Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Spray Drying

9 Quality Attributes of Various Spray Dried Pulp Powder Prepared from Low Temperature Stored Calcium Salts Pretreated Guava Fruits

Authors: Renu Rahel, A. S. Chauhan, K. Srinivasulu, R. Ravi, V. B. Kudachikar

Abstract:

The effect of calcium salts on the storage stability and on the quality attributes of both fresh and processed product (guava powder) of white flesh guavas (var ‘Allahabad safeda’) was studied. The pulp behavioral studies of fully ripened guava fruits indicated that fruits pretreated with 3% and 4.5% calcium chloride had the least viscosity. The guava pulp powder using spray drying technique was developed and its storage stability and the moisture sorption studies were carried out for product quality evaluation at normal storage condition (27°C; 65%RH). Results revealed that powder obtained from 3% calcium chloride pretreated guavas was found to be at par with the powder obtained from control guavas after 90 days of normal storage. Studies on microbiological quality of guava pulp powder indicated that among the treatments powder obtained from guava fruit pretreated with 3% calcium chloride to be the most effective through restricting microbial counts of total plate count, yeast, mold, Staphylococcus and E. coli below their permissible limit. Moisture sorption studies of guava powder revealed that foil laminate 12μm PET/9 μm foil/38-40 μm is the most suitable packaging material recommended.

Keywords: White flesh guava, calcium salts, spray drying, powder, storage stability.

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8 Low-Temperature Luminescence Spectroscopy of Violet Sr-Al-O:Eu2+ Phosphor Particles

Authors: Keiji Komatsu, Hayato Maruyama, Ariyuki Kato, Atsushi Nakamura, Shigeo Ohshio, Hiroki Akasaka, Hidetoshi Saitoh

Abstract:

Violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor particles were synthesized from a metal–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution of Sr, Al, Eu, and particulate alumina via spray drying and sintering in a reducing atmosphere. The crystal structures and emission properties at 85–300 K were investigated. The composition of the violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor particles was determined from various Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphors by their emission properties’ dependence on temperature. The highly crystalline SrAl12O19:Eu2+ emission phases were confirmed by their crystallite sizes and the activation energies for the 4f5d–8S7/2 transition of the Eu2+ ion. These results showed that the material identification for the violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor was accomplished by the low-temperature luminescence measurements.

Keywords: Low temperature luminescence spectroscopy, Material Identification, Strontium aluminates phosphor.

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7 Effect of Humidity on in-Process Crystallization of Lactose during Spray Drying

Authors: Amirali Ebrahimi, T. A. G. Langrish

Abstract:

The effect of various humidities on process yields and degrees of crystallinity for spray-dried powders from spray drying of lactose with humid air in a straight-through system have been studied. It has been suggested by Williams–Landel–Ferry kinetics (WLF) that a higher particle temperature and lower glass-transition temperature would increase the crystallization rate of the particles during the spray-drying process. Freshly humidified air produced by a Buchi-B290 spray dryer as a humidifier attached to the main spray dryer decreased the particle glass-transition temperature (Tg), while allowing the particle temperature (Tp) to reach higher values by using an insulated drying chamber. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and moisture sorption analysis were used to measure the degree of crystallinity for the spray-dried lactose powders. The results showed that higher Tp-Tg, as a result of applying humid air, improved the process yield from 21 ± 4 to 26 ± 2% and crystallinity of the particles by decreasing the latent heat of crystallization from 43 ± 1 to 30 ± 11 J/g and the sorption peak height from 7.3 ± 0.7% to 6 ± 0.7%.

Keywords: Lactose, crystallization, spray drying, humid air.

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6 Survival of Four Probiotic Strains in Acid, Bile Salt and After Spray Drying

Authors: Rawichar Chaipojjana, Suttipong Phosuksirikul, Arunsri Leejeerajumnean

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to select the survival of probiotic strains when exposed to acidic and bile salts condition. Four probiotic strains Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047, Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500, Lactobacillus acidophilus TISTR 1338 and Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 1465 were cultured in MRS broth and incubated at 35ºC for 15 hours before being inoculated into acidic condition 5 M HCl, pH 2 for 2 hours and bile salt 0.3%, pH 5.8 for 8 hour. The survived probiotics were counted in MRS agar. Among four stains, Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 was the highest tolerance specie. Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 reduced 6.74±0.07 log CFU/ml after growing in acid and 5.52±0.05 log CFU/ml after growing in bile salt. Then, double emulsion of microorganisms was chosen to encapsulate before spray drying. Spray drying was done with the inlet temperature 170ºC and outlet temperature 80ºC. The results showed that the survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 after spray drying decreased from 9.63 ± 0.32 to 8.31 ± 0.11 log CFU/ml comparing with non-encapsulated, 9.63 ± 0.32 to 4.06 ± 0.08 log CFU/ml. Therefore, Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 would be able to survive in gastrointestinal and spray drying condition.

Keywords: Probiotic, acid, bile salt, spray drying.

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5 Analysis of Drying Kinetics of a Slurry Droplet in the Falling Rate Period of Spray Drying

Authors: Boris Golman, Wittaya Julklang

Abstract:

The heat and mass transfer was investigated during the falling rate period of spray drying of a slurry droplet. The effect of the porosity of crust layer formed from primary particles during liquid evaporation was studied numerically using the developed mathematical model which takes into account the heat and mass transfer in the core and crust regions, the movement of the evaporation interface, and the external heat and mass transfer between the drying air and the droplet surface. It was confirmed that the heat transfer through the crust layer was more intense in the case of the dense droplet than the loose one due to the enhanced thermal conduction resulting in the higher average droplet temperature. The mass transfer was facilitated in the crust layer of loose droplet owing to the large pore space available for diffusion of water vapor from the evaporation interface to the outer droplet surface. The longer drying time is required for the droplet of high porosity to reach the final moisture content than that for the dense one due to the larger amount of water to be evaporated during the falling rate.

Keywords: Spray Drying, Slurry Droplet, Heat and Mass Transfer, Crust Layer Porosity, Mathematical Modeling.

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4 Microencapsulation of Ascorbic Acid by Spray Drying: Influence of Process Conditions

Authors: Addion Nizori, Lan T.T. Bui, Darryl M. Small

Abstract:

Ascorbic acid (AA), commonly known as vitamin C, is essential for normal functioning of the body and maintenance of metabolic integrity. Among its various roles are as an antioxidant, a cofactor in collagen formation and other reactions, as well as reducing physical stress and maintenance of the immune system. Recent collaborative research between the Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) in Scottsdale, Tasmania and RMIT University has sought to overcome the problems arising from the inherent instability of ascorbic acid during processing and storage of foods. The recent work has demonstrated the potential of microencapsulation by spray drying as a means to enhance retention. The purpose of this current study has been focused upon the influence of spray drying conditions on the properties of encapsulated ascorbic acid. The process was carried out according to a central composite design. Independent variables were: inlet temperature (80-120° C) and feed flow rate (7-14 mL/minute). Process yield, ascorbic acid loss, moisture content, water activity and particle size distribution were analysed as responses. The results have demonstrated the potential of microencapsulation by spray drying as a means to enhance retention. Vitamin retention, moisture content, water activity and process yield were influenced positively by inlet air temperature and negatively by feed flow rate.

Keywords: Microencapsulation, spray drying, ascorbic acid.

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3 Preparation of Porous Carbon Particles using a Spray-Drying Method with Colloidal Template

Authors: Yutaka Kisakibaru, AsepBayu Dani Nandiyanto, Ratna Balgis, Takashi Ogi, Kikuo Okuyama

Abstract:

spherical porous carbon particles with controllable porosity with a mean size of 2.5m have been prepared using a spray drying method with organic particle colloidal template. As a precursor, a mixing solution of carbon nanopowder and polystyrene (PS) particles as a template was used. The result showed that the particles with a good porous structure could be obtained. The pore size and shape (spherical) were identical to the initial template, giving a potential way for further developments. The control of particle porosity was also possible and reported in this paper, in which this control could be achieved by means of PS concentration.

Keywords: Porous structure particle; Carbon nanoparticles; Catalyst; Spray-drying method.

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2 Control and Simulation of FOPDT Food Processes with Constraints using PI Controller

Authors: M.Y. Pua, M.C. Tan, L.W. Tan, N. Ab.Aziz, F.S. Taip

Abstract:

The most common type of controller being used in the industry is PI(D) controller which has been used since 1945 and is still being widely used due to its efficiency and simplicity. In most cases, the PI(D) controller was tuned without taking into consideration of the effect of actuator saturation. In real processes, the most common actuator which is valve will act as constraint and restrict the controller output. Since the controller is not designed to encounter saturation, the process may windup and consequently resulted in large oscillation or may become unstable. Usually, an antiwindup compensator is added to the feedback control loop to reduce the deterioration effect of integral windup. This research aims to specifically control processes with constraints. The proposed method was applied to two different types of food processes, which are blending and spray drying. Simulations were done using MATLAB and the performances of the proposed method were compared with other conventional methods. The proposed technique was able to control the processes and avoid saturation such that no anti windup compensator is needed.

Keywords: constraints, food process control, first order plusdead time process, PI

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1 Heat Transfer Coefficients for Particulate Airflow in Shell and Coiled Tube Heat Exchangers

Authors: W. Witchayanuwat, S. Kheawhom

Abstract:

In this work, we experimentally study heat transfer from exhaust particulate air of detergent spray drying tower to water by using coiled tube heat exchanger. Water flows in the coiled tubes, where air loaded with detergent particles of 43 micrometers in diameter flows within the shell. Four coiled tubes with different coil pitches are used in a counter-current flow configuration. We investigate heat transfer coefficients of inside and outside the heat transfer surfaces through 400 experiments. The correlations between Nusselt number and Reynolds number, Prandtl number, mass flow rate of particulates to mass flow rate of air ratio and coiled tube pitch parameter are proposed. The correlations procured can be used to predicted heat transfer between tube and shell of the heat exchanger.

Keywords: Shell and coiled tube heat exchanger, Spray drying tower, Heat transfer coefficients.

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