Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6080

Search results for: vertical electrical survey

6080 Residents’ Perceptions towards the Application of Vertical Landscape in Cairo, Egypt

Authors: Yomna Amr Ahmed Lotfi Koraim, Dalia Moati Rasmi Elkhateeb


Vertical landscape is introduced in this study as an alternative innovative technology for urban sustainable developments for its diverse environmental, economic, and psycho-social advantages. The main aim is to investigate the social acceptance of vertical landscape in Cairo, Egypt. The study objectives were to explore the perceptions of residents concerning this certain phenomenon and their opinions about its implementation. Survey questionnaires were administrated to 60 male and female residents from the Greater Cairo area. Despite the various concerns expressed about the application of vertical landscape, there was a clear majority of approval about its suitability. This is quite encouraging for the prospect of vertical landscape implementation in Cairo, Egypt.

Keywords: vertical landscape, green facades, vertical greening, social acceptance, sustainable urban development

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
6079 Social Sustainability Quotient of Vertical Habitats

Authors: Abdullah Mohamed, Raipat Vaidehi


With increasing immigration to urban areas, every city is experiencing shortage of housing. Vertical habitats are the only solution to this problem, it is hence important to make sure that these habitats are environmentally, socially and economically sustainable. A lot of work on vertical habitats has already been carried out in terms of environmental and economic sustainability, hence this research aims to study the aspects of social sustainability of the vertical habitats. It being the least studied topic, opens many reals of novelty and uniqueness. In this Research, user perception survey and various mapping methods have been used to study the social sustainability of the existing vertical habitats in the selected cities. The various aspects that can be used to define social sustainability of any place include; safety, equity, accessibility, legibility, imagibility, readability, memorability and ease of movement. This research would help to evolve new strategies in form of design and/or guidelines to make the existing vertical habitats socially sustainable.

Keywords: user lifestyle, user perception, social sustainability, vertical habitats

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
6078 Evaluation of Aquifer Protective Capacity and Soil Corrosivity Using Geoelectrical Method

Authors: M. T. Tsepav, Y. Adamu, M. A. Umar


A geoelectric survey was carried out in some parts of Angwan Gwari, an outskirt of Lapai Local Government Area on Niger State which belongs to the Nigerian Basement Complex, with the aim of evaluating the soil corrosivity, aquifer transmissivity and protective capacity of the area from which aquifer characterisation was made. The G41 Resistivity Meter was employed to obtain fifteen Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding data along profiles in a square grid network. The data were processed using interpex 1-D sounding inversion software, which gives vertical electrical sounding curves with layered model comprising of the apparent resistivities, overburden thicknesses and depth. This information was used to evaluate longitudinal conductance and transmissivities of the layers. The results show generally low resistivities across the survey area and an average longitudinal conductance variation from 0.0237Siemens in VES 6 to 0.1261 Siemens in VES 15 with almost the entire area giving values less than 1.0 Siemens. The average transmissivity values range from 96.45 Ω.m2 in VES 4 to 299070 Ω.m2 in VES 1. All but VES 4 and VES14 had an average overburden greater than 400 Ω.m2, these results suggest that the aquifers are highly permeable to fluid movement within, leading to the possibility of enhanced migration and circulation of contaminants in the groundwater system and that the area is generally corrosive.

Keywords: geoelectric survey, corrosivity, protective capacity, transmissivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
6077 Geophysical Exploration of Aquifer Zones by (Ves) Method at Ayma-Kharagpur, District Paschim Midnapore, West Bengal

Authors: Mayank Sharma


Groundwater has been a matter of great concern in the past years due to the depletion in the water table. This has resulted from the over-exploitation of groundwater resources. Sub-surface exploration of groundwater is a great way to identify the groundwater potential of an area. Thus, in order to meet the water needs for irrigation in the study area, there was a need for a tube well to be installed. Therefore, a Geophysical investigation was carried out to find the most suitable point of drilling and sinking of tube well that encounters an aquifer. Hence, an electrical resistivity survey of geophysical exploration was used to know the aquifer zones of the area. The Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method was employed to know the subsurface geology of the area. Seven vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger electrode array were carried out, having the maximum AB electrode separation of 700m at selected points in Ayma, Kharagpur-1 block of Paschim Midnapore district, West Bengal. The VES was done using an IGIS DDR3 Resistivity meter up to an approximate depth of 160-180m. The data was interpreted, processed and analyzed. Based on all the interpretations using the direct method, the geology of the area at the points of sounding was interpreted. It was established that two deeper clay-sand sections exist in the area at a depth of 50-70m (having resistivity range of 40-60ohm-m) and 70-160m (having resistivity range of 25-35ohm-m). These aquifers will provide a high yield of water which would be sufficient for the desired irrigation in the study area.

Keywords: VES method, Schlumberger method, electrical resistivity survey, geophysical exploration

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6076 Estimation of Aquifer Parameters Using Vertical Electrical Sounding in Ochudo City, Abakaliki Urban Nigeria

Authors: Moses. O. Eyankware, Benard I. Odoh, Omoleomo O. Omo-Irabor, Alex O. I. Selemo


Knowledge of hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity is essential for the determination of natural water flow through an aquifer. These parameters are commonly estimated from the analysis of electrical conductivity, soil properties and fluid flow data. In order to achieve a faster and cost effective analysis of aquifer parameters in Ochudo City in Abakaliki, this study relied on non-invasive geophysical methods. As part of this approach, Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) was conducted at 20 sites in the study area for the identification of the vertical variation in subsurface lithology and for the characterization of the groundwater system. The area variously consists of between five to seven geoelectric layers of different thicknesses. Depth to aquifer ranges from 9.94 m-134.0 m while the thickness of the identified aquifer varies between 8.43 m and 44.31 m. Based on the electrical conductivity values of water samples collected from two boreholes and two hand-dug wells within the study area, the hydraulic conductivity was determined to range from 0.10 to 0.433 m/day. The estimated thickness of the aquifer and calculated hydraulic conductivity were used to derive the aquifer transmissivity. The results indicate that this parameter ranges from 1.58-7.56 m²/day with a formation factor of between 0.31-3.6.

Keywords: Asu river group, transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, abakaliki, vertical electrical sounding (VES)

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
6075 Comparisons of Surveying with Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Total Station for Volume Determination of Overburden and Coal Excavations in Large Open-Pit Mine

Authors: B. Keawaram, P. Dumrongchai


The volume of overburden and coal excavations in open-pit mine is generally determined by conventional survey such as total station. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) used to measure overburden and coal excavations, and to compare TLS survey data sets with the data of the total station. Results revealed that, the reference points measured with the total station showed 0.2 mm precision for both horizontal and vertical coordinates. When using TLS on the same points, the standard deviations of 4.93 cm and 0.53 cm for horizontal and vertical coordinates, respectively, were achieved. For volume measurements covering the mining areas of 79,844 m2, TLS yielded the mean difference of about 1% and the surface error margin of 6 cm at the 95% confidence level when compared to the volume obtained by total station.

Keywords: mine, survey, terrestrial laser scanner, total station

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
6074 Geoelectric Survey for Groundwater Potential in Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria

Authors: Ibrahim Mohammed, Suleiman Taofiq, Muhammad Naziru Yahya


Geoelectrical measurements using Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method were carried out in Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria, with the aim of determining the groundwater potential in the area. Twelve (12) Vertical Electric Sounding (VES) data were collected using Terrameter (ABEM SAS 300c) and analyzed using computer software (IPI2win), which gives an automatic interpretation of the apparent resistivity. The results of the interpretation of VES data were used in the characterization of three to five geo-electric layers from which the aquifer units were delineated. Data analysis indicated that water bearing formation exists in the third and fourth layers having resistivity range of 312 to 767 Ωm and 9.51 to 681 Ωm, respectively. The thickness of the formation ranges from 14.7 to 41.8 m, while the depth is from 8.22 to 53.7 m. Based on the result obtained from the interpretation of the data, five (5) VES stations were recommended as the most viable locations for groundwater exploration in the study area. The VES stations include VES A4, A5, A6, B1, and B2. The VES results of the entire area indicated that the water bearing formation occurs at maximum depth of 53.7 m at the time of this survey.

Keywords: aquifer, depth, groundwater, resistivity, Schlumberger

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
6073 Analysis of Building Response from Vertical Ground Motions

Authors: George C. Yao, Chao-Yu Tu, Wei-Chung Chen, Fung-Wen Kuo, Yu-Shan Chang


Building structures are subjected to both horizontal and vertical ground motions during earthquakes, but only the horizontal ground motion has been extensively studied and considered in design. Most of the prevailing seismic codes assume the vertical component to be 1/2 to 2/3 of the horizontal one. In order to understand the building responses from vertical ground motions, many earthquakes records are studied in this paper. System identification methods (ARX Model) are used to analyze the strong motions and to find out the characteristics of the vertical amplification factors and the natural frequencies of buildings. Analysis results show that the vertical amplification factors for high-rise buildings and low-rise building are 1.78 and 2.52 respectively, and the average vertical amplification factor of all buildings is about 2. The relationship between the vertical natural frequency and building height was regressed to a suggested formula in this study. The result points out an important message; the taller the building is, the greater chance of resonance of vertical vibration on the building will be.

Keywords: vertical ground motion, vertical amplification factor, natural frequency, component

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
6072 Vertical Electrical Sounding and Seismic Refraction Techniques in Resolving Groundwater Problems at Kujama Prison Farm, Kaduna, Nigeria

Authors: M. D. Dogara, C. G, Afuwai, O. O. Esther, A. M. Dawai


For two decades, the inhabitants of Kujama Prison Farm faced problems of water for domestic and agricultural purposes, even after the drilling of three deep boreholes. The scarcity of this groundwater resource led to the geophysical investigation of the basement complex of the prison farm. Two geophysical techniques, vertical electrical sounding and seismic refraction methods were deployed to unravel the cause(s) of the non-productivity of the three boreholes. The area of investigation covered was 400,000 m2 of ten profiles with six investigative points. In all, 60 vertical electrical points were sounded, and sixty sets of seismic refraction data were collected using the forward and reverse approach. From the geoelectric sections, it is suggestive that the area is underlain by three to five geoelectric layers of varying thicknesses and resistivities. The result of the interpreted seismic data revealed two geovelocity layers, with velocities ranging between 478m/s to 1666m/s for the first layer and 1166m/s to 7141m/s for the second layer. From the combined results of the two techniques, it was suggestive that all the three unproductive boreholes were drilled at points that were neither weathered nor fractured. It was, therefore, suggested that new boreholes should be drilled at areas identified with depressed bedrock topography having geophysical evidence of intense weathering and fracturing within the fresh basement.

Keywords: groundwater, Kujama prison farm, kaduna, nigeria, seismic refraction, vertical electrical sounding

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6071 The Simultaneous Effect of Horizontal and Vertical Earthquake Components on the Seismic Response of Buckling-Restrained Braced Frame

Authors: Mahdi Shokrollahi


Over the past years, much research has been conducted on the vulnerability of structures to earthquakes, which only horizontal components of the earthquake were considered in their seismic analysis and vertical earthquake acceleration especially in near-fault area was less considered. The investigation of the mappings shows that vertical earthquake acceleration can be significantly closer to the maximum horizontal earthquake acceleration, and even exceeds it in some cases. This study has compared the behavior of different members of three steel moment frame with a buckling-restrained brace (BRB), one time only by considering the horizontal component and again by considering simultaneously the horizontal and vertical components under the three mappings of the near-fault area and the effect of vertical acceleration on structural responses is investigated. Finally, according to the results, the vertical component of the earthquake has a greater effect on the axial force of the columns and the vertical displacement of the middle of the beams of the different classes and less on the lateral displacement of the classes.

Keywords: vertical earthquake acceleration, near-fault area, steel frame, horizontal and vertical component of earthquake, buckling-restrained brace

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
6070 Study of the Vertical Handoff in Heterogeneous Networks and Implement Based on Opnet

Authors: Wafa Benaatou, Adnane Latif


In this document we studied more in detail the Performances of the vertical handover in the networks WLAN, WiMAX, UMTS before studying of it the Procedure of Handoff Vertical, the whole buckled by simulations putting forward the performances of the handover in the heterogeneous networks. The goal of Vertical Handover is to carry out several accesses in real-time in the heterogeneous networks. This makes it possible a user to use several networks (such as WLAN UMTS and WiMAX) in parallel, and the system to commutate automatically at another basic station, without disconnecting itself, as if there were no cut and with little loss of data as possible.

Keywords: vertical handoff, WLAN, UMTS, WIMAX, heterogeneous

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
6069 Human Walking Vertical Force and Vertical Vibration of Pedestrian Bridge Induced by Its Higher Components

Authors: Masahiro Yoneda


The purpose of this study is to identify human walking vertical force by using FFT power spectrum density from the experimental acceleration data of the human body. An experiment on human walking is carried out on a stationary floor especially paying attention to higher components of dynamic vertical walking force. Based on measured acceleration data of the human lumbar part, not only in-phase component with frequency of 2 fw, 3 fw, but also in-opposite-phase component with frequency of 0.5 fw, 1.5 fw, 2.5 fw where fw is the walking rate is observed. The vertical vibration of pedestrian bridge induced by higher components of human walking vertical force is also discussed in this paper. A full scale measurement for the existing pedestrian bridge with center span length of 33 m is carried out focusing on the resonance phenomenon due to higher components of human walking vertical force. Dynamic response characteristics excited by these vertical higher components of human walking are revealed from the dynamic design viewpoint of pedestrian bridge.

Keywords: simplified method, human walking vertical force, higher component, pedestrian bridge vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
6068 Characteristics of Silicon Integrated Vertical Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors

Authors: Jingqi Li


A new vertical carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET) has been developed. The source, drain and gate are vertically stacked in this structure. The carbon nanotubes are put on the side wall of the vertical stack. Unique transfer characteristics which depend on both silicon type and the sign of drain voltage have been observed in silicon integrated CNTFETs. The significant advantage of this CNTFET is that the short channel of the transistor can be fabricated without using complicate lithography technique.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, field-effect transistors, electrical property, short channel fabrication

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
6067 Vertical Accuracy Evaluation of Indian National DEM (CartoDEM v3) Using Dual Frequency GNSS Derived Ground Control Points for Lower Tapi Basin, Western India

Authors: Jaypalsinh B. Parmar, Pintu Nakrani, Ashish Chaurasia


Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is considered as an important data in GIS-based terrain analysis for many applications and assessment of processes such as environmental and climate change studies, hydrologic modelling, etc. Vertical accuracy of DEM having geographically dynamic nature depends on different parameters which affect the model simulation outcomes. Vertical accuracy assessment in Indian landscape especially in low-lying coastal urban terrain such as lower Tapi Basin is very limited. In the present study, attempt has been made to evaluate the vertical accuracy of 30m resolution open source Indian National Cartosat-1 DEM v3 for Lower Tapi Basin (LTB) from western India. The extensive field investigation is carried out using stratified random fast static DGPS survey in the entire study region, and 117 high accuracy ground control points (GCPs) have been obtained. The above open source DEM was compared with obtained GCPs, and different statistical attributes were envisaged, and vertical error histograms were also evaluated.

Keywords: CartoDEM, Digital Elevation Model, GPS, lower Tapi basin

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
6066 Geoelectical Resistivity Method in Aquifer Characterization at Opic Estate, Isheri-Osun River Basin, South Western Nigeria

Authors: B. R. Faleye, M. I. Titocan, M. P. Ibitola


Investigation was carried out at Opic Estate in Isheri-Osun River Basin environment using Electrical Resistivity method to study saltwater intrusion into a fresh water aquifer system from the proximal estuarine water body. The investigation is aimed at aquifer characterisation using electrical resistivity method in order to provide the depth to which fresh water fit for both domestic and industrial consumption. The 2D Electrical Resistivity and Vertical Electrical Resistivity techniques alongside Laboratory analysis of water samples obtained from the boreholes were adopted. Three traverses were investigated using Wenner and Pole-Dipole array with multi-electrode system consisting of 84 electrodes and a spread of 581 m, 664 m and 830 m were attained on the traverses. The main lithologies represented in the study area are Sand, Clay and Clayey Sand of which Sand constitutes the aquifer in the study area. Vertical Electrical Sounding data obtained at different lateral distance on the traverses have indicated that the water in the aquifer in the subsurface is brackish. Brackish water is represented by lowelectrical resistivity value signature while fresh water is characterized by relatively high electrical resistivity and in some regionfresh water is existent at depth greater than 200 m. Results of laboratory analysis of samples showed that the pH, Salinity, Total Dissolved Solid and Conductivity indicated existence of water with poor quality, indicating that salinity, TDS and Conductivity is higher in the Northern part of the study area. The 2D electrical resistivity and Vertical Electrical Sounding methods indicate that fresh water region is at ≥200m depth. Aquifers not fit for domestic use in the study area occur downwards to about 200 m in depth. In conclusion, it is recommended that wells should be sunkbeyond 220 m for the possible procurement of portable fresh water.

Keywords: 2D electrical resistivity, aquifer, brackish water, lithologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
6065 Horizontal and Vertical Illuminance Correlations in a Case Study for Shaded South Facing Surfaces

Authors: S. Matour, M. Mahdavinejad, R. Fayaz


Daylight utilization is a key factor in achieving visual and thermal comfort, and energy savings in integrated building design. However, lack of measured data related to this topic has become a major challenge with the increasing need for integrating lighting concepts and simulations in the early stages of design procedures. The current paper deals with the values of daylight illuminance on horizontal and south facing vertical surfaces; the data are estimated using IESNA model and measured values of the horizontal and vertical illuminance, and a regression model with an acceptable linear correlation is obtained. The resultant illuminance frequency curves are useful for estimating daylight availability on south facing surfaces in Tehran. In addition, the relationship between indirect vertical illuminance and the corresponding global horizontal illuminance is analyzed. A simple parametric equation is proposed in order to predict the vertical illumination on a shaded south facing surface. The equation correlates the ratio between the vertical and horizontal illuminance to the solar altitude and is used with another relationship for prediction of the vertical illuminance. Both equations show good agreement, which allows for calculation of indirect vertical illuminance on a south facing surface at any time throughout the year.

Keywords: Tehran daylight availability, horizontal illuminance, vertical illuminance, diffuse illuminance

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
6064 Developing Indoor Enhanced Bio Composite Vertical Smart Farming System for Climbing Food Plant

Authors: S. Mokhtar, R. Ibrahim, K. Abdan, A. Rashidi


The population in the world are growing in very fast rate. It is expected that urban growth and development would create serious questions of food production and processing, transport, and consumption. Future smart green city policies are emerging to support new ways of visualizing, organizing and managing the city and its flows towards developing more sustainable cities in ensuring food security while maintaining its biodiversity. This is a survey paper analyzing the feasibility of developing a smart vertical farming system for climbing food plant to meet the need of food consumption in urban cities with an alternative green material. This paper documents our investigation on specific requirement for farming high valued climbing type food plant suitable for vertical farming, development of appropriate biocomposite material composition, and design recommendations for developing a new smart vertical farming system inside urban buildings. Results include determination of suitable specific climbing food plant species and material manufacturing processes for reinforcing natural fiber for biocomposite material. The results are expected to become recommendations for developing alternative structural materials for climbing food plant later on towards the development of the future smart vertical farming system. This paper contributes to supporting urban farming in cities and promotes green materials for preserving the environment. Hence supporting efforts in food security agenda especially for developing nations.

Keywords: biocomposite, natural reinforce fiber, smart farming, vertical farming

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
6063 Behaviour of Laterally Loaded Pile Groups in Cohesionless Soil

Authors: V. K. Arora, Suraj Prakash


Pile foundations are provided to transfer the vertical and horizontal loads of superstructures like high rise buildings, bridges, offshore structures etc. to the deep strata in the soil. These vertical and horizontal loads are due to the loads coming from the superstructure and wind, water thrust, earthquake, and earth pressure, respectively. In a pile foundation, piles are used in groups. Vertical piles in a group of piles are more efficient to take vertical loads as compared to horizontal loads and when the horizontal load per pile exceeds the bearing capacity of the vertical piles in that case batter piles are used with vertical piles because batter piles can take more lateral loads than vertical piles. In this paper, a model study was conducted on three vertical pile group with single positive and negative battered pile subjected to lateral loads. The batter angle for battered piles was ±35◦ with the vertical axis. Piles were spaced at 2.5d (d=diameter of pile) to each other. The soil used for model test was cohesionless soil. Lateral loads were applied in three stages on all the pile groups individually and it was found that under the repeated action of lateral loading, the deflection of the piles increased under the same loading. After comparing the results, it was found that the pile group with positive batter pile fails at 28 kgf and the pile group with negative batter pile fails at 24 kgf so it shows that positive battered piles are stronger than the negative battered piles.

Keywords: vertical piles, positive battered piles, negative battered piles, cohesionless soil, lateral loads, model test

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
6062 Analyzing Time Lag in Seismic Waves and Its Effects on Isolated Structures

Authors: Faizan Ahmad, Jenna Wong


Time lag between peak values of horizontal and vertical seismic waves is a well-known phenomenon. Horizontal and vertical seismic waves, secondary and primary waves in nature respectively, travel through different layers of soil and the travel time is dependent upon the medium of wave transmission. In seismic analysis, many standardized codes do not require the actual vertical acceleration to be part of the analysis procedure. Instead, a factor load addition for a particular site is used to capture strength demands in case of vertical excitation. This study reviews the effects of vertical accelerations to analyze the behavior of a linearly rubber isolated structure in different time lag situations and frequency content by application of historical and simulated ground motions using SAP2000. The response of the structure is reviewed under multiple sets of ground motions and trends based on time lag and frequency variations are drawn. The accuracy of these results is discussed and evaluated to provide reasoning for use of real vertical excitations in seismic analysis procedures, especially for isolated structures.

Keywords: seismic analysis, vertical accelerations, time lag, isolated structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
6061 Proposed Framework based on Classification of Vertical Handover Decision Strategies in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

Authors: Shidrokh Goudarzi, Wan Haslina Hassan


Heterogeneous wireless networks are converging towards an all-IP network as part of the so-called next-generation network. In this paradigm, different access technologies need to be interconnected; thus, vertical handovers or vertical handoffs are necessary for seamless mobility. In this paper, we conduct a review of existing vertical handover decision-making mechanisms that aim to provide ubiquitous connectivity to mobile users. To offer a systematic comparison, we categorize these vertical handover measurement and decision structures based on their respective methodology and parameters. Subsequently, we analyze several vertical handover approaches in the literature and compare them according to their advantages and weaknesses. The paper compares the algorithms based on the network selection methods, complexity of the technologies used and efficiency in order to introduce our vertical handover decision framework. We find that vertical handovers on heterogeneous wireless networks suffer from the lack of a standard and efficient method to satisfy both user and network quality of service requirements at different levels including architectural, decision-making and protocols. Also, the consolidation of network terminal, cross-layer information, multi packet casting and intelligent network selection algorithm appears to be an optimum solution for achieving seamless service continuity in order to facilitate seamless connectivity.

Keywords: heterogeneous wireless networks, vertical handovers, vertical handover metric, decision-making algorithms

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
6060 Optimal Number and Placement of Vertical Links in 3D Network-On-Chip

Authors: Nesrine Toubaline, Djamel Bennouar, Ali Mahdoum


3D technology can lead to a significant reduction in power and average hop-count in Networks on Chip (NoCs). It offers short and fast vertical links which copes with the long wire problem in 2D NoCs. This work proposes heuristic-based method to optimize number and placement of vertical links to achieve specified performance goals. Experiments show that significant improvement can be achieved by using a specific number of vertical interconnect.

Keywords: interconnect optimization, monolithic inter-tier vias, network on chip, system on chip, through silicon vias, three dimensional integration circuits

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
6059 Effect of Prefabricated Vertical Drain System Properties on Embankment Behavior

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Ali Namaei


This study presents the effect of prefabricated vertical drain system properties on embankment behavior by calculating the settlement, lateral displacement and induced excess pore pressure by numerical method. In order to investigate this behavior, three different prefabricated vertical drains have been simulated under an embankment. The finite element software PLAXIS has been carried out for analyzing the displacements and excess pore pressures. The results showed that the consolidation time and induced excess pore pressure are highly depended to the discharge capacity of the prefabricated vertical drain. The increase in the discharge capacity leads to decrease the consolidation process and the induced excess pore pressure. Moreover, it was seen that the vertical drains spacing does not have any significant effect on the consolidation time. However, the increase in the drains spacing would decrease the system stiffness.

Keywords: vertical drain, prefabricated, consolidation, embankment

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
6058 Delineation of Fracture Zones for Investigation of Groundwater Potentials Using Vertical Electrical Sounding in a Sedimentary Complex Terrain

Authors: M. N. Yahaya, K. A. Salako, U. Z. Magawata


Vertical electrical sounding (VES) method was used to investigate the groundwater potential at the southern part of Gulumbe district, Kebbi State, north-western part of Nigeria. The study was carried out with the aim of determining the subsurface layer’s parameters (resistivity and thickness) and uses the same to characterize the groundwater potential of the study area. The Schlumberger configuration was used for data acquisition. A total number of thirty-three (33) sounding points (VES) were surveyed over six profiles. The software IPI2WIN was used to obtain n-layered geo-electric sections. The geo-electric section drawn from the results of the interpretation revealed that three subsurface layers could be delineated, which comprise of top soil, sand, sandstone, coarse sand, limestone, and gravelly sand. The results of the resistivity sounding were correlated with the lithological logs of nearby boreholes that expose cross-section geologic units around the study area. We found out that the area is dominated by three subsurface layers. The coarse sand layers constituted the aquifer zones in the majority of sounding stations. Thus, this present study concluded that the depth of any borehole in the study area should be located between the depth of 18.5 to 39 m. The study further classified the VES points penetrated based on their conductivity content as highly suitable, suitable, moderately suitably, and poor zones for groundwater exploration. Hence, from this research, we recommended that boreholes can be sited in high conductivity zones across VES 2, 11, 13, 16, 20, 21, 27, and 33, respectively.

Keywords: vertical electrical sounding, resistivity, geo-electric, resistivity, aquifer and groundwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
6057 Study of Pre-Handwriting Factors Necessary for Successful Handwriting in Children

Authors: Lalitchandra J. Shah, Katarzyna Bialek, Melinda L. Clarke, Jessica L. Jansson


Handwriting is essential to academic success; however, the current literature is limited in the identification of pre-handwriting skills. The purpose of this study was to identify the pre-handwriting skills, which occupational therapy practitioners deem important to handwriting success, as well as those which aid in intervention planning. The online survey instrument consisted of 33 questions that assessed various skills related to the development of handwriting, as well as captured demographic information. Both occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants were included in the survey study. The survey found that the respondents were in agreement that purposeful scribbling, the ability of a child to copy (vertical/horizontal lines, circle, squares, and triangles), imitating an oblique cross, cognitive skills (attention, praxis, self-regulation, sequencing), grasp patterns, hand dominance, in hand manipulation skills (shift, translation, rotation), bilateral integration, stabilization of paper, crossing midline, and visual perception were important indicators of handwriting readiness. The results of the survey support existing research regarding the skills necessary for the successful development of handwriting in children.

Keywords: development, handwriting, occupational therapy, visual perceptual skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
6056 Determination of Surface Deformations with Global Navigation Satellite System Time Series

Authors: Ibrahim Tiryakioglu, Mehmet Ali Ugur, Caglar Ozkaymak


The development of GNSS technology has led to increasingly widespread and successful applications of GNSS surveys for monitoring crustal movements. However, multi-period GPS survey solutions have not been applied in monitoring vertical surface deformation. This study uses long-term GNSS time series that are required to determine vertical deformations. In recent years, the surface deformations that are parallel and semi-parallel to Bolvadin fault have occurred in Western Anatolia. These surface deformations have continued to occur in Bolvadin settlement area that is located mostly on alluvium ground. Due to these surface deformations, a number of cracks in the buildings located in the residential areas and breaks in underground water and sewage systems have been observed. In order to determine the amount of vertical surface deformations, two continuous GNSS stations have been established in the region. The stations have been operating since 2015 and 2017, respectively. In this study, GNSS observations from the mentioned two GNSS stations were processed with GAMIT/GLOBK (GNSS Analysis Massachusetts Institute of Technology/GLOBal Kalman) program package to create a coordinate time series. With the time series analyses, the GNSS stations’ behavior models (linear, periodical, etc.), the causes of these behaviors, and mathematical models were determined. The study results from the time series analysis of these two 2 GNSS stations shows approximately 50-80 mm/yr vertical movement.

Keywords: Bolvadin fault, GAMIT, GNSS time series, surface deformations

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
6055 Effect of Blade Layout on Unidirectional Rotation of a Vertical-Axis Rotor in Waves

Authors: Yingchen Yang


Ocean waves are a rich renewable energy source that is nearly untapped to date, even though many wave energy conversion (WEC) technologies are currently under development. The present work discusses a vertical-axis WEC rotor for power generation. The rotor was specially designed to allow easy rearrangement of the same blades to achieve different rotor configurations and result in different wave-rotor interaction behaviors. These rotor configurations were tested in a wave tank under various wave conditions. The testing results indicate that all the rotor configurations perform unidirectional rotation about the vertical axis in waves, but the response characteristics are somewhat different. The rotor's unidirectional rotation about its vertical axis is essential in wave energy harvesting since it makes the rotor respond well in a wide range of the wave frequency and in any wave propagation directions. Result comparison among different configurations leads to a preferred rotor design for further hydrodynamic optimization.

Keywords: unidirectional rotation, vertical axis rotor, wave energy conversion, wave-rotor interaction

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6054 Application of Electrical Resistivity Surveys on Constraining Causes of Highway Pavement Failure along Ajaokuta-Anyigba Road, North Central Nigeria

Authors: Moroof, O. Oloruntola, Sunday Oladele, Daniel, O. Obasaju, Victor, O Ojekunle, Olateju, O. Bayewu, Ganiyu, O. Mosuro


Integrated geophysical methods involving Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and 2D resistivity survey were deployed to gain an insight into the influence of the two varying rock types (mica-schist and granite gneiss) underlying the road alignment to the incessant highway failure along Ajaokuta-Anyigba, North-central Nigeria. The highway serves as a link-road for the single largest cement factory in Africa (Dangote Cement Factory) and two major ceramic industries to the capital (Abuja) via Lokoja. 2D Electrical Resistivity survey (Dipole-Dipole Array) and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) (Schlumberger array) were employed. Twenty-two (22) 2D profiles were occupied, twenty (20) conducted about 1 m away from the unstable section underlain by mica-schist with profile length each of approximately 100 m. Two (2) profiles were conducted about 1 m away from the stable section with a profile length of 100 m each due to barriers caused by the drainage system and outcropping granite gneiss at the flanks of the road. A spacing of 2 m was used for good image resolution of the near-surface. On each 2D profile, a range of 1-3 VES was conducted; thus, forty-eight (48) soundings were acquired. Partial curve matching and WinResist software were used to obtain the apparent and true resistivity values of the 1D survey, while DiprofWin software was used for processing the 2-D survey. Two exposed lithologic sections caused by abandoned river channels adjacent to two profiles as well as the knowledge of the geology of the area helped to constrain the VES and 2D processing and interpretation. Generally, the resistivity values obtained reflect the parent rock type, degree of weathering, moisture content and competency of the tested area. Resistivity values < 100; 100 – 950; 1000 – 2000 and > 2500 ohms-m were interpreted as clay, weathered layer, partly weathered layer and fresh basement respectively. The VES results and 2-D resistivity structures along the unstable segment showed similar lithologic characteristics and sequences dominated by clayey substratum for depths range of 0 – 42.2 m. The clayey substratum is a product of intensive weathering of the parent rock (mica-schist) and constitutes weak foundation soils, causing highway failure. This failure is further exacerbated by several heavy-duty trucks which ply the section round the clock due to proximity to two major ceramic industries in the state and lack of drainage system. The two profiles on the stable section show 2D structures that are remarkably different from those of the unstable section with very thin topsoils, higher resistivity weathered substratum (indicating the presence of coarse fragments from the parent rock) and shallow depth to the basement (1.0 – 7. 1 m). Also, the presence of drainage and lower volume of heavy-duty trucks are contributors to the pavement stability of this section of the highway. The resistivity surveys effectively delineated two contrasting soil profiles of the subbase/subgrade that reflect variation in the mineralogy of underlying parent rocks.

Keywords: clay, geophysical methods, pavement, resistivity

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6053 Study of the Benefit Analysis Using Vertical Farming Method in Urban Renewal within the Older City of Taichung

Authors: Hsu Kuo-Wei, Tan Roon Fang, Chao Jen-chih


Cities face environmental challenges, including over-urbanization issues, air and water quality issues, lack of green space, excess heat capture, polluted storm water runoff and lack of ecological biodiversity. The vertical farming holds the condition of technology addressing these issues by enabling more food to be produced with finite less resources use and space. Most of the existing research regarding to technology Industry of agriculture between plant factory and vertical greening, which with high costs and high-technology. Relative research developed a sustainable model for construction and operation of the vertical farm in urban housing which aims to revolutionize our daily life of food production and urban development. However, those researches focused on quantitative analysis. This study utilized relative research for key variables of benefits of vertical farming. In the second stage, utilizes Fuzzy Delphi Method to obtain the critical factors of benefits of vertical farming using in Urban Renewal by interviewing the foregoing experts. Then, Analytic Hierarchy Process is applied to find the importance degree of each criterion as the measurable indices of the vertical farming method in urban renewal within the older city of Taichung.

Keywords: urban renewal, vertical farming, urban agriculture, benefit analysis, the older city of Taichung

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6052 Experimental Investigation for the Overtopping Wave Force of the Vertical Breakwater

Authors: Jin Song Gui, Han Li, Rui Jin Zhang, Heng Jiang Cai


There is a large deviation between the measured wave power at the vertical breast wall and the calculated one according to current specification in the case of overtopping. In order to investigate the reasons for the deviation, the wave forces of vertical breast wall under overtopping conditions have been measured through physical model experiment and compared with the calculated results. The effect of water depth, period and the wave height on the wave forces of the vertical breast wall have been also investigated. The distribution of wave pressure under different wave actions was tested based on the force sensor which is installed in the vertical breakwater. By comparing and analyzing the measured values and norms calculated values, the applicability of the existing norms recommended method were discussed and a reference for the design of vertical breakwater was provided. Experiment results show that with the decrease of the water depth, the gap is growing between the actual wave forces and the specification values, and there are no obvious regulations between these two values with the variation of period while wave force greatly reduces with the overtopping reducing. The amount of water depth and wave overtopping has a significant impact on the wave force of overtopping section while the period has no obvious influence on the wave force. Finally, some favorable recommendations for the overtopping wave force design of the vertical breakwater according to the model experiment results are provided.

Keywords: overtopping wave, physical model experiment, vertical breakwater, wave forces

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6051 Geographical Information System-Based Approach for Vertical Takeoff and Landing Takeoff and Landing Site Selection

Authors: Chamnan Kumsap, Somsarit Sinnung, Suriyawate Boonthalarath, Teeranai Srithamarong


This research paper addresses the GIS analysis approach to the investigation of suitable sites for a vertical takeoff and landing drone. The study manipulated GIS and terrain layers into a proper input before the spatial analysis that included slope, reclassify, classify, and buffer was applied to the individual layers. The output layers were weighted, and multi-criteria analyzed before those patches failing to comply with filtering out criteria were discarded. Field survey for each suitable candidate site was conducted to cross-check the proposed approach with the real world. Conclusion was extracted for the VTOL takeoff and landing sites, and discussion was provided with further study being suggested on the mission simulation of selected takeoff and landing sites.

Keywords: GIS approach, site selection, VTOL, takeoff and landing

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