Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Droplet size

9 Grading of Emulsified Agarwood Oil Using Gel Electrophoresis Technique

Authors: Y. T. Boon, M. N. Naim, R. Zakaria, N. F. Abu Bakar, N. Ahmad, I. W. Lenggoro

Abstract:

In this study, encapsulation of agarwood oil with non-ionic surfactant, Tween 80 was prepared at critical micelle concentration of 0.0167 % v/v to produce the most stable nano-emulsion in aqueous. The encapsulation has minimized the bioactive compounds degradation in various pH conditions thus prolong their shelf life and maintained its initial oil grade. The oil grading of the prepared samples were conducted using the gel electrophoresis instead of using common analytical industrial grading such as gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC- MS). The grading method was chosen due to their unique zeta potential value after the encapsulation process. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying the electrophoresis principles to separate the encapsulated agarwood oil or grading of the emulsified agarwood oil. The results indicated that the grading process are potential to be further investigate based on their droplet size and zeta potential value at various pH condition when the droplet were migrate through polyacrylamide gel.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, Essential Oil, electrophoretic mobility, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tween 80, zeta potential

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8 An Experimental Investigation on the Droplet Behavior Impacting a Hot Surface above the Leidenfrost Temperature

Authors: Khaleel Sami Hamdan, Dong-Eok Kim, Sang-Ki Moon

Abstract:

An appropriate model to predict the size of the droplets resulting from the break-up with the structures will help in a better understanding and modeling of the two-phase flow calculations in the simulation of a reactor core loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A droplet behavior impacting on a hot surface above the Leidenfrost temperature was investigated. Droplets of known size and velocity were impacted to an inclined plate of hot temperature, and the behavior of the droplets was observed by a high-speed camera. It was found that for droplets of Weber number higher than a certain value, the higher the Weber number of the droplet the smaller the secondary droplets. The COBRA-TF model over-predicted the measured secondary droplet sizes obtained by the present experiment. A simple model for the secondary droplet size was proposed using the mass conservation equation. The maximum spreading diameter of the droplets was also compared to previous correlations and a fairly good agreement was found. A better prediction of the heat transfer in the case of LOCA can be obtained with the presented model.

Keywords: Impact, LOCA, break-up, droplet, inclined hot plate, Leidenfrost temperature

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7 Evaluation of Droplet Sizes from Video Images for Metal Working Fluids

Authors: R. Hacıoğlu, A. Genç, B. Bakırcı

Abstract:

Metal working fluids were used in the preparation of oil in water emulsions. The size of oil droplets were evaluated by using the analysis of video images taken from the zeta potential measurements. The evaluated size distributions for emulsions were also tested by microscopic analysis. In addition, emulsion stabilities were discussed depending on electrolyte concentration and pH. The results showed that the stability of oil emulsions was strongly related to pH and the concentration of CaCl2. However, the same dependency was not observed for NaCl.

Keywords: emulsion stability, droplet size distribution, O/W emulsions, video images

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6 Development of Maximum Entropy Method for Prediction of Droplet-size Distribution in Primary Breakup Region of Spray

Authors: E. Movahednejad, F. Ommi

Abstract:

Droplet size distributions in the cold spray of a fuel are important in observed combustion behavior. Specification of droplet size and velocity distributions in the immediate downstream of injectors is also essential as boundary conditions for advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and two-phase spray transport calculations. This paper describes the development of a new model to be incorporated into maximum entropy principle (MEP) formalism for prediction of droplet size distribution in droplet formation region. The MEP approach can predict the most likely droplet size and velocity distributions under a set of constraints expressing the available information related to the distribution. In this article, by considering the mechanisms of turbulence generation inside the nozzle and wave growth on jet surface, it is attempted to provide a logical framework coupling the flow inside the nozzle to the resulting atomization process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the formulation of this new model and to incorporate it into the maximum entropy principle (MEP) by coupling sub-models together using source terms of momentum and energy. Comparison between the model prediction and experimental data for a gas turbine swirling nozzle and an annular spray indicate good agreement between model and experiment.

Keywords: Instability, Turbulence, droplet, size distribution, maximum entropy

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5 Physical Properties and Stability of Emulsions as Affected by Native and Modified Yam Starches

Authors: Nor Hayati Ibrahim, Shamini Nair Achudan

Abstract:

This study was conducted in order to determine the physical properties and stability of mayonnaise-like emulsions as affected by modified yam starches. Native yam starch was modified via pre-gelatinization and cross-linking phosphorylation procedures. The emulsions (50% oil dispersed phase) were prepared with 0.3% native potato, native yam, pre-gelatinized yam and cross-linking phosphorylation yam starches. The droplet size of surface weighted mean diameter was found to be significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the sample with cross-linking phosphorylation yam starch as compared to other samples. Moreover, the viscosity of the sample with pregelatinized yam starch was observed to be higher than that of other samples. The phase separation stability was low in the freshly prepared and stored (45 days, 5°C) emulsions containing native yam starch. This study thus generally suggested that modified yam starches were more suitable (i.e. better physical properties and stability) to be used as stabilizers in a similar system i.e. light mayonnaises, rather than a native yam starch.

Keywords: viscosity, Oil-in-water emulsions, low-fat mayonnaises, modified yam starches, droplet size distribution

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4 Affect of Viscosity and Droplet Diameter on water-in-oil (w/o) Emulsions: An Experimental Study

Authors: A.N. Ilia Anisa, Abdurahman H.Nour

Abstract:

The influence of viscosity on droplet diameter for water-in-crude oil (w/o) emulsion with two different ratios; 20-80 % and 50-50 % w/o emulsion was examined in the Brookfield Rotational Digital Rheometer. The emulsion was prepared with sorbitan sesquiolate (Span 83) act as emulsifier at varied temperature and stirring speed in rotation per minute (rpm). Results showed that the viscosity of w/o emulsion was strongly augmented by increasing volume of water and decreased the temperature. The changing of viscosity also altered the droplet size distribution. Changing of droplet diameter was depends on the viscosity and the behavior of emulsion either Newtonian or non-Newtonian.

Keywords: viscosity, Diameter, phase ratio, water-in-crude oil(w/o)

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3 Treatment of Oily Wastewater by Fibrous Coalescer Process: Stage Coalescer and Model Prediction

Authors: Pisut Painmanakul, Kotchakorn Kongkangwarn, Nattawin Chawaloesphonsiya

Abstract:

The coalescer process is one of the methods for oily water treatment by increasing the oil droplet size in order to enhance the separating velocity and thus effective separation. However, the presence of surfactants in an oily emulsion can limit the obtained mechanisms due to the small oil size related with stabilized emulsion. In this regard, the purpose of this research is to improve the efficiency of the coalescer process for treating the stabilized emulsion. The effects of bed types, bed height, liquid flow rate and stage coalescer (step-bed) on the treatment efficiencies in term of COD values were studied. Note that the treatment efficiency obtained experimentally was estimated by using the COD values and oil droplet size distribution. The study has shown that the plastic media has more effective to attach with oil particles than the stainless one due to their hydrophobic properties. Furthermore, the suitable bed height (3.5 cm) and step bed (3.5 cm with 2 steps) were necessary in order to well obtain the coalescer performance. The application of step bed coalescer process in reactor has provided the higher treatment efficiencies in term of COD removal than those obtained with classical process. The proposed model for predicting the area under curve and thus treatment efficiency, based on the single collector efficiency (ηT) and the attachment efficiency (α), provides relatively a good coincidence between the experimental and predicted values of treatment efficiencies in this study.

Keywords: treatment efficiency, model prediction, Stage coalescer, stabilized emulsions

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2 Burning Rates of Turbulent Gaseous and Aerosol Flames

Authors: Shaharin A. Sulaiman, Malcolm Lawes

Abstract:

Combustion of sprays is of technological importance, but its flame behavior is not fully understood. Furthermore, the multiplicity of dependent variables such as pressure, temperature, equivalence ratio, and droplet sizes complicates the study of spray combustion. Fundamental study on the influence of the presence of liquid droplets has revealed that laminar flames within aerosol mixtures more readily become unstable than for gaseous ones and this increases the practical burning rate. However, fundamental studies on turbulent flames of aerosol mixtures are limited particularly those under near mono-dispersed droplet conditions. In the present work, centrally ignited expanding flames at near atmospheric pressures are employed to quantify the burning rates in gaseous and aerosol flames. Iso-octane-air aerosols are generated by expansion of the gaseous pre-mixture to produce a homogeneously distributed suspension of fuel droplets. The effects of the presence of droplets and turbulence velocity in relation to the burning rates of the flame are also investigated.

Keywords: droplets, Flames, turbulent, burning rate

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1 Numerical Investigation of the Chilling of Food Products by Air-Mist Spray

Authors: Roy J. Issa

Abstract:

Spray chilling using air-mist nozzles has received much attention in the food processing industry because of the benefits it has shown over forced air convection. These benefits include an increase in the heat transfer coefficient and a reduction in the water loss by the product during cooling. However, few studies have simulated the heat transfer and aerodynamics phenomena of the air-mist chilling process for optimal operating conditions. The study provides insight into the optimal conditions for spray impaction, heat transfer efficiency and control of surface flooding. A computational fluid dynamics model using a two-phase flow composed of water droplets injected with air is developed to simulate the air-mist chilling of food products. The model takes into consideration droplet-to-surface interaction, water-film accumulation and surface runoff. The results of this study lead to a better understanding of the heat transfer enhancement, water conservation, and to a clear direction for the optimal design of air-mist chilling systems that can be used in commercial applications in the food and meat processing industries.

Keywords: droplet size, Droplets impaction efficiency, Heat transfer enhancement factor, Water runoff

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