Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 245

Search results for: zero-crossing trigger

245 Low Trigger Voltage Silicon Controlled Rectifier Stacking Structure with High Holding Voltage for High Voltage Applications

Authors: Kyoung-Il Do, Jun-Geol Park, Hee-Guk Chae, Jeong-Yun Seo, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

A SCR stacking structure is proposed to have improved Latch-up immunity. In comparison with conventional SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), the proposed Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit has a lower trigger characteristic by using the LVTSCR (Low Voltage Trigger) structure. Also the proposed ESD protection circuit has improved Holding Voltage Characteristic by using N-stack technique. These characteristics enable to have latch-up immunity in operating conditions. The simulations are accomplished by using the Synopsys TCAD. It has a trigger voltage of 8.9V and a holding voltage of 1.8V in a single structure. And when applying the stack technique, 2-stack has the holding voltage of 3.8V and 3-stack has the holding voltage of 5.1 V.

Keywords: electrostatic discharge (ESD), low voltage trigger silicon controlled rectifier (LVTSCR), MVTSCR, power clamp, silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), latch-up

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
244 Comparison of Sports Massage and Stretching along the Cold on Pain Intensity in Elite Female Volleyball Players with Trigger Points in Shoulder Girdle Region

Authors: Sahar Mohammadyari Ghareh Bolagh, Behnaz Seyedi Aghdam, Jalal Shamlou

Abstract:

This study was done to compare the effects of sports massage and stretching along the cold on pain intensity in elite female volleyball players with trigger points in shoulder girdle region. This study was conducted on 32 female volleyball players with latent trigger points in shoulder girdle region. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups: sports massage (n=11) stretching along the cold (n=11) and control group (n=10). One session treatment program during 15 minutes was performed. Pain intensity with VAS + algometer was assessed before and after intervention and improved in both of massage and cold groups. After treatment there were no significant difference between two treatment groups (P < 0. 050). Results of present research showed sports massage and stretching along the cold were effective on pain intensity of myofascial trigger points.

Keywords: sports massage، stretching along the cold، pain intensity، trigger points, elite, volleyball players, shoulder girdle region

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
243 Effect of Manual Progressive Ischemic Pressure versus Post Isometric Facilitation in the Treatment of Latent Myofascial Trigger Points in Mechanical Neck Pain

Authors: Mohamed M. Diab, Fahmy E. Mohamed, Alaa Balbaa

Abstract:

Background: Myofascial pain syndrome a common type of non-articular musculoskeletal pain, is a condition associated with regional pain and muscle tenderness characterized by the presence of hypersensitive nodules. Objectives: the purpose of this study is to compare between the effects of manual progressive ischemic pressure versus the effect of post isometric facilitation in the treatment of Rhomboid latent myofascial trigger points. Methods: six patients had participated in this study. Patients divided into two groups. Group A treated by manual progressive ischemic pressure and traditional physical therapy program. Group B treated by post isometric facilitation and traditional physical therapy program. Treatment program was for 6 sessions over two week’s period. Result: Statistical analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in post treatment from pretreatment in pain severity (VAS) in myofascial trigger points with Rhomboid muscles) and Pain pressure threshold (PPT) for tenderness at both groups (A,B). Conclusion: ischemic pressure technique appear to be no more effective than post isometric facilitation in treatment of rhomboids latent myofacial trigger point.

Keywords: Rhmoiboid trigger point, myofacila trigger point, ischemic pressure, post isometric facilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
242 Analysis of Stacked SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit with Low Trigger Voltage and Latch-Up Immunity

Authors: Jun-Geol Park, Kyoung-Il Do, Min-Ju Kwon, Kyung-Hyun Park, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed the SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier)-based ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection circuit for latch-up immunity. The proposed circuit has a lower trigger voltage and a higher holding voltage characteristic by using the zener diode structure. These characteristics prevent latch-up problem in normal operating conditions. The proposed circuit was analyzed to figure out the electrical characteristics by the variations of design parameters D1, D2 and stack technology to obtain the n-fold electrical characteristics. The simulations are accomplished by using the Synopsys TCAD simulator. When using the stack technology, 2-stack has the holding voltage of 6.9V and 3-stack has the holding voltage of 10.9V.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, trigger voltage, holding voltage

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
241 Using Group Concept Mapping to Identify a Pharmacy-Based Trigger Tool to Detect Adverse Drug Events

Authors: Rodchares Hanrinth, Theerapong Srisil, Peeraya Sriphong, Pawich Paktipat

Abstract:

The trigger tool is the low-cost, low-tech method to detect adverse events through clues called triggers. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) has developed the Global Trigger Tool for measuring and preventing adverse events. However, this tool is not specific for detecting adverse drug events. The pharmacy-based trigger tool is needed to detect adverse drug events (ADEs). Group concept mapping is an effective method for conceptualizing various ideas from diverse stakeholders. This technique was used to identify a pharmacy-based trigger to detect adverse drug events (ADEs). The aim of this study was to involve the pharmacists in conceptualizing, developing, and prioritizing a feasible trigger tool to detect adverse drug events in a provincial hospital, the northeastern part of Thailand. The study was conducted during the 6-month period between April 1 and September 30, 2017. Study participants involved 20 pharmacists (17 hospital pharmacists and 3 pharmacy lecturers) engaging in three concept mapping workshops. In this meeting, the concept mapping technique created by Trochim, a highly constructed qualitative group technic for idea generating and sharing, was used to produce and construct participants' views on what triggers were potential to detect ADEs. During the workshops, participants (n = 20) were asked to individually rate the feasibility and potentiality of each trigger and to group them into relevant categories to enable multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. The outputs of analysis included the trigger list, cluster list, point map, point rating map, cluster map, and cluster rating map. The three workshops together resulted in 21 different triggers that were structured in a framework forming 5 clusters: drug allergy, drugs induced diseases, dosage adjustment in renal diseases, potassium concerning, and drug overdose. The first cluster is drug allergy such as the doctor’s orders for dexamethasone injection combined with chlorpheniramine injection. Later, the diagnosis of drug-induced hepatitis in a patient taking anti-tuberculosis drugs is one trigger in the ‘drugs induced diseases’ cluster. Then, for the third cluster, the doctor’s orders for enalapril combined with ibuprofen in a patient with chronic kidney disease is the example of a trigger. The doctor’s orders for digoxin in a patient with hypokalemia is a trigger in a cluster. Finally, the doctor’s orders for naloxone with narcotic overdose was classified as a trigger in a cluster. This study generated triggers that are similar to some of IHI Global trigger tool, especially in the medication module such as drug allergy and drug overdose. However, there are some specific aspects of this tool, including drug-induced diseases, dosage adjustment in renal diseases, and potassium concerning which do not contain in any trigger tools. The pharmacy-based trigger tool is suitable for pharmacists in hospitals to detect potential adverse drug events using clues of triggers.

Keywords: adverse drug events, concept mapping, hospital, pharmacy-based trigger tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
240 Effect of Unilateral Unoperated Ovarian Endometrioma on Responsiveness to Hyperstimulation

Authors: Abdelmaguid Ramzy, Mohamed Bahaa

Abstract:

Introduction: The effects of ovarian endometrioma on fertility outcomes with IVF have been always related to poor outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the effect of unilateral unoperated ovarian endometrioma < 2cm on the number of developing follicles and compare them with the contralateral ovary as a control. Design: Retrospective case control study. Setting: KasrEl-Aini IVF center. Patient(s): We studied 32 women with unilateral endometrioma who underwent their first IVF cycle. Methods: 32 Patients aged between 20-35 years selected for IVF who were diagnosed with one unilateral endometrioma (diameter <2 cm) and who did not undergo previous ovarian surgery were retrospectively identified. The number of follicles > 17 mm during folliculometry on the day of HCG trigger in the ovary that contained endometrioma were compared with those from the contralateral ovary. They were all hyperstimulated using long protocol with (225-300 IU) gonadotrophins. Primary outcome: The number of follicles > 17 mm during folliculometry on the day of HCG trigger. Result(s): The mean ± SD age, Day 3 serum FSH and LH were 27± 3.7 years, 5.8 ± 1.6 IU/ml and 4.5 ± 1.7 IU/ml respectively. There was no significant difference in the number of follicles > 17 mm on the day of HCG trigger in the ovary that contained endometrioma (4.4 ±2.5) and in the opposite ovary (4.5 ± 2.8) (P= 0.48). Conclusion: The presence of ovarian endometrioma in a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle for IVF treatment is not associated with a reduced number of follicles > 17 mm during folliculometry on the day of HCG trigger.

Keywords: endometrioma, folliculometry, hyperstimulation, fertility

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
239 Analysis of Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based Electrostatic Discharge Protection Circuits with Electrical Characteristics for the 5V Power Clamp

Authors: Jun-Geol Park, Kyoung-Il Do, Min-Ju Kwon, Kyung-Hyun Park, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

This paper analyzed the SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier)-based ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection circuits with the turn-on time characteristics. The structures are the LVTSCR (Low Voltage Triggered SCR), the ZTSCR (Zener Triggered SCR) and the PTSCR (P-Substrate Triggered SCR). The three structures are for the 5V power clamp. In general, the structures with the low trigger voltage structure can have the fast turn-on characteristics than other structures. All the ESD protection circuits have the low trigger voltage by using the N+ bridge region of LVTSCR, by using the zener diode structure of ZTSCR, by increasing the trigger current of PTSCR. The simulation for the comparison with the turn-on time was conducted by the Synopsys TCAD simulator. As the simulation results, the LVTSCR has the turn-on time of 2.8 ns, ZTSCR of 2.1 ns and the PTSCR of 2.4 ns. The HBM simulation results, however, show that the PTSCR is the more robust structure of 430K in HBM 8kV standard than 450K of LVTSCR and 495K of ZTSCR. Therefore the PTSCR is the most effective ESD protection circuit for the 5V power clamp.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, turn-on time, trigger voltage, power clamp

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
238 Development of Trigger Tool to Identify Adverse Drug Events From Warfarin Administered to Patient Admitted in Medical Wards of Chumphae Hospital

Authors: Puntarikorn Rungrattanakasin

Abstract:

Objectives: To develop the trigger tool to warn about the risk of bleeding as an adverse event from warfarin drug usage during admission in Medical Wards of Chumphae Hospital. Methods: A retrospective study was performed by reviewing the medical records for the patients admitted between June 1st,2020- May 31st, 2021. ADEs were evaluated by Naranjo’s algorithm. The international normalized ratio (INR) and events of bleeding during admissions were collected. Statistical analyses, including Chi-square test and Reciever Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve for optimal INR threshold, were used for the study. Results: Among the 139 admissions, the INR range was found to vary between 0.86-14.91, there was a total of 15 bleeding events, out of which 9 were mild, and 6 were severe. The occurrence of bleeding started whenever the INR was greater than 2.5 and reached the statistical significance (p <0.05), which was in concordance with the ROC curve and yielded 100 % sensitivity and 60% specificity in the detection of a bleeding event. In this regard, the INR greater than 2.5 was considered to be an optimal threshold to alert promptly for bleeding tendency. Conclusions: The INR value of greater than 2.5 (>2.5) would be an appropriate trigger tool to warn of the risk of bleeding for patients taking warfarin in Chumphae Hospital.

Keywords: trigger tool, warfarin, risk of bleeding, medical wards

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
237 The Effect of Physical Therapy on Triceps Surae Myofascial Trigger Point

Authors: M. Simon, O. Peillon, R. Seijas, P. Alvarez, A. Pérez-Bellmunt

Abstract:

Introduction: Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are defined as hyperirritable areas within taut bands of skeletal muscle and classified as either active or latent. Although they could be present in any muscle, the triceps surae is one of the most affected of the lower limb. The aim of this study was described which treatments are more used and their principal results. Study design: We performed a systematic literature search using strategies for the concepts of “Trigger Points and Gastrocnemius and Soleus not Trapezius” in Medline. Articles were screened by authors and included if they contained a rehabilitation intervention of MTrPs in healthy subjects or patients. Results: The treatments used were mostly invasive interventions and only a small part of the studies used non-invasive treatments. The methodology (time o type of intervention, characteristics of treatment, etc.) used in these treatments were frequently undefined. Overall, examination variables varied significantly among the included studies, but they were improving their parameters when the MTrPs were treated. Conclusions: There are a high variety of physical therapy treatments to improve the symptomatology of MTrPs when affect triceps surae muscle. Even so, not a single study analyzing the skeletal muscle contractile parameters (as maximal displacement or delay time) change with MTrPS therapy has been found. The treatments have to better specificity the methodology used in the futures investigation.

Keywords: fascia, myofascial trigger points, physical therapy, triceps surae

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
236 Design and Simulation Interface Circuit for Piezoresistive Accelerometers with Offset Cancellation Ability

Authors: Mohsen Bagheri, Ahmad Afifi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method for read out of the piezoresistive accelerometer sensors. The circuit works based on instrumentation amplifier and it is useful for reducing offset in Wheatstone bridge. The obtained gain is 645 with 1 μv/°c equivalent drift and 1.58 mw power consumption. A Schmitt trigger and multiplexer circuit control output node. A high speed counter is designed in this work. The proposed circuit is designed and simulated in 0.18 μm CMOS technology with 1.8 v power supply.

Keywords: piezoresistive accelerometer, zero offset, Schmitt trigger, bidirectional reversible counter

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
235 Appropriate Depth of Needle Insertion during Rhomboid Major Trigger Point Block

Authors: Seongho Jang

Abstract:

Objective: To investigate an appropriate depth of needle insertion during trigger point injection into the rhomboid major muscle. Methods: Sixty-two patients who visited our department with shoulder or upper back pain participated in this study. The distance between the skin and the rhomboid major muscle (SM) and the distance between the skin and rib (SB) were measured using ultrasonography. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to BMI: BMI less than 23 kg/m2 (underweight or normal group); 23 kg/m2 or more to less than 25 kg/m2 (overweight group); and 25 kg/m2 or more (obese group). The mean ±standard deviation (SD) of SM and SB of each group were calculated. A range between mean+1 SD of SM and the mean-1 SD of SB was defined as a safe margin. Results: The underweight or normal group’s SM, SB, and the safe margin were 1.2±0.2, 2.1±0.4, and 1.4 to 1.7 cm, respectively. The overweight group’s SM and SB were 1.4±0.2 and 2.4±0.9 cm, respectively. The safe margin could not be calculated for this group. The obese group’s SM, SB, and the safe margin were 1.8±0.3, 2.7±0.5, and 2.1 to 2.2 cm, respectively. Conclusion: This study will help us to set the standard depth of safe needle insertion into the rhomboid major muscle in an effective manner without causing any complications.

Keywords: pneumothorax, rhomboid major muscle, trigger point injection, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
234 SCR-Based Advanced ESD Protection Device for Low Voltage Application

Authors: Bo Bae Song, Byung Seok Lee, Hyun young Kim, Chung Kwang Lee, Yong Seo Koo

Abstract:

This paper proposed a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection device to protect low voltage ESD for integrated circuit. The proposed ESD protection device has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR-based ESD protection devices. The proposed ESD protection circuit is verified and compared by TCAD simulation. This paper verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage of 5.79V and high holding voltage of 3.5V through optimization depending on design variables (D1, D2, D3, and D4).

Keywords: ESD, SCR, holding voltage, latch-up

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
233 Analysis of SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit on Holding Voltage Characteristics

Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Jong Ho Nam, Yong Nam Choi, Dae Yeol Yoo, Jung Woo Han

Abstract:

This paper presents a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection circuit for IC. The proposed ESD protection circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR ESD protection circuit. Electrical characteristics of the proposed ESD protection circuit are simulated and analyzed using TCAD simulator. The proposed ESD protection circuit verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage.

Keywords: electro-static discharge (ESD), silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), holding voltage, protection circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
232 Applying the Global Trigger Tool in German Hospitals: A Retrospective Study in Surgery and Neurosurgery

Authors: Mareen Brosterhaus, Antje Hammer, Steffen Kalina, Stefan Grau, Anjali A. Roeth, Hany Ashmawy, Thomas Gross, Marcel Binnebosel, Wolfram T. Knoefel, Tanja Manser

Abstract:

Background: The identification of critical incidents in hospitals is an essential component of improving patient safety. To date, various methods have been used to measure and characterize such critical incidents. These methods are often viewed by physicians and nurses as external quality assurance, and this creates obstacles to the reporting events and the implementation of recommendations in practice. One way to overcome this problem is to use tools that directly involve staff in measuring indicators of quality and safety of care in the department. One such instrument is the global trigger tool (GTT), which helps physicians and nurses identify adverse events by systematically reviewing randomly selected patient records. Based on so-called ‘triggers’ (warning signals), indications of adverse events can be given. While the tool is already used internationally, its implementation in German hospitals has been very limited. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the feasibility and potential of the global trigger tool for identifying adverse events in German hospitals. Methods: A total of 120 patient records were randomly selected from two surgical, and one neurosurgery, departments of three university hospitals in Germany over a period of two months per department between January and July, 2017. The records were reviewed using an adaptation of the German version of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Global Trigger Tool to identify triggers and adverse event rates per 1000 patient days and per 100 admissions. The severity of adverse events was classified using the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention. Results: A total of 53 adverse events were detected in the three departments. This corresponded to adverse event rates of 25.5-72.1 per 1000 patient-days and from 25.0 to 60.0 per 100 admissions across the three departments. 98.1% of identified adverse events were associated with non-permanent harm without (Category E–71.7%) or with (Category F–26.4%) the need for prolonged hospitalization. One adverse event (1.9%) was associated with potentially permanent harm to the patient. We also identified practical challenges in the implementation of the tool, such as the need for adaptation of the global trigger tool to the respective department. Conclusions: The global trigger tool is feasible and an effective instrument for quality measurement when adapted to the departmental specifics. Based on our experience, we recommend a continuous use of the tool thereby directly involving clinicians in quality improvement.

Keywords: adverse events, global trigger tool, patient safety, record review

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
231 The Trigger-DAQ System in the Mu2e Experiment

Authors: Antonio Gioiosa, Simone Doanti, Eric Flumerfelt, Luca Morescalchi, Elena Pedreschi, Gianantonio Pezzullo, Ryan A. Rivera, Franco Spinella

Abstract:

The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims to measure the charged-lepton flavour violating neutrino-less conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of an aluminum nucleus. With the expected experimental sensitivity, Mu2e will improve the previous limit of four orders of magnitude. The Mu2e data acquisition (DAQ) system provides hardware and software to collect digitized data from the tracker, calorimeter, cosmic ray veto, and beam monitoring systems. Mu2e’s trigger and data acquisition system (TDAQ) uses otsdaq as its solution. developed at Fermilab, otsdaq uses the artdaq DAQ framework and art analysis framework, under-the-hood, for event transfer, filtering, and processing. Otsdaq is an online DAQ software suite with a focus on flexibility and scalability while providing a multi-user, web-based interface accessible through the Chrome or Firefox web browser. The detector read out controller (ROC) from the tracker and calorimeter stream out zero-suppressed data continuously to the data transfer controller (DTC). Data is then read over the PCIe bus to a software filter algorithm that selects events which are finally combined with the data flux that comes from a cosmic ray veto system (CRV).

Keywords: trigger, daq, mu2e, Fermilab

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230 The Implementation of a Nurse-Driven Palliative Care Trigger Tool

Authors: Sawyer Spurry

Abstract:

Problem: Palliative care providers at an academic medical center in Maryland stated medical intensive care unit (MICU) patients are often referred late in their hospital stay. The MICU has performed well below the hospital quality performance metric of 80% of patients who expire with expected outcomes should have received a palliative care consult within 48 hours of admission. Purpose: The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) project is to increase palliative care utilization in the MICU through the implementation of a Nurse-Driven PalliativeTriggerTool to prompt the need for specialty palliative care consult. Methods: MICU nursing staff and providers received education concerning the implications of underused palliative care services and the literature data supporting the use of nurse-driven palliative care tools as a means of increasing utilization of palliative care. A MICU population specific criteria of palliative triggers (Palliative Care Trigger Tool) was formulated by the QI implementation team, palliative care team, and patient care services department. Nursing staff were asked to assess patients daily for the presence of palliative triggers using the Palliative Care Trigger Tool and present findings during bedside rounds. MICU providers were asked to consult palliative medicinegiven the presence of palliative triggers; following interdisciplinary rounds. Rates of palliative consult, given the presence of triggers, were collected via electronic medical record e-data pull, de-identified, and recorded in the data collection tool. Preliminary Results: Over 140 MICU registered nurses were educated on the palliative trigger initiative along with 8 nurse practitioners, 4 intensivists, 2 pulmonary critical care fellows, and 2 palliative medicine physicians. Over 200 patients were admitted to the MICU and screened for palliative triggers during the 15-week implementation period. Primary outcomes showed an increase in palliative care consult rates to those patients presenting with triggers, a decreased mean time from admission to palliative consult, and increased recognition of unmet palliative care needs by MICU nurses and providers. Conclusions: Anticipatory findings of this QI project would suggest a positive correlation between utilizing palliative care trigger criteria and decreased time to palliative care consult. The direct outcomes of effective palliative care results in decreased length of stay, healthcare costs, and moral distress, as well as improved symptom management and quality of life (QOL).

Keywords: palliative care, nursing, quality improvement, trigger tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
229 Realization of a Temperature Based Automatic Controlled Domestic Electric Boiling System

Authors: Shengqi Yu, Jinwei Zhao

Abstract:

This paper presents a kind of analog circuit based temperature control system, which is mainly composed by threshold control signal circuit, synchronization signal circuit and trigger pulse circuit. Firstly, the temperature feedback signal function is realized by temperature sensor TS503F3950E. Secondly, the main control circuit forms the cycle controlled pulse signal to control the thyristor switching model. Finally two reverse paralleled thyristors regulate the output power by their switching state. In the consequence, this is a modernized and energy-saving domestic electric heating system.

Keywords: time base circuit, automatic control, zero-crossing trigger, temperature control

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
228 A Study on ESD Protection Circuit Applying Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based Stack Technology with High Holding Voltage

Authors: Hee-Guk Chae, Bo-Bae Song, Kyoung-Il Do, Jeong-Yun Seo, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

In this study, an improved Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage is proposed. ESD has become a serious problem in the semiconductor process because the semiconductor density has become very high these days. Therefore, much research has been done to prevent ESD. The proposed circuit is a stacked structure of the new unit structure combined by the Zener Triggering (SCR ZTSCR) and the High Holding Voltage SCR (HHVSCR). The simulation results show that the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage. And the stack technology is applied to adjust the various operating voltage. As the results, the holding voltage is 7.7 V for 2-stack and 10.7 V for 3-stack.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage

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227 A Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based ESD Protection Circuit with High Holding Voltage and High Robustness Characteristics

Authors: Kyoung-il Do, Byung-seok Lee, Hee-guk Chae, Jeong-yun Seo Yong-seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)-based Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with high holding voltage and high robustness characteristics is proposed. Unlike conventional SCR, the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage and provides effective ESD protection with latch-up immunity. In addition, the TCAD simulation results show that the proposed circuit has better electrical characteristics than the conventional SCR. A stack technology was used for voltage-specific applications. Consequentially, the proposed circuit has a trigger voltage of 17.60 V and a holding voltage of 3.64 V.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
226 Preparation of Magnetothermally Responsive Polymer Multilayer Films for Controlled Release Applications from Surfaces

Authors: Eda Cagli, Irem Erel Goktepe

Abstract:

Externally triggered and effective release of therapeutics from polymer nanoplatforms is one of the key issues in cancer treatment. In this study, we aim to prepare polymer multilayer films which are stable at physiological conditions (little or no drug release) but release drug molecules at acidic pH and via application of AC magnetic field. First, novel stimuli responsive diblock copolymers composed of pH- and temperature-responsive blocks were synthesized. Then, block copolymer micelles with pH-responsive core and temperature responsive coronae will be obtained via pH-induced self-assembly of these block copolymers in aqueous environment. A model anticancer drug, e.g. Doxorubicin will be loaded in the micellar cores. Second, superparamagnetic nanoparticles will be synthesized. Magnetic nanoparticles and drug loaded block copolymer micelles will be used as building blocks to construct the multilayers. To mimic the acidic nature of the tumor tissues, Doxorubicin release from the micellar cores will be induced at acidic conditions. Moreover, Doxorubicin release from the multilayers will be facilitated via magnetothermal trigger. Application of AC magnetic field will induce the heating of magnetic nanoparticles resulting in an increase in the temperature of the polymer platform. This increase in temperature is expected to trigger conformational changes on the temperature-responsive micelle coronae and facilitate the release of Doxorubicin from the surface. Such polymer platform may find use in biomedical applications.

Keywords: layer-by-layer films, magnetothermal trigger, smart polymers, stimuli responsive

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
225 Pharyngealization Spread in Ibbi Dialect of Yemeni Arabic: An Acoustic Study

Authors: Fadhl Qutaish

Abstract:

This paper examines the pharyngealization spread in one of the Yemeni Arabic dialects, namely, Ibbi Arabic (IA). It investigates how pharyngealized sounds spread their acoustic features onto the neighboring vowels and change their default features. This feature has been investigated quietly well in MSA but still has to be deeply studied in the different dialect of Arabic which will bring about a clearer picture of the similarities and the differences among these dialects and help in mapping them based on the way this feature is utilized. Though the studies are numerous, no one of them has illustrated how far in the multi-syllabic word the spread can be and whether it takes a steady or gradient manner. This study tries to fill this gap and give a satisfactory explanation of the pharyngealization spread in Ibbi Dialect. This study is the first step towards a larger investigation of the different dialects of Yemeni Arabic in the future. The data recorded are represented in minimal pairs in which the trigger (pharyngealized or the non-pharyngealized sound) is in the initial or final position of monosyllabic and multisyllabic words. A group of 24 words were divided into four groups and repeated three times by three subjects which will yield 216 tokens that are tested and analyzed. The subjects are three male speakers aged between 28 and 31 with no history of neurological, speaking or hearing problems. All of them are bilingual speakers of Arabic and English and native speakers of Ibbi-Dialect. Recordings were done in a sound-proof room and praat software was used for the analysis and coding of the trajectories of F1 and F2 for the low vowel /a/ to see the effect of pharyngealization on the formant trajectory within the same syllable and in other syllables of the same word by comparing the F1 and F2 formants to the non-pharyngealized environment. The results show that pharyngealization spread is gradient (progressively and regressively). The spread is reflected in the gradual raising of F1 as we move closer towards the trigger and the gradual lowering of F2 as well. The results of the F1 mean values in tri-syllabic words when the trigger is word initially show that there is a raise of 37.9 HZ in the first syllable, 26.8HZ in the second syllable and 14.2HZ in the third syllable. F2 mean values undergo a lowering of 239 HZ in the first syllable, 211.7 HZ in the second syllable and 176.5 in the third syllable. This gradual decrease in the difference of F2 values in the non-pharyngealized and pharyngealized context illustrates that the spread is gradient. A similar result was found when the trigger is word-final which proves that the spread is gradient (progressively and regressively.

Keywords: pharyngealization, Yemeni Arabic, Ibbi dialect, pharyngealization spread

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224 The Residual Effects of Special Merchandising Sections on Consumers' Shopping Behavior

Authors: Shih-Ching Wang, Mark Lang

Abstract:

This paper examines the secondary effects and consequences of special displays on subsequent shopping behavior. Special displays are studied as a prominent form of in-store or shopper marketing activity. Two experiments are performed using special value and special quality-oriented displays in an online simulated store environment. The impact of exposure to special displays on mindsets and resulting product choices are tested in a shopping task. Impact on store image is also tested. The experiments find that special displays do trigger shopping mindsets that affect product choices and shopping basket composition and value. There are intended and unintended positive and negative effects found. Special value displays improve store price image but trigger a price sensitive shopping mindset that causes more lower-priced items to be purchased, lowering total basket dollar value. Special natural food displays improve store quality image and trigger a quality-oriented mindset that causes fewer lower-priced items to be purchased, increasing total basket dollar value. These findings extend the theories of product categorization, mind-sets, and price sensitivity found in communication research into the retail store environment. Findings also warn retailers to consider the total effects and consequences of special displays when designing and executing in-store or shopper marketing activity.

Keywords: special displays, mindset, shopping behavior, price consciousness, product categorization, store image

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
223 Social Media: The Major Trigger of Online and Offline Political Activism

Authors: Chan Eang Teng, Tang Mui Joo

Abstract:

With the viral factor on social media, the sense of persuasion is generated by repetition and popularity. When users’ interest is captured, political awareness increases to spark political enthusiasm, but, the level of user’s political participation and political attitude of those active users is still questionable. An online survey on 250 youth and in-depth interview on two politicians are conducted to answer the main question in this paper. The result shows that Facebook significantly increases political awareness among youths. Social media may not be the major trigger to political activism among youths as most respondents opined that they would still vote without Facebook. Other factors could be political campaigning, political climate, age, peer pressure or others. Finding also shows that majority of respondents did not participate in online political debates or political groups. Many also wondered if the social media was the main power switch that triggers the political influx among young voters. The research finding is significant to understand how the new media, Facebook, has reshaped the political landscape in Malaysia, creating the Social Media Election that changed the rules of the political game. However, research finding does not support the ideal notion that the social media is the major trigger to youth’s political activism. This research outcome has exposed the flaws of the Social Media Election. It has revealed the less optimistic side of youth political activism. Unfortunately, results fall short of the idealistic belief that the social media have given rise to political activism among youths in the 13th General Election in Malaysia. The research outcome also highlights an important lesson for the democratic discourse of Malaysia which is making informed and educated decisions takes more commitment, proactive and objective attitude.

Keywords: social media, political participation, political activism, democracy, political communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
222 The Defence of Loss of Control within the Coroners and Justice Act 2009: A Critical Discussion

Authors: Bader A. J. Alrajhi

Abstract:

The 'loss of control' defence to murder as enacted in the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 (CJA) represents a legislative effort to bring greater coherence to an aspect of UK homicide law that has vexed several generations of jurists, practitioners, and academic commentators. The analysis developed in this paper illustrates that the loss of control defence as defined in CJA sections 54 and 55 is a laudable initiative; its fuller assessment must await further appellate court determination before a definitive conclusion of its utility is possible. The CJA amendments tend to embrace a legitimate policy that those who found to be provoked by the activities of others to lose their self-control should be dealt with in a different way than those who commit intentional killings when motivated by their own desires or pursuit of gain. However, the 2012 Court of Appeal decisions rendered in the Parker troika of cases, provide useful direction as to how the law is likely to be applied. It shows an attitude in the Court of Appeal that the whole circumstances that challenged the defendant must be examined. The Court of Appeal has introduced an important ingredient into the potential use of sexual infidelity as a section 55 trigger - it is not a permissible stand-alone factor, but it may legitimately form part of an entire qualifying trigger circumstance.

Keywords: loss of self-control, Coroners and Justice Act 2009, provocation, diminished responsibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
221 Theory of Negative Trigger: The Contract between Oral Probiotics and Immune System

Authors: Cliff Shunsheng Han

Abstract:

Identifying the direct allergy cause that can be easily mitigated is the foundation to stop the allergy epidemic that has been started in the seventies. It has confirmed that the personal and social hygiene practices are associated with the allergy prevalence. But direct causes have been found, and proposed translational measures have not been effective. This study, assisted by a particular case of allergies, has seen the direct cause of allergies, developed a valid test resulted in lasting relief for allergies, and constructed theory describing general relationship between microbiota and host immune system. Saliva samples were collected from a subject for three years during which time the person experienced yearlong allergy, seasonal allergy, and remission of allergy symptoms. Bacterial DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA genes were profiled with Illumina sequencing technology. The analyzing results indicate that the possible direct cause of allergy is the lacking probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity, such as genera Streptococcus and Veilonella, that can produce metabolites to pacify immune system. Targeted promotion of those bacteria with a compound designed for them, has led to lasting remissions of allergic rhinitis. During the development of the translational measure, the subject's oral biofilm was completely destructed by a moderate fever due to an unrelated respiratory infection. The incident not only facilitated the development of the heat based microbiota reseeding procedure but also indicated a possible natural switch that subsequently increases the efficacy of the immune system previously restrained by metabolites from microbiota. These results lead to the proposal of a Theory of Negative Trigger (TNT) to describe the relationship between oral probiotics and immune system, in which probiotics are the negative trigger that will release the power of immune system when removed by fever or modern lifestyles. This study could open doors leading to further understanding of how the immune system functions under the influence of microbiota as well as validate simple traditional practices for healthy living.

Keywords: oral microbiome, allergy, immune system, infection

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220 The Effect of Positional Release Technique versus Kinesio Tape on Iliocostalis lumborum in Back Myofascial Pain Syndrome

Authors: Shams Khaled Abdelrahman Abdallah Elbaz, Alaa Aldeen Abd Al Hakeem Balbaa

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Positional Release Technique versus Kinesio Tape on pain level, pressure pain threshold level and functional disability in patients with back myofascial pain syndrome at iliocostalis lumborum. Backgrounds/significance: Myofascial Pain Syndrome is a common muscular pain syndrome that arises from trigger points which are hyperirritable, painful and tender points within a taut band of skeletal muscle. In more recent literature, about 75% of patients with musculoskeletal pain presenting to a community medical centres suffer from myofascial pain syndrome.Iliocostalis lumborum are most likely to develop active trigger points. Subjects: Thirty patients diagnosed as back myofascial pain syndrome with active trigger points in iliocostalis lumborum muscle bilaterally had participated in this study. Methods and materials: Patients were randomly distributed into two groups. The first group consisted of 15 patients (8 males and 7 females) with mean age 30.6 (±3.08) years, they received positional release technique which was applied 3 times per session, 3/week every other day for 2 weeks. The second group consisted of 15 patients(5 males, 10 females) with a mean age 30.4 (±3.35) years, they received kinesio tape which was applied and changed every 3 days with one day off for a total 3 times in 2 weeks. Both techniques were applied over trigger points of the iliocostalis lumborum bilaterally. Patients were evaluated pretreatment and posttreatment program for Pain intensity (Visual analogue scale), pressure pain threshold (digital pressure algometry), and functional disability (The Oswestry Disability Index). Analyses: Repeated measures MANOVA was used to detect differences within and between groups pre and post treatment. Then the univariate ANOVA test was conducted for the analysis of each dependant variable within and between groups. All statistical analyses were done using SPSS. with significance level set at p<0.05 throughout all analyses. Results: The results revealed that there was no significant difference between positional release technique and kinesio tape technique on pain level, pressure pain threshold and functional activities (p > 0.05). Both groups of patients showed significant improvement in all the measured variables (p < 0.05) evident by significant reduction of both pain intensity and functional disability as well as significant increase of pressure pain threshold Conclusions : Both positional release technique and kinesio taping technique are effective in reducing pain level, improving pressure pain threshold and improving function in treating patients who suffering from back myofascial pain syndrome at iliocostalis lumborum. As there was no statistically significant difference was proven between both of them.

Keywords: positional release technique, kinesio tape, myofascial pain syndrome, Iliocostalis lumborum

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
219 Rational Memory Therapy: The Counselling Technique to Control Psychological and Psychosomatic Illnesses

Authors: Sachin Deshmukh

Abstract:

Mind and body synchronization occurs through memory and sensation production. Sensations are the guiding language of subconscious mind for conscious mind to take a proper action. Mind-mechanism is based upon memories collected so far since intrauterine life. There are three universal triggers for memory creation; they are persons, situations and objects. Memory is created as sensations experienced by special senses. Based upon experiencing comfort or discomfort, the triggers are categorized as safe or unsafe triggers. A memory comprises of ‘safe or unsafe feeling for triggers, and actions taken for that feeling’. Memories for triggers are created slowly, thoughtfully and consciously by the conscious mind, and archived in the subconscious mind for future references. Later on, similar triggers can come in contact with the individual. Subconscious mind uses these stored feelings to decide whether these triggers are safe or unsafe. It produces comfort or discomfort sensations as emotions accordingly and reacts in the same way as has been recorded in memory. Speed of sensing and processing the triggers, and reacting by subconscious mind is that of the speed of bioelectricity. Hence, formula for human emotions has been designed in this paper as follows: Emotion (Stress or Peace) = Trigger (Person or Situation or object) x Mass of feelings (stressful or peaceful) associated with the Trigger x Speed of Light². We also establish modern medical scientific facts about relationship between reflex activity and memory. This research further develops the ‘Rational Memory Therapy’ focusing on therapeutic feelings conversion techniques, for stress prevention and management.

Keywords: memory, sensations, feelings, emotions, rational memory therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
218 Hidden Markov Model for Financial Limit Order Book and Its Application to Algorithmic Trading Strategy

Authors: Sriram Kashyap Prasad, Ionut Florescu

Abstract:

This study models the intraday asset prices as driven by Markov process. This work identifies the latent states of the Hidden Markov model, using limit order book data (trades and quotes) to continuously estimate the states throughout the day. This work builds a trading strategy using estimated states to generate signals. The strategy utilizes current state to recalibrate buy/ sell levels and the transition between states to trigger stop-loss when adverse price movements occur. The proposed trading strategy is tested on the Stevens High Frequency Trading (SHIFT) platform. SHIFT is a highly realistic market simulator with functionalities for creating an artificial market simulation by deploying agents, trading strategies, distributing initial wealth, etc. In the implementation several assets on the NASDAQ exchange are used for testing. In comparison to a strategy with static buy/ sell levels, this study shows that the number of limit orders that get matched and executed can be increased. Executing limit orders earns rebates on NASDAQ. The system can capture jumps in the limit order book prices, provide dynamic buy/sell levels and trigger stop loss signals to improve the PnL (Profit and Loss) performance of the strategy.

Keywords: algorithmic trading, Hidden Markov model, high frequency trading, limit order book learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
217 Sick Minds and Social Media: Treacherous Trends in Online Stalking, Aggression, and Murder

Authors: Amanda Maitland

Abstract:

This preliminary study has examined ways in which social media may help cause stalker murder by individuals with personality disorders and a strong sense of sexual propriety. A public display on social media by the intended victim was felt to be a trigger that instigated interpersonal violence. To identify behavioural paradigms, case studies of intimate partner murders were explored using news media sources and documentaries. In all of the case studies, social media interaction and social media postings occurred shortly before the murder. The evidence suggested a preponderance of correlations between the social media postings, stalking behaviours, personality disorders, and the murder of an intimate partner. In addition to this, a profile for of Facebook/social media murder was gleaned from the paradigms of behavior found in the case studies. The evidence showed a complex relationship between severe violence, stalking, borderline personality, and intimate partner violence was identified through the study. The struggle clients have in dealing with the: public, ambiguous and unrelenting nature of social media postings was also observed. The murderers anguish and rage appeared to be further intensified by attitudes of sexual propriety and entitlement. These attitudes were evident in all the case studies. The study concluded with further research on how the public can protect themselves from entering situations where social media postings might trigger a violent response. Further to this, psychological approaches were identified that might support client’s with personality disorders to cope with perceived provocative and distressing data on the internet. Thus, the findings of this study will be of interest to: therapists, psychologists, nurses, criminologists and social workers.

Keywords: social media, borderline personality, murder, cyberstalking, intimate partner violence, sexual propriety, Facebook

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
216 Applying Wavelet Transform to Ferroresonance Detection and Protection

Authors: Chun-Wei Huang, Jyh-Cherng Gu, Ming-Ta Yang

Abstract:

Non-synchronous breakage or line failure in power systems with light or no loads can lead to core saturation in transformers or potential transformers. This can cause component and capacitance matching resulting in the formation of resonant circuits, which trigger ferroresonance. This study employed a wavelet transform for the detection of ferroresonance. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

Keywords: ferroresonance, wavelet transform, intelligent electronic device, transformer

Procedia PDF Downloads 346