Abstract:

In the field of quantum secure communication, there is no evaluation that characterizes quantum secure communication (QSC) protocols in a complete, general manner. The current paper addresses the problem concerning the lack of such an evaluation for QSC protocols by introducing an optimality evaluation, which is expressed as the average over the three main parameters of QSC protocols: efficiency, security, and practicality. For the efficiency evaluation, the common expression of this parameter is used, which incorporates all the classical and quantum resources (bits and qubits) utilized for transferring a certain amount of information (bits) in a secure manner. By using criteria approach whether or not certain criteria are met, an expression for the practicality evaluation is presented, which accounts for the complexity of the QSC practical realization. Based on the error rates that the common quantum attacks (Measurement and resend, Intercept and resend, probe attack, and entanglement swapping attack) induce, the security evaluation for a QSC protocol is proposed as the minimum function taken over the error rates of the mentioned quantum attacks. For the sake of clarity, an example is presented in order to show how the optimality is calculated.

Keywords: Quantum cryptography, quantum secure communcation, quantum secure direct communcation security, quantum secure direct communcation efficiency, quantum secure direct communcation practicality.

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1534 Behavior of Current in a Semiconductor Nanostructure under Influence of Embedded Quantum Dots

Authors: H. Paredes Gutiérrez, S. T. Pérez-Merchancano

Abstract:

Motivated by recent experimental and theoretical developments, we investigate the influence of embedded quantum dot (EQD) of different geometries (lens, ring and pyramidal) in a double barrier heterostructure (DBH). We work with a general theory of quantum transport that accounts the tight-binding model for the spin dependent resonant tunneling in a semiconductor nanostructure, and Rashba spin orbital to study the spin orbit coupling. In this context, we use the second quantization theory for Rashba effect and the standard Green functions method. We calculate the current density as a function of the voltage without and in the presence of quantum dots. In the second case, we considered the size and shape of the quantum dot, and in the two cases, we worked considering the spin polarization affected by external electric fields. We found that the EQD generates significant changes in current when we consider different morphologies of EQD, as those described above. The first thing shown is that the current decreases significantly, such as the geometry of EQD is changed, prevailing the geometrical confinement. Likewise, we see that the current density decreases when the voltage is increased, showing that the quantum system studied here is more efficient when the morphology of the quantum dot changes.

Keywords: Quantum semiconductors, nanostructures, quantum dots, spin polarization.

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1533 1/f Noise in Quantum-Size Heteronanostructures Based On GaAs and Alloys

Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Arkady. V. Yakimov

Abstract:

The 1/f noise investigation in nanoscale light-emitting diodes and lasers, based on GaAs and alloys, is presented here. Leakage and additional (to recombination through quantum wells and/or dots) nonlinear currents were detected and it was shown that these currents are the main source of the 1/f noise in devices studied.

Keywords: Lasers, light-emitting diodes, quantum dots, quantum wells, 1/f noise.

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1532 Numerical Modeling and Computer Simulation of Ground Movement above Underground Mine

Authors: A. Nuric, S. Nuric, L. Kricak, I. Lapandic, R. Husagic

Abstract:

This paper describes topic of computer simulation with regard to the ground movement above an underground mine. Simulation made with software package ADINA for nonlinear elastic-plastic analysis with finite elements method. The one of representative profiles from Mine 'Stara Jama' in Zenica has been investigated. A collection and selection of both geo-mechanical data and geometric parameters of the mine was necessary for performing these simulations. Results of estimation have been compared with measured values (vertical displacement of surface), and then simulation performed with assumed dynamic and dimensions of excavation, over a period of time. Results are presented with bitmaps and charts.

Keywords: Computer, finite element method, mine, nonlinear analysis, numerical modeling, simulation, subsidence.

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1531 A method of Authentication for Quantum Networks

Authors: Stefan Rass

Abstract:

Quantum cryptography offers a way of key agreement, which is unbreakable by any external adversary. Authentication is of crucial importance, as perfect secrecy is worthless if the identity of the addressee cannot be ensured before sending important information. Message authentication has been studied thoroughly, but no approach seems to be able to explicitly counter meet-in-the-middle impersonation attacks. The goal of this paper is the development of an authentication scheme being resistant against active adversaries controlling the communication channel. The scheme is built on top of a key-establishment protocol and is unconditionally secure if built upon quantum cryptographic key exchange. In general, the security is the same as for the key-agreement protocol lying underneath.

Keywords: Meet-in-the-middle attack, quantum key distribution, quantum networks, unconditionally secure authentication.

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1530 The Use of Simulation Programs of Leakage of Harmful Substances for Crisis Management

Authors: Jiří Barta

Abstract:

The paper deals with simulation programs of spread of harmful substances. Air pollution has a direct impact on the quality of human life and environmental protection is currently a very hot topic. Therefore, the paper focuses on the simulation of release of harmful substances. The first part of article deals with perspectives and possibilities of implementation outputs of simulations programs into the system which is education and of practical training of the management staff during emergency events in the frame of critical infrastructure. The last part shows the practical testing and evaluation of simulation programs. Of the tested simulations software been selected Symos97. The tool offers advanced features for setting leakage. Gradually allows the user to model the terrain, location, and method of escape of harmful substances.

Keywords: Computer Simulation, Symos97, spread, simulation software, harmful substances.

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1529 Entanglement-based Quantum Computing by Diagrams of States

Authors: Sara Felloni, Giuliano Strini

Abstract:

We explore entanglement in composite quantum systems and how its peculiar properties are exploited in quantum information and communication protocols by means of Diagrams of States, a novel method to graphically represent and analyze how quantum information is elaborated during computations performed by quantum circuits. We present quantum diagrams of states for Bell states generation, measurements and projections, for dense coding and quantum teleportation, for probabilistic quantum machines designed to perform approximate quantum cloning and universal NOT and, finally, for quantum privacy amplification based on entanglement purification. Diagrams of states prove to be a useful approach to analyze quantum computations, by offering an intuitive graphic representation of the processing of quantum information. They also help in conceiving novel quantum computations, from describing the desired information processing to deriving the final implementation by quantum gate arrays.

Keywords: Diagrams of states, entanglement, quantum circuits, quantum information.

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1528 Propagation of Nonlinear Surface Waves in Relativistically Degenerate Quantum Plasma Half-Space

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Parthasona Maji, Basudev Ghosh

Abstract:

The nonlinear self-interaction of an electrostatic surface wave on a semibounded quantum plasma with relativistic degeneracy is investigated by using quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model and the Poisson’s equation with appropriate boundary conditions. It is shown that a part of the second harmonic generated through self-interaction does not have a true surface wave character but propagates obliquely away from the plasma-vacuum interface into the bulk of plasma.

Keywords: Harmonic Generation, Quantum Plasma, Quantum Hydrodynamic Model, Relativistic Degeneracy, Surface waves.

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1527 Instability of Electron Plasma Waves in an Electron-Hole Bounded Quantum Dusty Plasma

Authors: Basudev Ghosh, Sailendranath Paul, Sreyasi Banerjee

Abstract:

Using quantum hydrodynamical (QHD) model the linear dispersion relation for the electron plasma waves propagating in a cylindrical waveguide filled with a dense plasma containing streaming electron, hole and stationary charged dust particles has been derived. It is shown that the effect of finite boundary and stream velocity of electrons and holes make some of the possible modes of propagation linearly unstable. The growth rate of this instability is shown to depend significantly on different plasma parameters.

Keywords: Electron Plasma wave, Quantum plasma, Quantum Hydrodynamical model.

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1526 Unconditionally Secure Quantum Payment System

Authors: Essam Al-Daoud

Abstract:

A potentially serious problem with current payment systems is that their underlying hard problems from number theory may be solved by either a quantum computer or unanticipated future advances in algorithms and hardware. A new quantum payment system is proposed in this paper. The suggested system makes use of fundamental principles of quantum mechanics to ensure the unconditional security without prior arrangements between customers and vendors. More specifically, the new system uses Greenberger-Home-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and Quantum Key Distribution to authenticate the vendors and guarantee the transaction integrity.

Keywords: Bell state, GHZ state, Quantum key distribution, Quantum payment system.

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1525 The Use of Computer Simulation as Technological Education for Crisis Management Staff

Authors: Jiří Barta, Josef Krahulec, Jiří F. Urbánek

Abstract:

Education and practical training crisis management members are a topical issue nowadays. The paper deals with the perspectives and possibilities of "smart solutions" to education for crisis management staff. Currently, there is a large number of simulation tools, which notes that they are suitable for practical training of crisis management staff. The first part of the paper is focused on the introduction of the technology simulation tools. The simulators aim is to create a realistic environment for the practical training of extending units of crisis staff. The second part of the paper concerns the possibilities of using the simulation technology to the education process. The aim of this section is to introduce the practical capabilities and potential of the simulation programs for practical training of crisis management staff.

Keywords: Crisis management staff, computer simulation, software, technological education.

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1524 Identifying Significant Factors of Brick Laying Process through Design of Experiment and Computer Simulation: A Case Study

Authors: M. H. Zarei, A. Nikakhtar, A. H. Roudsari, N. Madadi, K. Y. Wong

Abstract:

Improving performance measures in the construction processes has been a major concern for managers and decision makers in the industry. They seek for ways to recognize the key factors which have the largest effect on the process. Identifying such factors can guide them to focus on the right parts of the process in order to gain the best possible result. In the present study design of experiment (DOE) has been applied to a computer simulation model of brick laying process to determine significant factors while productivity has been chosen as the response of the experiment. To this end, four controllable factors and their interaction have been experimented and the best factor level has been calculated for each one. The results indicate that three factors, namely, labor of brick, labor of mortar and inter arrival time of mortar along with interaction of labor of brick and labor of mortar are significant.

Keywords: Brick laying process, computer simulation, design of experiment, significant factors.

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1523 Nonplanar Ion-acoustic Waves in a Relativistically Degenerate Quantum Plasma

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Sibarjun Das, Agniv Chandra, Basudev Ghosh, Apratim Jash

Abstract:

Using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model the nonlinear properties of ion-acoustic waves in are lativistically degenerate quantum plasma is investigated by deriving a nonlinear Spherical Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (SKP) equation using the standard reductive perturbation method equation. It was found that the electron degeneracy parameter significantly affects the linear and nonlinear properties of ion-acoustic waves in quantum plasma.

Keywords: Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, Ion-acoustic Waves, Relativistic Degeneracy, Quantum Plasma, Quantum Hydrodynamic Model.

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1522 Preparation of Computer Model of the Aircraft for Numerical Aeroelasticity Tests – Flutter

Authors: M. Rychlik, R. Roszak, M. Morzynski, M. Nowak, H. Hausa, K. Kotecki

Abstract:

Article presents the geometry and structure reconstruction procedure of the aircraft model for flatter research (based on the I22-IRYDA aircraft). For reconstruction the Reverse Engineering techniques and advanced surface modeling CAD tools are used. Authors discuss all stages of data acquisition process, computation and analysis of measured data. For acquisition the three dimensional structured light scanner was used. In the further sections, details of reconstruction process are present. Geometry reconstruction procedure transform measured input data (points cloud) into the three dimensional parametric computer model (NURBS solid model) which is compatible with CAD systems. Parallel to the geometry of the aircraft, the internal structure (structural model) are extracted and modeled. In last chapter the evaluation of obtained models are discussed.

Keywords: computer modeling, numerical simulation, Reverse Engineering, structural model

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1521 Plant Layout Analysis by Computer Simulation for Electronic Manufacturing Service Plant

Authors: Visuwan D., Phruksaphanrat B

Abstract:

In this research, computer simulation is used for Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) plant layout analysis. The current layout of this manufacturing plant is a process layout, which is not suitable due to the nature of an EMS that has high-volume and high-variety environment. Moreover, quick response and high flexibility are also needed. Then, cellular manufacturing layout design was determined for the selected group of products. Systematic layout planning (SLP) was used to analyze and design the possible cellular layouts for the factory. The cellular layout was selected based on the main criteria of the plant. Computer simulation was used to analyze and compare the performance of the proposed cellular layout and the current layout. It found that the proposed cellular layout can generate better performances than the current layout. In this research, computer simulation is used for Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) plant layout analysis. The current layout of this manufacturing plant is a process layout, which is not suitable due to the nature of an EMS that has high-volume and high-variety environment. Moreover, quick response and high flexibility are also needed. Then, cellular manufacturing layout design was determined for the selected group of products. Systematic layout planning (SLP) was used to analyze and design the possible cellular layouts for the factory. The cellular layout was selected based on the main criteria of the plant. Computer simulation was used to analyze and compare the performance of the proposed cellular layout and the current layout. It found that the proposed cellular layout can generate better performances than the current layout. 

Keywords: Layout, Electronic Manufacturing Service Plant (EMS), Computer Simulation, Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS).

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1520 Quantum Computing: A New Era of Computing

Authors: Jyoti Chaturvedi Gursaran

Abstract:

Nature conducts its action in a very private manner. To reveal these actions classical science has done a great effort. But classical science can experiment only with the things that can be seen with eyes. Beyond the scope of classical science quantum science works very well. It is based on some postulates like qubit, superposition of two states, entanglement, measurement and evolution of states that are briefly described in the present paper. One of the applications of quantum computing i.e. implementation of a novel quantum evolutionary algorithm(QEA) to automate the time tabling problem of Dayalbagh Educational Institute (Deemed University) is also presented in this paper. Making a good timetable is a scheduling problem. It is NP-hard, multi-constrained, complex and a combinatorial optimization problem. The solution of this problem cannot be obtained in polynomial time. The QEA uses genetic operators on the Q-bit as well as updating operator of quantum gate which is introduced as a variation operator to converge toward better solutions.

Keywords: Quantum computing, qubit, superposition, entanglement, measurement of states, evolution of states, Scheduling problem, hard and soft constraints, evolutionary algorithm, quantum evolutionary algorithm.

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1519 A Functional Interpretation of Quantum Theory

Authors: Hans H. Diel

Abstract:

In this paper a functional interpretation of quantum theory (QT) with emphasis on quantum field theory (QFT) is proposed. Besides the usual statements on relations between a functions initial state and final state, a functional interpretation also contains a description of the dynamic evolution of the function. That is, it describes how things function. The proposed functional interpretation of QT/QFT has been developed in the context of the author-s work towards a computer model of QT with the goal of supporting the largest possible scope of QT concepts. In the course of this work, the author encountered a number of problems inherent in the translation of quantum physics into a computer program. He came to the conclusion that the goal of supporting the major QT concepts can only be satisfied, if the present model of QT is supplemented by a "functional interpretation" of QT/QFT. The paper describes a proposal for that

Keywords: Computability, Foundation of Quantum Mechanics, Measurement Problem, Models of Physics.

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1518 Novel Design of Quantum Dot Arrays to Enhance Near-Fields Excitation Resonances

Authors: N. H. Ismail, A. A. A. Nassar, K. H. Baz

Abstract:

Semiconductor crystals smaller than about 10 nm, known as quantum dots, have properties that differ from large samples, including a band gap that becomes larger for smaller particles. These properties create several applications for quantum dots. In this paper new shapes of quantum dot arrays are used to enhance the photo physical properties of gold nano-particles. This paper presents a study of the effect of nano-particles shape, array, and size on their absorption characteristics.

Keywords: Quantum Dots, Nano-Particles, LSPR.

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1517 The Hall Coefficient and Magnetoresistance in Rectangular Quantum Wires with Infinitely High Potential under the Influence of a Laser Radiation

Authors: Nguyen Thu Huong, Nguyen Quang Bau

Abstract:

The Hall Coefficient (HC) and the Magnetoresistance (MR) have been studied in two-dimensional systems. The HC and the MR in Rectangular Quantum Wire (RQW) subjected to a crossed DC electric field and magnetic field in the presence of a Strong Electromagnetic Wave (EMW) characterized by electric field are studied in this work. Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with optical phonons, we obtain the analytic expressions for the HC and the MR with a dependence on magnetic field, EMW frequency, temperatures of systems and the length characteristic parameters of RQW. These expressions are different from those obtained for bulk semiconductors and cylindrical quantum wires. The analytical results are applied to GaAs/GaAs/Al. For this material, MR depends on the ratio of the EMW frequency to the cyclotron frequency. Indeed, MR reaches a minimum at the ratio 5/4, and when this ratio increases, it tends towards a saturation value. The HC can take negative or positive values. Each curve has one maximum and one minimum. When magnetic field increases, the HC is negative, achieves a minimum value and then increases suddenly to a maximum with a positive value. This phenomenon differs from the one observed in cylindrical quantum wire, which does not have maximum and minimum values.

Keywords: Hall coefficient, rectangular quantum wires, electron-optical phonon interaction, quantum kinetic equation.

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1516 A Quantum Algorithm of Constructing Image Histogram

Authors: Yi Zhang, Kai Lu, Ying-hui Gao, Mo Wang

Abstract:

Histogram plays an important statistical role in digital image processing. However, the existing quantum image models are deficient to do this kind of image statistical processing because different gray scales are not distinguishable. In this paper, a novel quantum image representation model is proposed firstly in which the pixels with different gray scales can be distinguished and operated simultaneously. Based on the new model, a fast quantum algorithm of constructing histogram for quantum image is designed. Performance comparison reveals that the new quantum algorithm could achieve an approximately quadratic speedup than the classical counterpart. The proposed quantum model and algorithm have significant meanings for the future researches of quantum image processing.

Keywords: Quantum Image Representation, Quantum Algorithm, Image Histogram.

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