Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 705

Search results for: aerosol particle

705 Dynamical Characteristics of Interaction between Water Droplet and Aerosol Particle in Dedusting Technology

Authors: Ding Jue, Li Jiahua, Lei Zhidi, Weng Peifen, Li Xiaowei

Abstract:

With the rapid development of national modern industry, people begin to pay attention to environmental pollution and harm caused by industrial dust. Based on above, a numerical study on the dedusting technology of industrial environment was conducted. The dynamic models of multicomponent particles collision and coagulation, breakage and deposition are developed, and the interaction of water droplet and aerosol particle in 2-Dimension flow field was researched by Eulerian-Lagrangian method and Multi-Monte Carlo method. The effects of the droplet scale, movement speed of droplet and the flow field structure on scavenging efficiency were analyzed. The results show that under the certain condition, 30μm of droplet has the best scavenging efficiency. At the initial speed 1m/s of droplets, droplets and aerosol particles have more time to interact, so it has a better scavenging efficiency for the particle.

Keywords: Water droplet, aerosol particle, collision and coagulation, multi-Monte Carlo method.

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704 A Novel Slip Correction Factor for Spherical Aerosol Particles

Authors: Abouzar Moshfegh, Mehrzad Shams, Goodarz Ahmadi, Reza Ebrahimi

Abstract:

A 3D simulation study for an incompressible slip flow around a spherical aerosol particle was performed. The full Navier-Stokes equations were solved and the velocity jump at the gas-particle interface was treated numerically by imposition of the slip boundary condition. Analytical solution to the Stokesian slip flow past a spherical particle was used as a benchmark for code verification, and excellent agreement was achieved. The Simulation results showed that in addition to the Knudsen number, the Reynolds number affects the slip correction factor. Thus, the Cunningham-based slip corrections must be augmented by the inclusion of the effect of Reynolds number for application to Lagrangian tracking of fine particles. A new expression for the slip correction factor as a function of both Knudsen number and Reynolds number was developed.

Keywords: CFD, Cunningham correction, Slip correction factor, Spherical aerosol.

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703 Portable Continuous Aerosol Concentrator for the Determination of NO2 in the Air

Authors: J. Kellner, A. Bumbová, D. Pluskal, A. Langerová, Z. Večeřa, P. Mikuška

Abstract:

The paper deals with the development of portable aerosol concentrator and its application for the determination of nitrites and nitrates. The device enables the continuous trapping of pollutants in the air. An extensive literature search has been elaborated which aims at the development of samplers and the possibilities of their application in the continuous determination of volatile organic compounds. The practical part of the paper is focused on the development of the portable aerosol concentrator. The device using the Aerosol Enrichment Unit has been experimentally verified and subsequently realized. It operates on the principle of equilibrium accumulation of pollutants from the gaseous phase using absorption liquid polydisperse aerosol. The device has been applied for monitoring nitrites and nitrates in the air. The chemiluminescence detector was used for detection; the achieved detection limit for nitrites was 28 ng/m3 and for nitrates 78 ng/m3.

Keywords: aerosol enrichment unit, air pollution, NO2, portableaerosol concentrator

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702 The Pressure Losses in the Model of Human Lungs

Authors: Michaela Chovancova, Pavel Niedoba

Abstract:

For the treatment of acute and chronic lung diseases it is preferred to deliver medicaments by inhalation. The drug is delivered directly to tracheobronchial tree. This way allows the given medicament to get directly into the place of action and it makes rapid onset of action and maximum efficiency. The transport of aerosol particles in the particular part of the lung is influenced by their size, anatomy of the lungs, breathing pattern and airway resistance. This article deals with calculation of airway resistance in the lung model of Horsfield. It solves the problem of determination of the pressure losses in bifurcation and thus defines the pressure drop at a given location in the bronchial tree. The obtained data will be used as boundary conditions for transport of aerosol particles in a central part of bronchial tree realized by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. The results obtained from CFD simulation will allow us to provide information on the required particle size and optimal inhalation technique for particle transport into particular part of the lung.

Keywords: Human lungs, bronchial tree, pressure losses, airways resistance, flow, breathing.

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701 Modeling Aerosol Formation in an Electrically Heated Tobacco Product

Authors: Markus Nordlund, Arkadiusz K. Kuczaj

Abstract:

Philip Morris International (PMI) is developing a range of novel tobacco products with the potential to reduce individual risk and population harm in comparison to smoking cigarettes. One of these products is the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS 2.2), (named as the Electrically Heated Tobacco System (EHTS) in this paper), already commercialized in a number of countries (e.g., Japan, Italy, Switzerland, Russia, Portugal and Romania). During use, the patented EHTS heats a specifically designed tobacco product (Electrically Heated Tobacco Product (EHTP)) when inserted into a Holder (heating device). The EHTP contains tobacco material in the form of a porous plug that undergoes a controlled heating process to release chemical compounds into vapors, from which an aerosol is formed during cooling. The aim of this work was to investigate the aerosol formation characteristics for realistic operating conditions of the EHTS as well as for relevant gas mixture compositions measured in the EHTP aerosol consisting mostly of water, glycerol and nicotine, but also other compounds at much lower concentrations. The nucleation process taking place in the EHTP during use when operated in the Holder has therefore been modeled numerically using an extended Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) for multicomponent gas mixtures. Results from the performed simulations demonstrate that aerosol droplets are formed only in the presence of an aerosol former being mainly glycerol. Minor compounds in the gas mixture were not able to reach a supersaturated state alone and therefore could not generate aerosol droplets from the multicomponent gas mixture at the operating conditions simulated. For the analytically characterized aerosol composition and estimated operating conditions of the EHTS and EHTP, glycerol was shown to be the main aerosol former triggering the nucleation process in the EHTP. This implies that according to the CNT, an aerosol former, such as glycerol needs to be present in the gas mixture for an aerosol to form under the tested operating conditions. To assess if these conclusions are sensitive to the initial amount of the minor compounds and to include and represent the total mass of the aerosol collected during the analytical aerosol characterization, simulations were carried out with initial masses of the minor compounds increased by as much as a factor of 500. Despite this extreme condition, no aerosol droplets were generated when glycerol, nicotine and water were treated as inert species and therefore not actively contributing to the nucleation process. This implies that according to the CNT, an aerosol cannot be generated without the help of an aerosol former, from the multicomponent gas mixtures at the compositions and operating conditions estimated for the EHTP, even if all minor compounds are released or generated in a single puff.

Keywords: Aerosol, Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT), Electrically Heated Tobacco Product (EHTP), Electrically Heated Tobacco System (EHTS), modeling, multicomponent, nucleation.

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700 The Contribution of Sulfate and Oxidized Organics in Climatically Important Ultrafine Particles at a Coral Reef Environment

Authors: P. Vaattovaara, H. B. Swan, G. B. Jones, E. Deschaseaux, B. Miljevic, A. Laaksonen, Z. D. Ristovski

Abstract:

In order to investigate the properties of coral reef origin secondary aerosol and especially the contribution of secondary organic aerosol, ethanol affinity to atmospheric nucleation mode particles (diameter<15nm) was measured at the Heron reef marine environment in the South Pacific Ocean during the first coral reef aerosol characterization experiment in May-June 2011 using an ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer.

Our campaign study at Heron reef showed that the nucleation mode size particles (diameter =10nm) composition contain internally mixed sulfate and oxidized organic components in approximately equal proportion in sunny and still conditions around low tide time, indicating local biogenic sources. The produced secondary compounds and aerosols have potential to contribute to cloud condensation nuclei formation and properties that may affect local low-level cloud formation over the GBR. Additionally, primary marine sea-salt and organic material during windy conditions and anthropogenic/biogenic sources during continental air masses can affect the properties of these particles.

Keywords: Coral reef, DMS, particle composition, secondary organics.

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699 Investigation of Short Time Scale Variation of Solar Radiation Spectrum in UV, PAR, and NIR Bands due to Atmospheric Aerosol and Water Vapor

Authors: Jackson H. W. Chang, Jedol Dayou, Justin Sentian

Abstract:

Long terms variation of solar insolation had been widely studied. However, its parallel observations in short time scale is rather lacking. This paper aims to investigate the short time scale evolution of solar radiation spectrum (UV, PAR, and NIR bands) due to atmospheric aerosols and water vapors. A total of 25 days of global and diffused solar spectrum ranges from air mass 2 to 6 were collected using ground-based spectrometer with shadowband technique. The result shows that variation of solar radiation is the least in UV fraction, followed by PAR and the most in NIR. Broader variations in PAR and NIR are associated with the short time scale fluctuations of aerosol and water vapors. The corresponding daily evolution of UV, PAR, and NIR fractions implies that aerosol and water vapors variation could also be responsible for the deviation pattern in the Langley-plot analysis.

Keywords: Aerosol, short time scale variation, solar radiation, water vapor.

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698 A New Particle Filter Inspired by Biological Evolution: Genetic Filter

Authors: S. Park, J. Hwang, K. Rou, E. Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a new particle filter inspired by biological evolution. In the standard particle filter, a resampling scheme is used to decrease the degeneracy phenomenon and improve estimation performance. Unfortunately, however, it could cause the undesired the particle deprivation problem, as well. In order to overcome this problem of the particle filter, we propose a novel filtering method called the genetic filter. In the proposed filter, we embed the genetic algorithm into the particle filter and overcome the problems of the standard particle filter. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by computer simulation.

Keywords: Particle filter, genetic algorithm, evolutionary algorithm.

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697 Burning Rates of Turbulent Gaseous and Aerosol Flames

Authors: Shaharin A. Sulaiman, Malcolm Lawes

Abstract:

Combustion of sprays is of technological importance, but its flame behavior is not fully understood. Furthermore, the multiplicity of dependent variables such as pressure, temperature, equivalence ratio, and droplet sizes complicates the study of spray combustion. Fundamental study on the influence of the presence of liquid droplets has revealed that laminar flames within aerosol mixtures more readily become unstable than for gaseous ones and this increases the practical burning rate. However, fundamental studies on turbulent flames of aerosol mixtures are limited particularly those under near mono-dispersed droplet conditions. In the present work, centrally ignited expanding flames at near atmospheric pressures are employed to quantify the burning rates in gaseous and aerosol flames. Iso-octane-air aerosols are generated by expansion of the gaseous pre-mixture to produce a homogeneously distributed suspension of fuel droplets. The effects of the presence of droplets and turbulence velocity in relation to the burning rates of the flame are also investigated.

Keywords: Burning Rate, Droplets, Flames, Turbulent

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696 Chemical Characterization of Submicron Aerosol in Kanpur Region: a Source Apportionment Study

Authors: A. Chakraborty, T. Gupta

Abstract:

Several studies have shown the association between ambient particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects and climate change, thus highlighting the need to limit the anthropogenic sources of PM. PM Exposure is commonly monitored as mass concentration of PM10 (particle aerodynamic diameter < 10μm) or PM2.5 (particle aerodynamic diameter < 2.5μm), although increasing toxicity with decreasing aerodynamic diameter has been reported due to increased surface area and enhanced chemical reactivity with other species. Additionally, the light scattering properties of PM increases with decreasing size. Hence, it is important to study the chemical characterization of finer fraction of the particulate matter and to identify their sources so that they can be controlled appropriately to a large extent at the sources before reaching to the receptors.

Keywords: PM1, PCA, source apportionment.

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695 Parameters of Main Stage of Discharge between Artificial Charged Aerosol Cloud and Ground in Presence of Model Hydrometeor Arrays

Authors: D. S. Zhuravkova, A. G. Temnikov, O. S. Belova, L. L. Chernensky, T. K. Gerastenok, I. Y. Kalugina, N. Y. Lysov, A.V. Orlov

Abstract:

Investigation of the discharges from the artificial charged water aerosol clouds in presence of the arrays of the model hydrometeors could help to receive the new data about the peculiarities of the return stroke formation between the thundercloud and the ground when the large volumes of the hail particles participate in the lightning discharge initiation and propagation stimulation. Artificial charged water aerosol clouds of the negative or positive polarity with the potential up to one million volts have been used. Hail has been simulated by the group of the conductive model hydrometeors of the different form. Parameters of the impulse current of the main stage of the discharge between the artificial positively and negatively charged water aerosol clouds and the ground in presence of the model hydrometeors array and of its corresponding electromagnetic radiation have been determined. It was established that the parameters of the array of the model hydrometeors influence on the parameters of the main stage of the discharge between the artificial thundercloud cell and the ground. The maximal values of the main stage current impulse parameters and the electromagnetic radiation registered by the plate antennas have been found for the array of the model hydrometeors of the cylinder revolution form for the negatively charged aerosol cloud and for the array of the hydrometeors of the plate rhombus form for the positively charged aerosol cloud, correspondingly. It was found that parameters of the main stage of the discharge between the artificial charged water aerosol cloud and the ground in presence of the model hydrometeor array of the different considered forms depend on the polarity of the artificial charged aerosol cloud. In average, for all forms of the investigated model hydrometeors arrays, the values of the amplitude and the current rise of the main stage impulse current and the amplitude of the corresponding electromagnetic radiation for the artificial charged aerosol cloud of the positive polarity were in 1.1-1.9 times higher than for the charged aerosol cloud of the negative polarity. Thus, the received results could indicate to the possible more important role of the big volumes of the large hail arrays in the thundercloud on the parameters of the return stroke for the positive lightning.

Keywords: Main stage of discharge, hydrometeor form, lightning parameters, negative and positive artificial charged aerosol cloud.

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694 On the Optimality Assessment of Nanoparticle Size Spectrometry and Its Association to the Entropy Concept

Authors: A. Shaygani, R. Saifi, M. S. Saidi, M. Sani

Abstract:

Particle size distribution, the most important characteristics of aerosols, is obtained through electrical characterization techniques. The dynamics of charged nanoparticles under the influence of electric field in Electrical Mobility Spectrometer (EMS) reveals the size distribution of these particles. The accuracy of this measurement is influenced by flow conditions, geometry, electric field and particle charging process, therefore by the transfer function (transfer matrix) of the instrument. In this work, a wire-cylinder corona charger was designed and the combined fielddiffusion charging process of injected poly-disperse aerosol particles was numerically simulated as a prerequisite for the study of a multichannel EMS. The result, a cloud of particles with no uniform charge distribution, was introduced to the EMS. The flow pattern and electric field in the EMS were simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to obtain particle trajectories in the device and therefore to calculate the reported signal by each electrometer. According to the output signals (resulted from bombardment of particles and transferring their charges as currents), we proposed a modification to the size of detecting rings (which are connected to electrometers) in order to evaluate particle size distributions more accurately. Based on the capability of the system to transfer information contents about size distribution of the injected particles, we proposed a benchmark for the assessment of optimality of the design. This method applies the concept of Von Neumann entropy and borrows the definition of entropy from information theory (Shannon entropy) to measure optimality. Entropy, according to the Shannon entropy, is the ''average amount of information contained in an event, sample or character extracted from a data stream''. Evaluating the responses (signals) which were obtained via various configurations of detecting rings, the best configuration which gave the best predictions about the size distributions of injected particles, was the modified configuration. It was also the one that had the maximum amount of entropy. A reasonable consistency was also observed between the accuracy of the predictions and the entropy content of each configuration. In this method, entropy is extracted from the transfer matrix of the instrument for each configuration. Ultimately, various clouds of particles were introduced to the simulations and predicted size distributions were compared to the exact size distributions.

Keywords: Aerosol Nano-Particle, CFD, Electrical Mobility Spectrometer, Von Neumann entropy.

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693 Particle Concentration Distribution under Idling Conditions in a Residential Underground Garage

Authors: Yu Zhao, Shinsuke Kato, Jianing Zhao

Abstract:

Particles exhausted from cars have adverse impacts on human health. The study developed a three-dimensional particle dispersion numerical model including particle coagulation to simulate the particle concentration distribution under idling conditions in a residential underground garage. The simulation results demonstrate that particle disperses much faster in the vertical direction than that in horizontal direction. The enhancement of particle dispersion in the vertical direction due to the increase of cars with engine running is much stronger than that in the car exhaust direction. Particle dispersion from each pair of adjacent cars has little influence on each other in the study. Average particle concentration after 120 seconds exhaust is 1.8-4.5 times higher than the initial total particles at ambient environment. Particle pollution in the residential underground garage is severe.

Keywords: Dispersion, Idling conditions, Particle concentration, Residential underground garage.

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692 Development of Perez-Du Mortier Calibration Algorithm for Ground-Based Aerosol Optical Depth Measurement with Validation using SMARTS Model

Authors: Jedol Dayou, Jackson Hian Wui Chang, Rubena Yusoff, Ag. Sufiyan Abd. Hamid, Fauziah Sulaiman, Justin Sentian

Abstract:

Aerosols are small particles suspended in air that have wide varying spatial and temporal distributions. The concentration of aerosol in total columnar atmosphere is normally measured using aerosol optical depth (AOD). In long-term monitoring stations, accurate AOD retrieval is often difficult due to the lack of frequent calibration. To overcome this problem, a near-sea-level Langley calibration algorithm is developed using the combination of clear-sky detection model and statistical filter. It attempts to produce a dataset that consists of only homogenous and stable atmospheric condition for the Langley calibration purposes. In this paper, a radiance-based validation method is performed to further investigate the feasibility and consistency of the proposed algorithm at different location, day, and time. The algorithm is validated using SMARTS model based n DNI value. The overall results confirmed that the proposed calibration algorithm feasible and consistent for measurements taken at different sites and weather conditions.

Keywords: Aerosol optical depth, direct normal irradiance, Langley calibration, radiance-based validation, SMARTS.

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691 Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Air PM2.5 in an Urban Site of Győr, Hungary

Authors: A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, Zs. Csanádi, J. Erdős

Abstract:

In Hungary, the measurement of ambient PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations is great importance for a number of reasons related to human health, the environment and compliance with European Union legislation. However, the monitoring of PAHs associated with PM2.5 aerosol fraction is still incomplete. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of PAHs in PM2.5 urban aerosol fraction. PM2.5 and associated PAHs were monitored in November 2014 in an urban site of Győr (Northwest Hungary). The aerosol samples were collected every day for 24-hours over two weeks with a high volume air sampler provided with a PM2.5 cut-off inlet. The levels of 19 PAH compounds associated with PM2.5 aerosol fraction were quantified by a gas chromatographic method. Polluted air quality for PM2.5 (>25 g/m3) was indicated in 50% of the collected samples. The total PAHs concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 37.3 ng/m3 with the mean value of 12.4 ng/m3. Indeno(123-cd)pyrene (IND) and sum of three benzofluoranthene isomers were the most dominant PAH species followed by benzo(ghi)perylene and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Using BaP-equivalent approach on the concentration data of carcinogenic PAH species, BaP, and IND contributed the highest carcinogenic exposure equivalent (1.50 and 0.24 ng/m3 on average). A selected number of concentration ratios of specific PAH compounds were calculated to evaluate the possible sources of PAH contamination. The ratios reflected that the major source of PAH compounds in the PM2.5 aerosol fraction of Győr during the study period was fossil fuel combustion from automobiles.

Keywords: Air, PM2.5, benzo(a)pyrene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

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690 Optimal Estimation of Surface Reflectance from Landsat TM Visible and Mid Infrared Data over Penang Island

Authors: H. S. Lim, M. Z. MatJafri, K. Abdullah, N. Mohd. Saleh

Abstract:

Retrieval of the surface reflectance is important in the remotely sensed data analysis to obtain the atmospheric reflectance or atmospheric correction. The relationship between visible and mid infrared reflectance over land was investigated and developed in this study. The surface reflectances of the two visible bands were measured using a handheld spectroradiometer collected around Penang Island. In this study, we use the assumption that the 2.1 μm band is not affected by aerosol and it is transparent to most aerosol types (except dust). Therefore the satellite observed signal is the same as the surface signal in 2.1 μm band. The correlation between the surface reflectance measured by the spectroradiometer in the blue and red region and the 2.1 μm observed by the satellite has been established. We investigate five dates of Landsat TM scenes in this study. The finding obtained by this study indicates that the surface reflectance can be retrieved from the 2.1 μm band.

Keywords: Surface Reflectance, Landsat TM, Aerosol, Spectroradiometer.

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689 Spatial Variability of Brahmaputra River Flow Characteristics

Authors: Hemant Kumar

Abstract:

Brahmaputra River is known according to the Hindu mythology the son of the Lord Brahma. According to this name, the river Brahmaputra creates mass destruction during the monsoon season in Assam, India. It is a state situated in North-East part of India. This is one of the essential states out of the seven countries of eastern India, where almost all entire Brahmaputra flow carried out. The other states carry their tributaries. In the present case study, the spatial analysis performed in this specific case the number of MODIS data are acquired. In the method of detecting the change, the spray content was found during heavy rainfall and in the flooded monsoon season. By this method, particularly the analysis over the Brahmaputra outflow determines the flooded season. The charged particle-associated in aerosol content genuinely verifies the heavy water content below the ground surface, which is validated by trend analysis through rainfall spectrum data. This is confirmed by in-situ sampled view data from a different position of Brahmaputra River. Further, a Hyperion Hyperspectral 30 m resolution data were used to scan the sediment deposits, which is also confirmed by in-situ sampled view data from a different position.

Keywords: Spatial analysis, change detection, aerosol, trend analysis.

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688 Impact of Ship Traffic to PM2.5 and Particle Number Concentrations in Three Port-Cities of the Adriatic/Ionian Area

Authors: Daniele Contini, Antonio Donateo, Andrea Gambaro, Athanasios Argiriou, Dimitrios Melas, Daniela Cesari, Anastasia Poupkou, Athanasios Karagiannidis, Apostolos Tsakis, Eva Merico, Rita Cesari, Adelaide Dinoi

Abstract:

Emissions of atmospheric pollutants from ships and harbour activities are a growing concern at international level given their potential impacts on air quality and climate. These close-to-land emissions have potential impact on local communities in terms of air quality and health. Recent studies show that the impact of maritime traffic to atmospheric particulate matter concentrations in several coastal urban areas is comparable with the impact of road traffic of a medium size town. However, several different approaches have been used for these estimates making difficult a direct comparison of results. In this work, an integrated approach based on emission inventories and dedicated measurement campaigns has been applied to give a comparable estimate of the impact of maritime traffic to PM2.5 and particle number concentrations in three major harbours of the Adriatic/Ionian Seas. The influences of local meteorology and of the logistic layout of the harbours are discussed.

Keywords: Ship emissions, PM2.5, particle number concentrations, impact of shipping to atmospheric aerosol.

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687 Absorption Center of Photophoresis with in Micro-Sized and Spheroidal Particles in a Gaseous Medium

Authors: Wen-Ken Li, Pei-Yuan Tzeng, Chyi-Yeou Soong, Chung-Ho Liu

Abstract:

The present study is concerned with the absorption center of photophoresis within a micro-sized and spheroidal particle in a gaseous medium. A particle subjected to an intense light beam can absorb electromagnetic energy within the particle unevenly, which results in photophoretic force to drive the particle in motion. By evaluating the energy distribution systematically at various conditions, the study focuses on the effects of governing parameters, such as particle aspect ratio, size parameter, refractivity, and absorptivity, on the heat source function within the particle and their potential influences to the photophoresis.

Keywords: photophoresis, spheroidal particle, aspect ratio, refractivity, absorptivity, heat source function

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686 Cold Model Experimental Research on Particle Velocity Distribution in Gas-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed for Methanol-to-Olefins Process

Authors: Yongzheng Li, Hongfang Ma, Qiwen Sun, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Radial profiles of particle velocities were investigated in a 6.1m high methanol-to-olefins cold model experimental device using a TSI laser Doppler velocimeter. The effect of axial height on flow development was not obvious in fully developed region under the same operating condition. Superficial gas velocity and solid circulating rate had significant influence on particle velocity in the center region of the riser. Besides, comparisons among rising, descending and average particle velocity were conducted. The particle average velocity was similar to the rising particle velocity and higher than the descending particle velocity in radial locations except the wall region of riser.

Keywords: Circulating fluidized bed, laser doppler velocimeter, particle velocity, radial profile.

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685 Particle Swarm Optimization with Reduction for Global Optimization Problems

Authors: Michiharu Maeda, Shinya Tsuda

Abstract:

This paper presents an algorithm of particle swarm optimization with reduction for global optimization problems. Particle swarm optimization is an algorithm which refers to the collective motion such as birds or fishes, and a multi-point search algorithm which finds a best solution using multiple particles. Particle swarm optimization is so flexible that it can adapt to a number of optimization problems. When an objective function has a lot of local minimums complicatedly, the particle may fall into a local minimum. For avoiding the local minimum, a number of particles are initially prepared and their positions are updated by particle swarm optimization. Particles sequentially reduce to reach a predetermined number of them grounded in evaluation value and particle swarm optimization continues until the termination condition is met. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, we examine the minimum by using test functions compared to existing algorithms. Furthermore the influence of best value on the initial number of particles for our algorithm is discussed.

Keywords: Particle swarm optimization, Global optimization, Metaheuristics, Reduction.

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684 Self Organizing Analysis Platform for Wear Particle

Authors: Qurban A. Memon, Mohammad S. Laghari

Abstract:

Integration of system process information obtained through an image processing system with an evolving knowledge database to improve the accuracy and predictability of wear particle analysis is the main focus of the paper. The objective is to automate intelligently the analysis process of wear particle using classification via self organizing maps. This is achieved using relationship measurements among corresponding attributes of various measurements for wear particle. Finally, visualization technique is proposed that helps the viewer in understanding and utilizing these relationships that enable accurate diagnostics.

Keywords: Neural Network, Relationship Measurement, Selforganizing Clusters, Wear Particle Analysis.

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683 Evaluation of Bacterial Composition of the Aerosol of Selected Abattoirs in Akure, South Western Nigeria

Authors: Funmilola O. Omoya, Joseph O. Obameso, Titus A. Olukibiti

Abstract:

This study was carried out to reveal the bacterial composition of aerosol in the studied abattoirs. Bacteria isolated were characterized according to microbiological standards. Factors such as temperature and distance were considered as variable in this study. The isolation was carried out at different temperatures such as 27oC, 31oC and 29oC and at various distances of 100meters and 200meters away from the slaughter sites. Result obtained showed that strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus alimentarius and Micrococcus sp. were identified. The total viable counts showed that more microorganisms were present in the morning while the least viable count of 388cfu was recorded in the evening period of this study. This study also showed that more microbial loads were recorded the further the distance is to the slaughter site. Conclusively, the array of bacteria isolated suggests that abattoir sites may be a potential source of pathogenic organisms to commuters if located within residential environment.

Keywords: Abattoir, Aerosol, Bacterial Composition, Environment.

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682 Simulation of Particle Damping under Centrifugal Loads

Authors: Riaz A. Bhatti, Wang Yanrong

Abstract:

Particle damping is a technique to reduce the structural vibrations by means of placing small metallic particles inside a cavity that is attached to the structure at location of high vibration amplitudes. In this paper, we have presented an analytical model to simulate the particle damping of two dimensional transient vibrations in structure operating under high centrifugal loads. The simulation results show that this technique remains effective as long as the ratio of the dynamic acceleration of the structure to the applied centrifugal load is more than 0.1. Particle damping increases with the increase of particle to structure mass ratio. However, unlike to the case of particle damping in the absence of centrifugal loads where the damping efficiency strongly depends upon the size of the cavity, here this dependence becomes very weak. Despite the simplicity of the model, the simulation results are considerably in good agreement with the very scarce experimental data available in the literature for particle damping under centrifugal loads.

Keywords: Impact damping, particle damping, vibration control, vibration suppression.

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681 Dependence of Particle Initiated PD Characteristics on Size and Position of Metallic Particle Adhering to the Spacer Surface in GIS

Authors: F. N. Budiman, Y. Khan, A. A. Khan, A. Beroual, N. H. Malik, A. A. Al-Arainy

Abstract:

It is well known that metallic particles reduce the reliability of Gas-Insulated Substation (GIS) equipments by initiating partial discharge (PDs) that can lead to breakdown and complete failure of GIS. This paper investigates the characteristics of PDs caused by metallic particle adhering to the solid spacer. The PD detection and measurement were carried out by using IEC 60270 method with particles of different sizes and at different positions on the spacer surface. The results show that a particle of certain size at certain position possesses a unique PD characteristic as compared to those caused by particles of different sizes and/or at different positions. Therefore PD characteristics may be useful for the particle size and position identification.

Keywords: Particle, partial discharge, GIS, spacer.

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680 Effect of Particle Gravity on the Fractal Dimension of Particle Line in three-dimensional Turbulent Flows using Kinematic Simulation

Authors: A. Abou El-Azm Aly, F. Nicolleau, T. M. Michelitsch, A. F. Nowakowski

Abstract:

In this study, the dispersion of heavy particles line in an isotropic and incompressible three-dimensional turbulent flow has been studied using the Kinematic Simulation techniques to find out the evolution of the line fractal dimension. The fractal dimension of the line is found in the case of different particle gravity (in practice, different values of particle drift velocity) in the presence of small particle inertia with a comparison with that obtained in the diffusion case of material line at the same Reynolds number. It can be concluded for the dispersion of heavy particles line in turbulent flow that the particle gravity affect the fractal dimension of the line for different particle gravity velocities in the range 0.2 < W < 2. With the increase of the particle drift velocity, the fractal dimension of the line decreases which may be explained as the particles pass many scales in their journey in the direction of the gravity and the particles trajectories do not affect by these scales at high particle drift velocities.

Keywords: Heavy particles, two-phase flow, Kinematic Simulation, Fractal dimension.

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679 Unified Gas-Kinetic Scheme for Gas-Particle Flow in Shock-Induced Fluidization of Particles Bed

Authors: Zhao Wang, Hong Yan

Abstract:

In this paper, a unified-gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for the gas-particle flow is constructed. UGKS is a direct modeling method for both continuum and rarefied flow computations. The dynamics of particle and gas are described as rarefied and continuum flow, respectively. Therefore, we use the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation for the particle distribution function. For the gas phase, the gas kinetic scheme for Navier-Stokes equation is solved. The momentum transfer between gas and particle is achieved by the acceleration term added to the BGK equation. The new scheme is tested by a 2cm-in-thickness dense bed comprised of glass particles with 1.5mm in diameter, and reasonable agreement is achieved.

Keywords: Gas-particle flow, unified gas-kinetic scheme, momentum transfer, shock-induced fluidization.

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678 Modeling of Cross Flow Classifier with Water Injection

Authors: E. Pikushchak, J. Dueck, L. Minkov

Abstract:

In hydrocyclones, the particle separation efficiency is limited by the suspended fine particles, which are discharged with the coarse product in the underflow. It is well known that injecting water in the conical part of the cyclone reduces the fine particle fraction in the underflow. This paper presents a mathematical model that simulates the water injection in the conical component. The model accounts for the fluid flow and the particle motion. Particle interaction, due to hindered settling caused by increased density and viscosity of the suspension, and fine particle entrainment by settling coarse particles are included in the model. Water injection in the conical part of the hydrocyclone is performed to reduce fine particle discharge in the underflow. The model demonstrates the impact of the injection rate, injection velocity, and injection location on the shape of the partition curve. The simulations are compared with experimental data of a 50-mm cyclone.

Keywords: Classification, fine particle processing, hydrocyclone, water injection.

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677 Feasibility Investigation of Near Infrared Spectrometry for Particle Size Estimation of Nano Structures

Authors: A. Bagheri Garmarudi, M. Khanmohammadi, N. Khoddami, K. Shabani

Abstract:

Determination of nano particle size is substantial since the nano particle size exerts a significant effect on various properties of nano materials. Accordingly, proposing non-destructive, accurate and rapid techniques for this aim is of high interest. There are some conventional techniques to investigate the morphology and grain size of nano particles such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Vibrational spectroscopy is utilized to characterize different compounds and applied for evaluation of the average particle size based on relationship between particle size and near infrared spectra [1,4] , but it has never been applied in quantitative morphological analysis of nano materials. So far, the potential application of nearinfrared (NIR) spectroscopy with its ability in rapid analysis of powdered materials with minimal sample preparation, has been suggested for particle size determination of powdered pharmaceuticals. The relationship between particle size and diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra in near infrared region has been applied to introduce a method for estimation of particle size. Back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) as a nonlinear model was applied to estimate average particle size based on near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra. Thirty five different nano TiO2 samples with different particle size were analyzed by DR-FTNIR spectrometry and the obtained data were processed by BP- ANN.

Keywords: near infrared, particle size, chemometrics, neuralnetwork, nano structure.

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676 Influence of Model Hydrometeor Form on Probability of Discharge Initiation from Artificial Charged Water Aerosol Cloud

Authors: A. G. Temnikov, O. S. Belova, L. L. Chernensky, T. K. Gerastenok, N. Y. Lysov, A. V. Orlov, D. S. Zhuravkova

Abstract:

Hypothesis of the lightning initiation on the arrays of large hydrometeors are in the consideration. There is no agreement about the form the hydrometeors that could be the best for the lightning initiation from the thundercloud. Artificial charged water aerosol clouds of the positive or negative polarity could help investigate the possible influence of the hydrometeor form on the peculiarities and the probability of the lightning discharge initiation between the thundercloud and the ground. Artificial charged aerosol clouds that could create the electric field strength in the range of 5-6 kV/cm to 16-18 kV/cm have been used in experiments. The array of the model hydrometeors of the volume and plate form has been disposed near the bottom cloud boundary. It was established that the different kinds of the discharge could be initiated in the presence of the model hydrometeors array – from the cloud discharges up to the diffuse and channel discharges between the charged cloud and the ground. It was found that the form of the model hydrometeors could significantly influence the channel discharge initiation from the artificial charged aerosol cloud of the negative or positive polarity correspondingly. Analysis and generalization of the experimental results have shown that the maximal probability of the channel discharge initiation and propagation stimulation has been observed for the artificial charged cloud of the positive polarity when the arrays of the model hydrometeors of the cylinder revolution form have been used. At the same time, for the artificial charged clouds of the negative polarity, application of the model hydrometeor array of the plate rhombus form has provided the maximal probability of the channel discharge formation between the charged cloud and the ground. The established influence of the form of the model hydrometeors on the channel discharge initiation and from the artificial charged water aerosol cloud and its following successful propagation has been related with the different character of the positive and negative streamer and volume leader development on the model hydrometeors array being near the bottom boundary of the charged cloud. The received experimental results have shown the possibly important role of the form of the large hail particles precipitated in thundercloud on the discharge initiation.

Keywords: Cloud and channel discharges, hydrometeor form, lightning initiation, negative and positive artificial charged aerosol cloud.

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