Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 416

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Information and Communication Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

416 Low Overhead Dynamic Channel Selection with Cluster-Based Spatial-Temporal Station Reporting in Wireless Networks

Authors: Zeyad Abdelmageid, Xianbin Wang

Abstract:

Choosing the operational channel for a WLAN access point (AP) in WLAN networks has been a static channel assignment process initiated by the user during the deployment process of the AP, which fails to cope with the dynamic conditions of the assigned channel at the station side afterwards. However, the dramatically growing number of Wi-Fi APs and stations operating in the unlicensed band has led to dynamic, distributed and often severe interference. This highlights the urgent need for the AP to dynamically select the best overall channel of operation for the basic service set (BSS) by considering the distributed and changing channel conditions at all stations. Consequently, dynamic channel selection algorithms which consider feedback from the station side have been developed. Despite the significant performance improvement, existing channel selection algorithms suffer from very high feedback overhead. Feedback latency from the STAs, due the high overhead, can cause the eventually selected channel to no longer be optimal for operation due to the dynamic sharing nature of the unlicensed band. This has inspired us to develop our own dynamic channel selection algorithm with reduced overhead through the proposed low-overhead, cluster-based station reporting mechanism. The main idea behind the cluster-based station reporting is the observation that STAs which are very close to each other tend to have very similar channel conditions. Instead of requesting each STA to report on every candidate channel while causing high overhead, the AP divides STAs into clusters then assigns each STA in each cluster one channel to report feedback on. With proper design of the cluster based reporting, the AP does not lose any information about the channel conditions at the station side while reducing feedback overhead. The simulation results show equal performance and at times better performance with a fraction of the overhead. We believe that this algorithm has great potential in designing future dynamic channel selection algorithms with low overhead.

Keywords: Channel assignment, Wi-Fi networks, clustering, DBSCAN, overhead.

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415 A Soft Error Rates Evaluation Method of Combinational Logic Circuit Based on Linear Energy Transfers

Authors: Man Li, Wanting Zhou, Lei Li

Abstract:

Communication stability is the primary concern of communication satellites. Communication satellites are easily affected by particle radiation to generate single event effects (SEE), which leads to soft errors (SE) of combinational logic circuit. The existing research on soft error rates (SER) of combined logic circuit is mostly based on the assumption that the logic gates being bombarded have the same pulse width. However, in the actual radiation environment, the pulse widths of the logic gates being bombarded are different due to different linear energy transfers (LET). In order to improve the accuracy of SER evaluation model, this paper proposes a soft error rates evaluation method based on LET. In this paper, we analyze the influence of LET on the pulse width of combinational logic and establish the pulse width model based on LET. Based on this model, the error rate of test circuit ISCAS’85 is calculated. Experimental results show that this model can be used for SER evaluation.

Keywords: Communication satellite, pulse width, soft error rates, linear energy transfer, LET.

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414 Adopting Artificial Intelligence and Deep Learning Techniques in Cloud Computing for Operational Efficiency

Authors: Sandesh Achar

Abstract:

Artificial intelligence (AI) is being increasingly incorporated into many applications across various sectors such as health, education, security, and agriculture. Recently, there has been rapid development in cloud computing technology, resulting in AI’s implementation into cloud computing to enhance and optimize the technology service rendered. The deployment of AI in cloud-based applications has brought about autonomous computing, whereby systems achieve stated results without human intervention. Despite the amount of research into autonomous computing, work incorporating AI/ML into cloud computing to enhance its performance and resource allocation remains a fundamental challenge. This paper highlights different manifestations, roles, trends, and challenges related to AI-based cloud computing models. This work reviews and highlights investigations and progress in the domain. Future directions are suggested for leveraging AI/ML in next-generation computing for emerging computing paradigms such as cloud environments. Adopting AI-based algorithms and techniques to increase operational efficiency, cost savings, automation, reducing energy consumption and solving complex cloud computing issues are the major findings outlined in this paper.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, AI, cloud computing, deep learning, machine learning, ML, internet of things, IoT.

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413 A Blockchain-Based Privacy-Preserving Physical Delivery System

Authors: Shahin Zanbaghi, Saeed Samet

Abstract:

The internet has transformed the way we shop. Previously, most of our purchases came in the form of shopping trips to a nearby store. Now, it is as easy as clicking a mouse. We have to be constantly vigilant about our personal information. In this work, our proposed approach is to encrypt the information printed on the physical packages, which include personal information in plain text using a symmetric encryption algorithm; then, we store that encrypted information into a Blockchain network rather than storing them in companies or corporations centralized databases. We present, implement and assess a blockchain-based system using Ethereum smart contracts. We present detailed algorithms that explain the details of our smart contract. We present the security, cost and performance analysis of the proposed method. Our work indicates that the proposed solution is economically attainable and provides data integrity, security, transparency and data traceability.

Keywords: Blockchain, Ethereum, smart contract, commit-reveal scheme.

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412 Net-Trainer-ST: A Swiss Army Knife for Pentesting, Based on Single Board Computer, for Cybersecurity Professionals and Hobbyists

Authors: K. Hołda, D. Śliwa, K. Daniec

Abstract:

This article was created as part of the developed master's thesis. It attempts to present a developed device, which will support the work of specialists dealing with broadly understood cybersecurity terms. The device is contrived to automate security tests. In addition, it simulates potential cyberattacks in the most realistic way possible, without causing permanent damage to the network, in order to maximize the quality of the subsequent corrections to the tested network systems. The proposed solution is a fully operational prototype created from commonly available electronic components and a single board computer. The focus of the article is not only put on the hardware part of the device but also on the theoretical and applicatory way in which implemented cybersecurity tests operate and examples of their results.

Keywords: Raspberry Pi, ethernet, automated cybersecurity tests, ARP, DNS, backdoor, TCP, password sniffing.

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411 A Bibliometric Assessment on Sustainability and Clustering

Authors: Fernanda M. Assef, Maria Teresinha A. Steiner, David Gabriel F. de Barros

Abstract:

Review researches are useful in terms of analysis of research problems. Between the types of review documents, we commonly find bibliometric studies. This type of application often helps the global visualization of a research problem and helps academics worldwide to understand the context of a research area better. In this document, a bibliometric view surrounding clustering techniques and sustainability problems is presented. The authors aimed at which issues mostly use clustering techniques and even which sustainability issue would be more impactful on today’s moment of research. During the bibliometric analysis, we found 10 different groups of research in clustering applications for sustainability issues: Energy; Environmental; Non-urban Planning; Sustainable Development; Sustainable Supply Chain; Transport; Urban Planning; Water; Waste Disposal; and, Others. Moreover, by analyzing the citations of each group, it was discovered that the Environmental group could be classified as the most impactful research cluster in the area mentioned. After the content analysis of each paper classified in the environmental group, it was found that the k-means technique is preferred for solving sustainability problems with clustering methods since it appeared the most amongst the documents. The authors finally conclude that a bibliometric assessment could help indicate a gap of researches on waste disposal – which was the group with the least amount of publications – and the most impactful research on environmental problems.

Keywords: Bibliometric assessment, clustering, sustainability, territorial partitioning.

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410 Model-Free Distributed Control of Dynamical Systems

Authors: Javad Khazaei, Rick S. Blum

Abstract:

Distributed control is an efficient and flexible approach for coordination of multi-agent systems. One of the main challenges in designing a distributed controller is identifying the governing dynamics of the dynamical systems. Data-driven system identification is currently undergoing a revolution. With the availability of high-fidelity measurements and historical data, model-free identification of dynamical systems can facilitate the control design without tedious modeling of high-dimensional and/or nonlinear systems. This paper develops a distributed control design using consensus theory for linear and nonlinear dynamical systems using sparse identification of system dynamics. Compared with existing consensus designs that heavily rely on knowing the detailed system dynamics, the proposed model-free design can accurately capture the dynamics of the system with available measurements and input data and provide guaranteed performance in consensus and tracking problems. Heterogeneous damped oscillators are chosen as examples of dynamical system for validation purposes.

Keywords: Consensus tracking, distributed control, model-free control, sparse identification of dynamical systems.

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409 A Global Framework to Manage the Digital Transformation Process in the Post-COVID Era

Authors: Driss Kettani

Abstract:

In this paper, we shed light on the “Digital Divide 2.0,” which we see as COVID-19’s version of the digital divide. We believe that “fighting” against digital divide 2.0 necessitates for a country to be seriously advanced in the global digital transformation that is, naturally, a complex, delicate, costly and long-term process. We build an argument supporting our assumption and, from there, we present the foundations of a computational framework to guide and streamline digital transformation at all levels.

Keywords: Digital divide 2.0, digital transformation, ICTs for development, computational outcomes assessment.

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408 Seamless Handover in Urban 5G-UAV Systems Using Entropy Weighted Method

Authors: Anirudh Sunil Warrier, Saba Al-Rubaye, Dimitrios Panagiotakopoulos, Gokhan Inalhan, Antonios Tsourdos

Abstract:

The demand for increased data transfer rate and network traffic capacity has given rise to the concept of heterogeneous networks. Heterogeneous networks are wireless networks, consisting of devices using different underlying radio access technologies (RAT). For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) this enhanced data rate and network capacity are even more critical especially in their applications of medicine, delivery missions and military. In an urban heterogeneous network environment, the UAVs must be able switch seamlessly from one base station (BS) to another for maintaining a reliable link. Therefore, seamless handover in such urban environments has become a major challenge. In this paper, a scheme to achieve seamless handover is developed, an algorithm based on Received Signal Strength (RSS) criterion for network selection is used and Entropy Weighted Method (EWM) is implemented for decision making. Seamless handover using EWM decision-making is demonstrated successfully for a UAV moving across fifth generation (5G) and long-term evolution (LTE) networks via a simulation level analysis. Thus, a solution for UAV-5G communication, specifically the mobility challenge in heterogeneous networks is solved and this work could act as step forward in making UAV-5G architecture integration a possibility.

Keywords: Air to ground, A2G, fifth generation, 5G, handover, mobility, unmanned aerial vehicle, UAV, urban environments.

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407 Design of a Strain Sensor Based on Cascaded Fiber Bragg Grating for Remote Sensing Monitoring

Authors: Arafat A. A. Shabaneh

Abstract:

Harsh environments require developed detection by an optical communication system to ensure a high level of security and safety. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are emerging sensing instruments that respond to variations in strain and temperature by varying wavelengths. In this study, a cascaded uniform FBG is designed as a strain sensor for 6 km length at 1550 nm wavelength with 30 °C temperature by analyzing dynamic strain and wavelength shifts. The FBG is placed in a small segment of an optical fiber that reflects light with a specific wavelength and passes on the remaining wavelengths. Consequently, periodic alteration occurs in the refractive index in the fiber core. The alteration in the modal index of the fiber is produced by strain effects on a Bragg wavelength. When the developed sensor is exposed to the strain (0.01) of the cascaded uniform FBG, the wavelength shifts by 0.0000144383 μm. The sensing accuracy of the developed sensor is 0.0012. Simulation results show the reliability and effectiveness of the strain monitoring sensor for remote sensing application.

Keywords: Remote sensing, cascaded fiber Bragg grating, strain sensor, wavelength shift.

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406 The Use of Artificial Intelligence in Digital Forensics and Incident Response in a Constrained Environment

Authors: Dipo Dunsin, Mohamed C. Ghanem, Karim Ouazzane

Abstract:

Digital investigators often have a hard time spotting evidence in digital information. It has become hard to determine which source of proof relates to a specific investigation. A growing concern is that the various processes, technology, and specific procedures used in the digital investigation are not keeping up with criminal developments. Therefore, criminals are taking advantage of these weaknesses to commit further crimes. In digital forensics investigations, artificial intelligence (AI) is invaluable in identifying crime. Providing objective data and conducting an assessment is the goal of digital forensics and digital investigation, which will assist in developing a plausible theory that can be presented as evidence in court. This research paper aims at developing a multiagent framework for digital investigations using specific intelligent software agents (ISAs). The agents communicate to address particular tasks jointly and keep the same objectives in mind during each task. The rules and knowledge contained within each agent are dependent on the investigation type. A criminal investigation is classified quickly and efficiently using the case-based reasoning (CBR) technique. The proposed framework development is implemented using the Java Agent Development Framework, Eclipse, Postgres repository, and a rule engine for agent reasoning. The proposed framework was tested using the Lone Wolf image files and datasets. Experiments were conducted using various sets of ISAs and VMs. There was a significant reduction in the time taken for the Hash Set Agent to execute. As a result of loading the agents, 5% of the time was lost, as the File Path Agent prescribed deleting 1,510, while the Timeline Agent found multiple executable files. In comparison, the integrity check carried out on the Lone Wolf image file using a digital forensic tool kit took approximately 48 minutes (2,880 ms), whereas the MADIK framework accomplished this in 16 minutes (960 ms). The framework is integrated with Python, allowing for further integration of other digital forensic tools, such as AccessData Forensic Toolkit (FTK), Wireshark, Volatility, and Scapy.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, computer science, criminal investigation, digital forensics.

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405 WormHex: A Volatile Memory Analysis Tool for Retrieval of Social Media Evidence

Authors: Norah Almubairik, Wadha Almattar, Amani Alqarni

Abstract:

Social media applications are increasingly being used in our everyday communications. These applications utilise end-to-end encryption mechanisms which make them suitable tools for criminals to exchange messages. These messages are preserved in the volatile memory until the device is restarted. Therefore, volatile forensics has become an important branch of digital forensics. In this study, the WormHex tool was developed to inspect the memory dump files for Windows and Mac based workstations. The tool supports digital investigators by enabling them to extract valuable data written in Arabic and English through web-based WhatsApp and Twitter applications. The results confirm that social media applications write their data into the memory, regardless of the operating system running the application, with there being no major differences between Windows and Mac.

Keywords: Volatile memory, REGEX, digital forensics, memory acquisition

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404 Security Strengths and Weaknesses of Blockchain Smart Contract System: A Survey

Authors: Malaw Ndiaye, Karim Konate

Abstract:

Smart contracts are computer protocols that facilitate, verify, and execute the negotiation or execution of a contract, or that render a contractual term unnecessary. Blockchain and smart contracts can be used to facilitate almost any financial transaction. Thanks to these smart contracts, the settlement of dividends and coupons could be automated. Smart contracts have become lucrative and profitable targets for attackers because they can hold a great amount of money. Smart contracts, although widely used in blockchain technology, are far from perfect due to security concerns. Although a series of attacks are listed, there is a lack of discussions and proposals on improving security. This survey takes stock of smart contract security from a more comprehensive perspective by correlating the level of vulnerability and systematic review of security levels in smart contracts.

Keywords: Blockchain, bitcoin, smart Contract, criminal smart contract, security.

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403 A Business-to-Business Collaboration System That Promotes Data Utilization While Encrypting Information on the Blockchain

Authors: Hiroaki Nasu, Ryota Miyamoto, Yuta Kodera, Yasuyuki Nogami

Abstract:

To promote Industry 4.0 and Society 5.0 and so on, it is important to connect and share data so that every member can trust it. Blockchain (BC) technology is currently attracting attention as the most advanced tool and has been used in the financial field and so on. However, the data collaboration using BC has not progressed sufficiently among companies on the supply chain of the manufacturing industry that handle sensitive data such as product quality, manufacturing conditions, etc. There are two main reasons why data utilization is not sufficiently advanced in the industrial supply chain. The first reason is that manufacturing information is top secret and a source for companies to generate profits. It is difficult to disclose data even between companies with transactions in the supply chain. Blockchain mechanism such as Bitcoin using Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) requires plaintext to be shared between companies in order to verify the identity of the company that sent the data. Another reason is that the merits (scenarios) of collaboration data between companies are not specifically specified in the industrial supply chain. For these problems, this paper proposes a Business to Business (B2B) collaboration system using homomorphic encryption and BC technique. Using the proposed system, each company on the supply chain can exchange confidential information on encrypted data and utilize the data for their own business. In addition, this paper considers a scenario focusing on quality data, which was difficult to collaborate because it is top-secret. In this scenario, we show an implementation scheme and a benefit of concrete data collaboration by proposing a comparison protocol that can grasp the change in quality while hiding the numerical value of quality data.

Keywords: Business to business data collaboration, industrial supply chain, blockchain, homomorphic encryption.

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402 Integrating Blockchain and Internet of Things Platforms: An Empirical Study on Immunization Cold Chain

Authors: F. Abujalala, A. Elmangoush, M. Ashibani

Abstract:

The adoption of Blockchain technology introduces the possibility to decentralize cold chain systems. This adaptation enhances them to be more efficient, accessible, verifiable, and data security. Additionally, the Internet of Things (IoT) concept is considered as an added-value to various application domains. Cargo tracking and cold chain are a few to name. However, the security of the IoT transactions and integrated devices remains one of the key challenges to the IoT application’s success. Consequently, Blockchain technology and its consensus protocols have been used to solve many information security problems. In this paper, we discuss the advantages of integrating Blockchain technology into IoT platform to improve security and provide an overview of existing literature on integrating Blockchain and IoT platforms. Then, we present the immunization cold chain solution as a use-case that could be applied to any critical goods based on integrating Hyperledger fabric platform and IoT platform.

Keywords: Blockchain, Hyperledger fabric, internet of things, security, traceability.

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401 A Real-Time Monitoring System of the Supply Chain Conditions, Products and Means of Transport

Authors: Dimitrios E. Kontaxis, George Litainas, Dimitrios P. Ptochos, Vaggelis P. Ptochos, Sotirios P. Ptochos, Dimitrios Beletsis, Konstantinos Kritikakis, Milan Sunaric

Abstract:

Real-time monitoring of the supply chain conditions and procedures is a critical element for the optimal coordination and safety of the deliveries, as well as for the minimization of the delivery time and cost. Real time monitoring requires IoT data streams, which are related to the conditions of the products and the means of transport (e.g., location, temperature/humidity conditions, kinematic state, ambient light conditions, etc.). These streams are generated by battery-based IoT tracking devices, equipped with appropriate sensors, and are transmitted to a cloud-based back-end system. Proper handling and processing of the IoT data streams, using predictive and artificial intelligence algorithms, can provide significant and useful results, which can be exploited by the supply chain stakeholders in order to enhance their financial benefits, as well as the efficiency, security, transparency, coordination and sustainability of the supply chain procedures. The technology, the features and the characteristics of a complete, proprietary system, including hardware, firmware and software tools - developed in the context of a co-funded R&D program - are addressed and presented in this paper. 

Keywords: IoT embedded electronics, real-time monitoring, tracking device, sensor platform

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400 Bit Error Rate Monitoring for Automatic Bias Control of Quadrature Amplitude Modulators

Authors: Naji Ali Albakay, Abdulrahman Alothaim, Isa Barshushi

Abstract:

The most common quadrature amplitude modulator (QAM) applies two Mach-Zehnder Modulators (MZM) and one phase shifter to generate high order modulation format. The bias of MZM changes over time due to temperature, vibration, and aging factors. The change in the biasing causes distortion to the generated QAM signal which leads to deterioration of bit error rate (BER) performance. Therefore, it is critical to be able to lock MZM’s Q point to the required operating point for good performance. We propose a technique for automatic bias control (ABC) of QAM transmitter using BER measurements and gradient descent optimization algorithm. The proposed technique is attractive because it uses the pertinent metric, BER, which compensates for bias drifting independently from other system variations such as laser source output power. The proposed scheme performance and its operating principles are simulated using OptiSystem simulation software for 4-QAM and 16-QAM transmitters.

Keywords: Automatic bias control, optical fiber communication, optical modulation, optical devices.

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399 Improving Taint Analysis of Android Applications Using Finite State Machines

Authors: Assad Maalouf, Lunjin Lu, James Lynott

Abstract:

We present a taint analysis that can automatically detect when string operations result in a string that is free of taints, where all the tainted patterns have been removed. This is an improvement on the conservative behavior of previous taint analyzers, where a string operation on a tainted string always leads to a tainted string unless the operation is manually marked as a sanitizer. The taint analysis is built on top of a string analysis that uses finite state automata to approximate the sets of values that string variables can take during the execution of a program. The proposed approach has been implemented as an extension of FlowDroid and experimental results show that the resulting taint analyzer is much more precise than the original FlowDroid.

Keywords: Android, static analysis, string analysis, taint analysis.

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398 Automata-Based String Analysis for Detecting Malware in Android Programs

Authors: Assad Maalouf, Lunjin Lu, James Lynott

Abstract:

We design and implement a precise model of string operations using finite state machine transformers and state transformers to approximate the values string variables can take throughout the execution of the program.We use our model to analyze Android program string variables. Our experimental results show that our string analysis is very efficient at detecting the contextual effect of string operations on the string variables. Our model proved to be very useful when it came to verifying statements about the string variables of the program.

Keywords: Abstract interpretation, android, static analysis, string analysis.

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397 Impact of Weather Conditions on Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing over Gamma Gamma Channel

Authors: Muhammad Sameer Ahmed, Piotr Remlein, Tansal Gucluoglu

Abstract:

The technique called as Generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) used in the free space optical channel can be a good option for implementation free space optical communication systems. This technique has several strengths e.g. good spectral efficiency, low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), adaptability and low co-channel interference. In this paper, the impact of weather conditions such as haze, rain and fog on GFDM over the gamma-gamma channel model is discussed. A Trade off between link distance and system performance under intense weather conditions is also analysed. The symbol error probability (SEP) of GFDM over the gamma-gamma turbulence channel is derived and verified with the computer simulations.

Keywords: Free space optics, generalized frequency division multiplexing, weather conditions, gamma gamma distribution.

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396 SNR Classification Using Multiple CNNs

Authors: Thinh Ngo, Paul Rad, Brian Kelley

Abstract:

Noise estimation is essential in today wireless systems for power control, adaptive modulation, interference suppression and quality of service. Deep learning (DL) has already been applied in the physical layer for modulation and signal classifications. Unacceptably low accuracy of less than 50% is found to undermine traditional application of DL classification for SNR prediction. In this paper, we use divide-and-conquer algorithm and classifier fusion method to simplify SNR classification and therefore enhances DL learning and prediction. Specifically, multiple CNNs are used for classification rather than a single CNN. Each CNN performs a binary classification of a single SNR with two labels: less than, greater than or equal. Together, multiple CNNs are combined to effectively classify over a range of SNR values from −20 ≤ SNR ≤ 32 dB.We use pre-trained CNNs to predict SNR over a wide range of joint channel parameters including multiple Doppler shifts (0, 60, 120 Hz), power-delay profiles, and signal-modulation types (QPSK,16QAM,64-QAM). The approach achieves individual SNR prediction accuracy of 92%, composite accuracy of 70% and prediction convergence one order of magnitude faster than that of traditional estimation.

Keywords: Classification, classifier fusion, CNN, Deep Learning, prediction, SNR.

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395 Fast Approximate Bayesian Contextual Cold Start Learning (FAB-COST)

Authors: Jack R. McKenzie, Peter A. Appleby, Thomas House, Neil Walton

Abstract:

Cold-start is a notoriously difficult problem which can occur in recommendation systems, and arises when there is insufficient information to draw inferences for users or items. To address this challenge, a contextual bandit algorithm – the Fast Approximate Bayesian Contextual Cold Start Learning algorithm (FAB-COST) – is proposed, which is designed to provide improved accuracy compared to the traditionally used Laplace approximation in the logistic contextual bandit, while controlling both algorithmic complexity and computational cost. To this end, FAB-COST uses a combination of two moment projection variational methods: Expectation Propagation (EP), which performs well at the cold start, but becomes slow as the amount of data increases; and Assumed Density Filtering (ADF), which has slower growth of computational cost with data size but requires more data to obtain an acceptable level of accuracy. By switching from EP to ADF when the dataset becomes large, it is able to exploit their complementary strengths. The empirical justification for FAB-COST is presented, and systematically compared to other approaches on simulated data. In a benchmark against the Laplace approximation on real data consisting of over 670, 000 impressions from autotrader.co.uk, FAB-COST demonstrates at one point increase of over 16% in user clicks. On the basis of these results, it is argued that FAB-COST is likely to be an attractive approach to cold-start recommendation systems in a variety of contexts.

Keywords: Cold-start, expectation propagation, multi-armed bandits, Thompson sampling, variational inference.

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394 Discussing Embedded versus Central Machine Learning in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Anne-Lena Kampen, Øivind Kure

Abstract:

Machine learning (ML) can be implemented in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) as a central solution or distributed solution where the ML is embedded in the nodes. Embedding improves privacy and may reduce prediction delay. In addition, the number of transmissions is reduced. However, quality factors such as prediction accuracy, fault detection efficiency and coordinated control of the overall system suffer. Here, we discuss and highlight the trade-offs that should be considered when choosing between embedding and centralized ML, especially for multihop networks. In addition, we present estimations that demonstrate the energy trade-offs between embedded and centralized ML. Although the total network energy consumption is lower with central prediction, it makes the network more prone for partitioning due to the high forwarding load on the one-hop nodes. Moreover, the continuous improvements in the number of operations per joule for embedded devices will move the energy balance toward embedded prediction.

Keywords: Central ML, embedded machine learning, energy consumption, local ML, Wireless Sensor Networks, WSN.

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393 AniMoveMineR: Animal Behavior Exploratory Analysis Using Association Rules Mining

Authors: Suelane Garcia Fontes, Silvio Luiz Stanzani, Pedro L. Pizzigatti Corrła Ronaldo G. Morato

Abstract:

Environmental changes and major natural disasters are most prevalent in the world due to the damage that humanity has caused to nature and these damages directly affect the lives of animals. Thus, the study of animal behavior and their interactions with the environment can provide knowledge that guides researchers and public agencies in preservation and conservation actions. Exploratory analysis of animal movement can determine the patterns of animal behavior and with technological advances the ability of animals to be tracked and, consequently, behavioral studies have been expanded. There is a lot of research on animal movement and behavior, but we note that a proposal that combines resources and allows for exploratory analysis of animal movement and provide statistical measures on individual animal behavior and its interaction with the environment is missing. The contribution of this paper is to present the framework AniMoveMineR, a unified solution that aggregates trajectory analysis and data mining techniques to explore animal movement data and provide a first step in responding questions about the animal individual behavior and their interactions with other animals over time and space. We evaluated the framework through the use of monitored jaguar data in the city of Miranda Pantanal, Brazil, in order to verify if the use of AniMoveMineR allows to identify the interaction level between these jaguars. The results were positive and provided indications about the individual behavior of jaguars and about which jaguars have the highest or lowest correlation.

Keywords: Data mining, data science, trajectory, animal behavior.

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392 The Use of Mobile Phones by Refugees to Create Social Connectedness: A Literature Review

Authors: Sarah Vuningoma, Maria Rosa Lorini, Wallace Chigona

Abstract:

Mobile phones are one of the main tools for promoting the wellbeing of people and supporting the integration of communities on the margins such as refugees. Information and Communication Technology has the potential to contribute towards reducing isolation, loneliness, and to assist in improving interpersonal relations and fostering acculturation processes. Therefore, the use of mobile phones by refugees might contribute to their social connectedness. This paper aims to demonstrate how existing literature has shown how the use of mobile phones by refugees should engender social connectedness amongst the refugees. Data for the study are drawn from existing literature; we searched a number of electronic databases for papers published between 2010 and 2019. The main findings of the study relate to the use of mobile phones by refugees to (i) create a sense of belonging, (ii) maintain relationships, and (iii) advance the acculturation process. The analysis highlighted a gap in the research over refugees and social connectedness. In particular, further studies should consider evaluating the differences between those who have a refugee permit, those who are waiting for the refugee permit, and those whose request was denied.

Keywords: Belonging, mobile phones, refugees, social connectedness.

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391 Assessment of the Administration and Services of Public Access Computers in Academic Libraries in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: Usman Ahmed Adam, Umar Ibrahim, Ezra S. Gbaje

Abstract:

This study is posed to explore the practice of Public Access Computers (PACs) in academic libraries in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study aimed to determine the computers and other tools available, their services and challenges of the practices. Three questions were framed to identify number of public computers and tools available, their services and problems faced during the practice. The study used qualitative research design along with semi-constructed interview and observation as tools for data collection. Descriptive analysis was employed to analyze the data. The sample size of the study comprises 52 librarian and IT staff from the seven academic institutions in Kaduna State. The findings revealed that, PACs were provided for access to the Internet, digital resources, library catalogue and training services. The study further explored that, despite the limit number of the computers, users were not allowed to enjoy many services. The study recommends that libraries in Kaduna state should provide more public computers to be able to cover the population of their users; libraries should allow users to use the computers without limitations and restrictions.

Keywords: Academic libraries, computers in the library, digital libraries, public computers.

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390 Digital Transformation as the Subject of the Knowledge Model of the Discursive Space

Authors: Rafal Maciag

Abstract:

Due to the development of the current civilization, one must create suitable models of its pervasive massive phenomena. Such a phenomenon is the digital transformation, which has a substantial number of disciplined, methodical interpretations forming the diversified reflection. This reflection could be understood pragmatically as the current temporal, a local differential state of knowledge. The model of the discursive space is proposed as a model for the analysis and description of this knowledge. Discursive space is understood as an autonomous multidimensional space where separate discourses traverse specific trajectories of what can be presented in multidimensional parallel coordinate system. Discursive space built on the world of facts preserves the complex character of that world. Digital transformation as a discursive space has a relativistic character that means that at the same time, it is created by the dynamic discourses and these discourses are molded by the shape of this space.

Keywords: Knowledge, digital transformation, discourse, discursive space, complexity.

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389 DocPro: A Framework for Processing Semantic and Layout Information in Business Documents

Authors: Ming-Jen Huang, Chun-Fang Huang, Chiching Wei

Abstract:

With the recent advance of the deep neural network, we observe new applications of NLP (natural language processing) and CV (computer vision) powered by deep neural networks for processing business documents. However, creating a real-world document processing system needs to integrate several NLP and CV tasks, rather than treating them separately. There is a need to have a unified approach for processing documents containing textual and graphical elements with rich formats, diverse layout arrangement, and distinct semantics. In this paper, a framework that fulfills this unified approach is presented. The framework includes a representation model definition for holding the information generated by various tasks and specifications defining the coordination between these tasks. The framework is a blueprint for building a system that can process documents with rich formats, styles, and multiple types of elements. The flexible and lightweight design of the framework can help build a system for diverse business scenarios, such as contract monitoring and reviewing.

Keywords: Document processing, framework, formal definition, machine learning.

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388 A Design of Beam-Steerable Antenna Array for Use in Future Mobile Handsets

Authors: Naser Ojaroudi Parchin, Atta Ullah, Haleh Jahanbakhsh Basherlou, Raed A. Abd-Alhameed, Peter S. Excell

Abstract:

A design of beam-steerable antenna array for the future cellular communication (5G) is presented. The proposed design contains eight elements of compact end-fire antennas arranged on the top edge of smartphone printed circuit board (PCB). Configuration of the antenna element consists of the conductive patterns on the top and bottom copper foil layers and a substrate layer with a via-hole. The simulated results including input-impedance and also fundamental radiation properties have been presented and discussed. The impedance bandwidth (S11 ≤ -10 dB) of the antenna spans from 17.5 to 21 GHz (more than 3 GHz bandwidth) with a resonance at 19 GHz. The antenna exhibits end-fire (directional) radiation beams with wide-angle scanning property and could be used for the future 5G beam-forming. Furthermore, the characteristics of the array design in the vicinity of user-hand are studied.

Keywords: Beam-steering, end-fire radiation mode, mobile-phone antenna, phased array.

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387 Dual-Polarized Multi-Antenna System for Massive MIMO Cellular Communications

Authors: Naser Ojaroudi Parchin, Haleh Jahanbakhsh Basherlou, Raed A. Abd-Alhameed, Peter S. Excell

Abstract:

In this paper, a multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) antenna design with polarization and radiation pattern diversity is presented for future smartphones. The configuration of the design consists of four double-fed circular-ring antenna elements located at different edges of the printed circuit board (PCB) with an FR-4 substrate and overall dimension of 75×150 mm2. The antenna elements are fed by 50-Ohm microstrip-lines and provide polarization and radiation pattern diversity function due to the orthogonal placement of their feed lines. A good impedance bandwidth (S11 ≤ -10 dB) of 3.4-3.8 GHz has been obtained for the smartphone antenna array. However, for S11 ≤ -6 dB, this value is 3.25-3.95 GHz. More than 3 dB realized gain and 80% total efficiency are achieved for the single-element radiator. The presented design not only provides the required radiation coverage but also generates the polarization diversity characteristic.

Keywords: Cellular communications, MIMO systems, mobile-phone antenna, polarization diversity.

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