Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6333

Search results for: vestibular structure

6333 Challenges in Early Diagnosis of Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct (EVA) in Pediatric Population: A Single Case Report

Authors: Asha Manoharan, Sooraj A. O, Anju K. G


Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) refers to the presence of congenital sensorineural hearing loss with an enlarged vestibular aqueduct. The Audiological symptoms of EVA are fluctuating and progressive in nature and the diagnosis of EVAS can be confirmed only with radiological evaluation. Hence it is difficult to differentiate EVA from conditions like Meniere’s disease, semi-circular dehiscence, etc based on audiological findings alone. EVA in adults is easy to identify due to distinct vestibular symptoms. In children, EVA can remain either unidentified or misdiagnosed until the vestibular symptoms are evident. Motor developmental delay, especially the ones involving a change of body alignment, has been reported in the pediatric population with EVA. So, it should be made mandatory to recommend radiological evaluation in young children with fluctuating hearing loss reporting with motor developmental delay. This single case study of a baby with Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct (EVA) primarily aimed to address the following: a) Challenges while diagnosing young patients with EVA and fluctuating hearing loss, b) Importance of radiological evaluation in audiological diagnosis in the pediatric population, c) Need for regular monitoring of hearing, hearing aid performance, and cochlear implant mapping closely for potential fluctuations in such populations, d) Importance of reviewing developmental, language milestones in very young children with fluctuating hearing loss.

Keywords: enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA), motor delay, radiological evaluation, fluctuating hearing loss, cochlear implant

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6332 Discrimination and Classification of Vestibular Neuritis Using Combined Fisher and Support Vector Machine Model

Authors: Amine Ben Slama, Aymen Mouelhi, Sondes Manoubi, Chiraz Mbarek, Hedi Trabelsi, Mounir Sayadi, Farhat Fnaiech


Vertigo is a sensation of feeling off balance; the cause of this symptom is very difficult to interpret and needs a complementary exam. Generally, vertigo is caused by an ear problem. Some of the most common causes include: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere's disease and vestibular neuritis (VN). In clinical practice, different tests of videonystagmographic (VNG) technique are used to detect the presence of vestibular neuritis (VN). The topographical diagnosis of this disease presents a large diversity in its characteristics that confirm a mixture of problems for usual etiological analysis methods. In this study, a vestibular neuritis analysis method is proposed with videonystagmography (VNG) applications using an estimation of pupil movements in the case of an uncontrolled motion to obtain an efficient and reliable diagnosis results. First, an estimation of the pupil displacement vectors using with Hough Transform (HT) is performed to approximate the location of pupil region. Then, temporal and frequency features are computed from the rotation angle variation of the pupil motion. Finally, optimized features are selected using Fisher criterion evaluation for discrimination and classification of the VN disease.Experimental results are analyzed using two categories: normal and pathologic. By classifying the reduced features using the Support Vector Machine (SVM), 94% is achieved as classification accuracy. Compared to recent studies, the proposed expert system is extremely helpful and highly effective to resolve the problem of VNG analysis and provide an accurate diagnostic for medical devices.

Keywords: nystagmus, vestibular neuritis, videonystagmographic system, VNG, Fisher criterion, support vector machine, SVM

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6331 Electroencephalography Activity during Sensory Organization Balance Test

Authors: Tariq Ali Gujar, Anita Hökelmann


Postural balance plays essential role throughout life in daily activities. Somatosensory, visual and vestibular inputs play the fundamental role in maintaining body equilibrium to balance the posture. The aim of this study was to find out electroencephalography (EEG) responses during balance activity of young people during Sensory Organization Balance Test. The outcome of this study will help to create the fitness and neurorehabilitation plan. 25 young people (25 ± 3.1 years) have been analyzed on Balance Master NeuroCom® with the coupling of Brain Vision 32 electrode wireless EEG system during the Sensory Organization Test. From the results it has been found that the balance score of samples is significantly higher under the influence of somatosensory input as compared to visual and vestibular input (p < 0.05). The EEG between somatosensory and visual input to balance the posture showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) alpha and beta activities during somatosensory input in somatosensory, attention and visual functions of the cortex whereas executive and motor functions of the cerebral cortex showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) alpha EEG activity during the visual input. The results suggest that somatosensory and attention function of the cerebral cortex has alpha and beta activity, respectively high during somatosensory and vestibular input in maintaining balance. In patients with balance impairments both physical and cognitive training, including neurofeedback will be helpful to improve balance abilities.

Keywords: balance, electroencephalography activity, somatosensory, visual, vestibular

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6330 Efficacy of Transcranial Magnetic Therapy on Balance in Patients with Vestibular Dysfunction

Authors: Ibrahim M. I. Hamoda, Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi, Mohammed K. Mohamed, Nawal A. Abu-Shady


Background: Most of patients with vestibular dysfunction suffering from balance disorders, Abnormality in balance increase effort and exertion which affect the independency, so this study might be a guide in managing balance problem and consequently improve walking with less exertion and maximum function. Purpose: to analyze and discuss the effect of transcranial magnetic therapy on balance in patients with vestibular dysfunction. Methods: forty subjects from both sexes were classified to divided randomly into two equal groups; Group I study group: this group received transcranial magnetic therapy, with a selected physical therapy program for improving balance and vestibular disorders (Balance training, Cawthorne-Cooksey Exercises) and group II (control group): this group received a selected physical therapy program as group I without transcranial magnetic therapy. This treatment procedure will be applied three times weekly for three months. The mean age was 54.53±3.44 and 55.33±2.32 years and BMI 35.7±3.03 and 35.73±1.03 kg/m2 for group I and II respectively. The Biodex Balance System, Berge balances scale (BBS) and brain MRI were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted before and after treatment. The treatment program for group I included balance training, Cawthorne-Cooksey Exercises and pulsed magnetic therapy (Parameters used in the program of 20 minutes, Intensity 2 gausses, Frequency 1 Hz). This selected program was done in approximately one hour every other day for three month. The treatment program group II Patients received the same program as group A without transcranial magnetic therapy. Results: The One-way ANOVA revealed that there were no significant differences in BBS scores, overall balance index, Anterior / posterior balance index, Medial / lateral balance index and dynamic limits of stability between both groups. Moreover, the BBS scores increased and overall balance index, Anterior / posterior balance index, Medial / lateral balance index and dynamic limits of stability decreased significantly after treatment in group I and II compared with before treatment. Interpretation/Conclusion: Adding pulsed magnetic therapy to balance training, Cawthorne-Cooksey Exercises has no effect on static and dynamic balance in patients with balance problems due to benign positional paroxysmal vertigo.

Keywords: balance, transcranial magnetic therapy, vestibular dysfunction, biomechanic

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6329 A Pilot Study on the Sensory Processing Difficulty Pattern Association between the Hot and Cold Executive Function Deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Deficit Child

Authors: Sheng-Fen Fan, Sung-Hui Tseng


Attention deficit hyperactivity deficit (ADHD) child display diverse sensory processing difficulty behaviors. There is less evidence to figure out how the association between executive function and sensory deficit. To determine whether sensory deficit influence the executive functions, we examined sensory processing by SPM and try to indicate hot/cold executive function (EF) by BRIEF2, respectively. We found that the hot executive function deficit might associate with auditory processing in a variety of settings, and vestibular input to maintain balance and upright posture; the cold EF deficit might opposite to the hot EF deficit, the vestibular sensory modulation difficulty association with emotion shifting and emotional regulation. These results suggest that sensory processing might be another consideration factor to influence the higher cognitive control or emotional regulation of EF. Overall, this study indicates the distinction between hot and cold EF impairments with different sensory modulation problem. Moreover, for clinician, it needs more cautious consideration to conduct intervention with ADHD.

Keywords: hot executive function, cold executive function, sensory processing, ADHD

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6328 On CR-Structure and F-Structure Satisfying Polynomial Equation

Authors: Manisha Kankarej


The purpose of this paper is to show a relation between CR structure and F-structure satisfying polynomial equation. In this paper, we have checked the significance of CR structure and F-structure on Integrability conditions and Nijenhuis tensor. It was proved that all the properties of Integrability conditions and Nijenhuis tensor are satisfied by CR structures and F-structure satisfying polynomial equation.

Keywords: CR-submainfolds, CR-structure, integrability condition, Nijenhuis tensor

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6327 Social Structure, Involuntary Relations and Urban Poverty

Authors: Mahmood Niroobakhsh


This article deals with special structuralism approaches to explain a certain kind of social problem. Widespread presence of poverty is a reminder of deep-rooted unresolved problems of social relations. The expected role from an individual for the social system recognizes poverty derived from an interrelated social structure. By the time, enabled to act on his role in the course of social interaction, reintegration of the poor in society may take place. Poverty and housing type are reflections of the underlying social structure, primarily structure’s elements, systemic interrelations, and the overall strength or weakness of that structure. Poverty varies based on social structure in that the stronger structures are less likely to produce poverty.

Keywords: absolute poverty, relative poverty, social structure, urban poverty

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6326 The Effect of Static Balance Enhance by Table Tennis Training Intervening on Deaf Children

Authors: Yi-Chun Chang, Ching-Ting Hsu, Wei-Hua Ho, Yueh-Tung Kuo


Children with hearing impairment have deficits of balance and motors. Although most of parents teach deaf children communication skills in early life, but rarely teach the deficits of balance. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether static balance improved after table tennis training. Table tennis training was provided four times a week for eight weeks to two 12-year-old deaf children. The table tennis training included crossover footwork, sideway attack, backhand block-sideways-flutter forehand attack, and one-on-one tight training. Data were gathered weekly and statistical comparisons were made with a paired t-test. We observed that the dominant leg is better than the non-dominant leg in static balance and girl balance ability is better than boy. The final result shows that table tennis training significantly improves the deaf children’s static balance performance. It indicates that table tennis training on deaf children helps the static balance ability.

Keywords: deaf children, static balance, table tennis, vestibular structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
6325 Evaluation of Structural Integrity for Composite Lattice Structure

Authors: Jae Moon Im, Kwang Bok Shin, Sang Woo Lee


In this paper, evaluation of structural integrity for composite lattice structure was conducted by compressive test. Composite lattice structure was manufactured by carbon fiber using filament winding method. In order to evaluate the structural integrity of composite lattice structure, compressive test was done using anti-buckling fixture. The delamination occurred 84 Tons of compressive load. It was found that composite lattice structure satisfied the design requirements.

Keywords: composite material, compressive test, lattice structure, structural integrity

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6324 Community Structure Detection in Networks Based on Bee Colony

Authors: Bilal Saoud


In this paper, we propose a new method to find the community structure in networks. Our method is based on bee colony and the maximization of modularity to find the community structure. We use a bee colony algorithm to find the first community structure that has a good value of modularity. To improve the community structure, that was found, we merge communities until we get a community structure that has a high value of modularity. We provide a general framework for implementing our approach. We tested our method on computer-generated and real-world networks with a comparison to very known community detection methods. The obtained results show the effectiveness of our proposition.

Keywords: bee colony, networks, modularity, normalized mutual information

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6323 A Study of Algebraic Structure Involving Banach Space through Q-Analogue

Authors: Abdul Hakim Khan


The aim of the present paper is to study the Banach Space and Combinatorial Algebraic Structure of R. It is further aimed to study algebraic structure of set of all q-extension of classical formula and function for 0 < q < 1.

Keywords: integral functions, q-extensions, q numbers of metric space, algebraic structure of r and banach space

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6322 Analysis of Determinate and Indeterminate Structures: Applications of Non-Economic Structure

Authors: Toral Khalpada, Kanhai Joshi


Generally, constructions of structures built in India are indeterminate structures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the application of a structure that is proved to be non-economical. The testing practice involves the application of different types of loads on both, determinate and indeterminate structure by computing it on a software system named Staad and also inspecting them practically on the construction site, analyzing the most efficient structure and diagnosing the utilization of the structure which is not so beneficial as compared to other. Redundant structures (indeterminate structure) are found to be more reasonable. All types of loads were applied on the beams of both determinate and indeterminate structures parallelly on the software and the same was done on the site practically which proved that maximum stresses in statically indeterminate structures are generally lower than those in comparable determinate structures. These structures are found to have higher stiffness resulting in lesser deformations so indeterminate structures are economical and are better than determinate structures to use for construction. On the other hand, statically determinate structures have the benefit of not producing stresses because of temperature changes. Therefore, our study tells that indeterminate structure is more beneficial but determinate structure also has used as it can be used in many areas; it can be used for the construction of two hinged arch bridges where two supports are sufficient and where there is no need for expensive indeterminate structure. Further investigation is needed to contrive more implementation of the determinate structure.

Keywords: construction, determinate structure, indeterminate structure, stress

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6321 Comparison Between the Radiation Resistance of n/p and p/n InP Solar Cell

Authors: Mazouz Halima, Belghachi Abdrahmane


Effects of electron irradiation-induced deep level defects have been studied on both n/p and p/n indium phosphide solar cells with very thin emitters. The simulation results show that n/p structure offers a somewhat better short circuit current but the p/n structure offers improved circuit voltage, not only before electron irradiation, but also after 1MeV electron irradiation with 5.1015 fluence. The simulation also shows that n/p solar cell structure is more resistant than that of p/n structure.

Keywords: InP solar cell, p/n and n/p structure, electron irradiation, output parameters

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6320 Identifying Dynamic Structural Parameters of Soil-Structure System Based on Data Recorded during Strong Earthquakes

Authors: Vahidreza Mahmoudabadi, Omid Bahar, Mohammad Kazem Jafari


In many applied engineering problems, structural analysis is usually conducted by assuming a rigid bed, while imposing the effect of structure bed flexibility can affect significantly on the structure response. This article focuses on investigation and evaluation of the effects arising from considering a soil-structure system in evaluation of dynamic characteristics of a steel structure with respect to elastic and inelastic behaviors. The recorded structure acceleration during Taiwan’s strong Chi-Chi earthquake on different floors of the structure was our evaluation criteria. The respective structure is an eight-story steel bending frame structure designed using a displacement-based direct method assuring weak beam - strong column function. The results indicated that different identification methods i.e. reverse Fourier transform or transfer functions, is capable to determine some of the dynamic parameters of the structure precisely, rather than evaluating all of them at once (mode frequencies, mode shapes, structure damping, structure rigidity, etc.). Response evaluation based on the input and output data elucidated that the structure first mode is not significantly affected, even considering the soil-structure interaction effect, but the upper modes have been changed. Also, it was found that the response transfer function of the different stories, in which plastic hinges have occurred in the structure components, provides similar results.

Keywords: bending steel frame structure, dynamic characteristics, displacement-based design, soil-structure system, system identification

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6319 Natural Frequency Analysis of Small-Scale Arch Structure by Shaking Table Test

Authors: Gee-Cheol Kim, Joo-Won Kang


Structural characteristics of spatial structure are different from that of rahmen structures and it has many factors that are unpredictable experientially. Both horizontal and vertical earthquake should be considered because of seismic behaviour characteristics of spatial structures. This experimental study is conducted about seismic response characteristics of roof structure according to the effect of columns or walls, through scale model of arch structure that has the basic dynamic characteristics of spatial structure. Though remarkable response is not occurred for horizontal direction in the region of higher frequency than the region of frequency that seismic energy is concentrated, relatively large response is occurred in vertical direction. It is proved that seismic response of arch structure with column is varied according to property of column.

Keywords: arch structure, seismic response, shaking table, spatial structure

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6318 CompPSA: A Component-Based Pairwise RNA Secondary Structure Alignment Algorithm

Authors: Ghada Badr, Arwa Alturki


The biological function of an RNA molecule depends on its structure. The objective of the alignment is finding the homology between two or more RNA secondary structures. Knowing the common functionalities between two RNA structures allows a better understanding and a discovery of other relationships between them. Besides, identifying non-coding RNAs -that is not translated into a protein- is a popular application in which RNA structural alignment is the first step A few methods for RNA structure-to-structure alignment have been developed. Most of these methods are partial structure-to-structure, sequence-to-structure, or structure-to-sequence alignment. Less attention is given in the literature to the use of efficient RNA structure representation and the structure-to-structure alignment methods are lacking. In this paper, we introduce an O(N2) Component-based Pairwise RNA Structure Alignment (CompPSA) algorithm, where structures are given as a component-based representation and where N is the maximum number of components in the two structures. The proposed algorithm compares the two RNA secondary structures based on their weighted component features rather than on their base-pair details. Extensive experiments are conducted illustrating the efficiency of the CompPSA algorithm when compared to other approaches and on different real and simulated datasets. The CompPSA algorithm shows an accurate similarity measure between components. The algorithm gives the flexibility for the user to align the two RNA structures based on their weighted features (position, full length, and/or stem length). Moreover, the algorithm proves scalability and efficiency in time and memory performance.

Keywords: alignment, RNA secondary structure, pairwise, component-based, data mining

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6317 Static and Dynamic Analysis on a Buddhism Goddess Guanyin in Shuangyashan

Authors: Gong Kangming, Zhao Caiqi


High-rise special-shaped structure, such as main frame structure of the statues, is one of the structure forms in irregular structure widely used. Due to the complex shape of the statue structure, with a large aspect ratio, its wind load value and the overall mechanical properties are very different from the high-rise buildings with the general rules. The paper taking a certain 48 meters high main frame structure of the statue located in Shuangyashan City, Heilongjiang Province, static and dynamic properties are analyzed by the finite element software. Through static and dynamic analysis, it got a number of useful conclusions that have a certain reference value for the analysis and design of the future similar structure.

Keywords: a Buddhism goddess Guanyin body, wind load, dynamic analysis, bolster, node design

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6316 Modification of Four Layer through the Thickness Woven Structure for Improved Impact Resistance

Authors: Muhammad Liaqat, Hafiz Abdul Samad, Syed Talha Ali Hamdani, Yasir Nawab


In the current research, the four layers, orthogonal through the thickness, 2D woven, 3D fabric structure was modified to improve the impact resistance of 3D fabric reinforced composites. This was achieved by imparting the auxeticity into four layers through the thickness woven structure. A comparison was made between the standard and modified four layers through the thickness woven structure in terms of auxeticity, penetration and impact resistance. It was found that the modified structure showed auxeticity in both warp and weft direction. It was also found that the penetration resistance of modified sample was less as compared to the standard structure, but impact resistance was improved up to 6.7% of modified four layers through the thickness woven structure.

Keywords: 2D woven, 3D fabrics, auxetic, impact resistance, orthogonal through the thickness

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6315 Life Cycle Cost Evaluation of Structures Retrofitted with Damped Cable System

Authors: Asad Naeem, Mohamed Nour Eldin, Jinkoo Kim


In this study, the seismic performance and life cycle cost (LCC) are evaluated of the structure retrofitted with the damped cable system (DCS). The DCS is a seismic retrofit system composed of a high-strength steel cable and pressurized viscous dampers. The analysis model of the system is first derived using various link elements in SAP2000, and fragility curves of the structure retrofitted with the DCS and viscous dampers are obtained using incremental dynamic analyses. The analysis results show that the residual displacements of the structure equipped with the DCS are smaller than those of the structure with retrofitted with only conventional viscous dampers, due to the enhanced stiffness/strength and self-centering capability of the damped cable system. The fragility analysis shows that the structure retrofitted with the DCS has the least probability of reaching the specific limit states compared to the bare structure and the structure with viscous damper. It is also observed that the initial cost of the DCS method required for the seismic retrofit is smaller than that of the structure with viscous dampers and that the LCC of the structure equipped with the DCS is smaller than that of the structure with viscous dampers.

Keywords: damped cable system, fragility curve, life cycle cost, seismic retrofit, self-centering

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6314 Introduction of the Fluid-Structure Coupling into the Force Analysis Technique

Authors: Océane Grosset, Charles Pézerat, Jean-Hugh Thomas, Frédéric Ablitzer


This paper presents a method to take into account the fluid-structure coupling into an inverse method, the Force Analysis Technique (FAT). The FAT method, also called RIFF method (Filtered Windowed Inverse Resolution), allows to identify the force distribution from local vibration field. In order to only identify the external force applied on a structure, it is necessary to quantify the fluid-structure coupling, especially in naval application, where the fluid is heavy. This method can be decomposed in two parts, the first one consists in identifying the fluid-structure coupling and the second one to introduced it in the FAT method to reconstruct the external force. Results of simulations on a plate coupled with a cavity filled with water are presented.

Keywords: aeroacoustics, fluid-structure coupling, inverse methods, naval, turbulent flow

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6313 Assessment of the Two-Way Relationship between Capital Structure and Operation Performance of Listed Companies on Vietnam’s Stock

Authors: Uyen Tran Tu


The decision on capital structure is one of the most important and sophisticated decisions in financial management in order to improve firm performance. This article would study the two-way impact between capital structure and firm performance. The study use EVIEWS 6.0 software to determine a two-way relationship between the capital structure and firm performance based on two-stage regression (2SLS - Two-Stage Least Squares). The findings are: capital structure has the opposite effect on the business efficiency and vice versa, factors that effect on business efficiency include Size and Opportunities. Factors effects on the capital structure are size; liquidity. These factors also affect the ratio of capital structure (total debt/ total asset) of companies. In particular, liquidity has the opposite effect; and the size of the business has the same impact. The results of the study are in line with the theory and empirical studies presented, and the results of the study are unchanged for all three years 2015-2017.

Keywords: capital structure, firm performance, factors, two-way relationship

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6312 Analyzing the Relationship between the Spatial Characteristics of Cultural Structure, Activities, and the Tourism Demand

Authors: Deniz Karagöz


This study is attempt to comprehend the relationship between the spatial characteristics of cultural structure, activities and the tourism demand in Turkey. The analysis divided into four parts. The first part consisted of a cultural structure and cultural activity (CSCA) index provided by principal component analysis. The analysis determined four distinct dimensions, namely, cultural activity/structure, accessing culture, consumption, and cultural management. The exploratory spatial data analysis employed to determine the spatial models of cultural structure and cultural activities in 81 provinces in Turkey. Global Moran I indices is used to ascertain the cultural activities and the structural clusters. Finally, the relationship between the cultural activities/cultural structure and tourism demand was analyzed. The raw/original data of the study official databases. The data on the cultural structure and activities gathered from the Turkish Statistical Institute and the data related to the tourism demand was provided by the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism.

Keywords: cultural activities, cultural structure, spatial characteristics, tourism demand, Turkey

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6311 Fragility Analysis of Weir Structure Subjected to Flooding Water Damage

Authors: Oh Hyeon Jeon, WooYoung Jung


In this study, seepage analysis was performed by the level difference between upstream and downstream of weir structure for safety evaluation of weir structure against flooding. Monte Carlo Simulation method was employed by considering the probability distribution of the adjacent ground parameter, i.e., permeability coefficient of weir structure. Moreover, by using a commercially available finite element program (ABAQUS), modeling of the weir structure is carried out. Based on this model, the characteristic of water seepage during flooding was determined at each water level with consideration of the uncertainty of their corresponding permeability coefficient. Subsequently, fragility function could be constructed based on this response from numerical analysis; this fragility function results could be used to determine the weakness of weir structure subjected to flooding disaster. They can also be used as a reference data that can comprehensively predict the probability of failur,e and the degree of damage of a weir structure.

Keywords: weir structure, seepage, flood disaster fragility, probabilistic risk assessment, Monte-Carlo simulation, permeability coefficient

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6310 One Dimensional Magneto-Plasmonic Structure Based On Metallic Nano-Grating

Authors: S. M. Hamidi, M. Zamani


Magneto-plasmonic (MP) structures have turned into essential tools for the amplification of magneto-optical (MO) responses via the combination of MO activity and surface Plasmon resonance (SPR). Both the plasmonic and the MO properties of the resulting MP structure become interrelated because the SPR of the metallic medium. This interconnection can be modified the wave vector of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) in MP multilayer [1] or enhanced the MO activity [2- 3] and also modified the sensor responses [4]. There are several types of MP structures which are studied to enhance MO response in miniaturized configuration. In this paper, we propose a new MP structure based on the nano-metal grating and we investigate the MO and optical properties of this new structure. Our new MP structure fabricate by DC magnetron sputtering method and our home made MO experimental setup use for characterization of the structure.

Keywords: Magneto-plasmonic structures, magneto-optical effect, nano-garting

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6309 The Features of Formation of Russian Agriculture’s Sectoral Structure

Authors: Natalya G. Filimonova, Mariya G. Ozerova, Irina N. Ermakova


The long-term strategy of the economic development of Russia up to 2030 is based on the concept of sustainable growth. The determining factor of such development is complex changes in the economic system which may be achieved by making progressive changes in its structure. The structural changes determine the character and the direction of economic development, as well as they include all elements of this system without exception, and their regulated character ensures the most rapid aim achievement. This article has discussed the industrial structure of the agriculture in Russia. With the use of the system of indexes, the article has determined the directions, intensity, and speed of structural shifts. The influence of structural changes on agricultural production development has been found out. It is noticed that the changes in the industrial structure are synchronized with the changes in the organisation and economic structure. Efficiency assessment of structural changes allowed to trace the efficiency of structural changes and elaborate the main directions for agricultural policy improvement.

Keywords: Russian agricultural sectors, sectoral structure, organizational and economic structure, structural changes

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6308 Board of Directors' Structure and Corporate Restructuring: A Preliminary Evidences

Authors: Norazlan Alias, Mohd. Hasimi Yaacob


This study examines the impact of governance structure via corporate restructuring decision on selected firm characteristics and performance. Results of selected ratios that represent corporate decision, governance structure and performance in pre and post restructuring are analyzed for some conclusions. This study uses annual data of companies that are consistently listed on the Main Board of Bursa Malaysia and announced completed corporate restructuring. The results show that only debt ratio is significantly different before and after asset restructuring. This study concludes that firms do not view corporate restructuring namely asset restructuring as an opportunity to simultaneous enhance governance structure that could also contribute enhance firm performance and board of directors’ structure subsequent to asset restructuring only has significantly influence on changing capital structure but not on firm performance.

Keywords: board of directors, capital structure, corporate restructuring, performance

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6307 Board Structure, Composition, and Firm Performance: A Theoretical and Empirical Review

Authors: Suleiman Ahmed Badayi


Corporate governance literature is very wide and involves several empirical studies conducted on the relationship between board structure, composition and firm performance. The separation of ownership and control in organizations were aimed at reducing the losses suffered by the investors in the event of financial scandals. This paper reviewed the theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between board composition and its impact on firm performance. The findings from the studies provide different results while some are of the view that board structure is related to firm performance, many empirical studies indicates no relationship. However, others found a U-shape relationship between firm performance and board structure. Therefore, this study argued that board structure is not much significant to determine the financial performance of a firm.

Keywords: board structure, composition, firm performance, corporate governance

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6306 Numerical Simulation of Fluid Structure Interaction Using Two-Way Method

Authors: Samira Laidaoui, Mohammed Djermane, Nazihe Terfaya


The fluid-structure coupling is a natural phenomenon which reflects the effects of two continuums: fluid and structure of different types in the reciprocal action on each other, involving knowledge of elasticity and fluid mechanics. The solution for such problems is based on the relations of continuum mechanics and is mostly solved with numerical methods. It is a computational challenge to solve such problems because of the complex geometries, intricate physics of fluids, and complicated fluid-structure interactions. The way in which the interaction between fluid and solid is described gives the largest opportunity for reducing the computational effort. In this paper, a problem of fluid structure interaction is investigated with two-way coupling method. The formulation Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) was used, by considering a dynamic grid, where the solid is described by a Lagrangian formulation and the fluid by a Eulerian formulation. The simulation was made on the ANSYS software.

Keywords: ALE, coupling, FEM, fluid-structure, interaction, one-way method, two-way method

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6305 Design and Production of Thin-Walled UHPFRC Footbridge

Authors: P. Tej, P. Kněž, M. Blank


The paper presents design and production of thin-walled U-profile footbridge made of UHPFRC. The main structure of the bridge is one prefabricated shell structure made of UHPFRC with dispersed steel fibers without any conventional reinforcement. The span of the bridge structure is 10 m and the clear width of 1.5 m. The thickness of the UHPFRC shell structure oscillated in an interval of 30-45 mm. Several calculations were made during the bridge design and compared with the experiments. For the purpose of verifying the calculations, a segment of 1.5 m was first produced, followed by the whole footbridge for testing. After the load tests were done, the design was optimized to cast the final footbridge.

Keywords: footbridge, non-linear analysis, shell structure, UHPFRC, Ultra-High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete

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6304 Improved Whale Algorithm Based on Information Entropy and Its Application in Truss Structure Optimization Design

Authors: Serges Mendomo Meye, Li Guowei, Shen Zhenzhong, Gan Lei, Xu Liqun


Given the limitations of the original whale optimization algorithm (WAO) in local optimum and low convergence accuracy in truss structure optimization problems, based on the fundamental whale algorithm, an improved whale optimization algorithm (SWAO) based on information entropy is proposed. The information entropy itself is an uncertain measure. It is used to control the range of whale searches in path selection. It can overcome the shortcomings of the basic whale optimization algorithm (WAO) and can improve the global convergence speed of the algorithm. Taking truss structure as the optimization research object, the mathematical model of truss structure optimization is established; the cross-sectional area of truss is taken as the design variable; the objective function is the weight of truss structure; and an improved whale optimization algorithm (SWAO) is used for optimization design, which provides a new idea and means for its application in large and complex engineering structure optimization design.

Keywords: information entropy, structural optimization, truss structure, whale algorithm

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