Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5482

Search results for: positive battered piles

5482 Behaviour of Laterally Loaded Pile Groups in Cohesionless Soil

Authors: V. K. Arora, Suraj Prakash


Pile foundations are provided to transfer the vertical and horizontal loads of superstructures like high rise buildings, bridges, offshore structures etc. to the deep strata in the soil. These vertical and horizontal loads are due to the loads coming from the superstructure and wind, water thrust, earthquake, and earth pressure, respectively. In a pile foundation, piles are used in groups. Vertical piles in a group of piles are more efficient to take vertical loads as compared to horizontal loads and when the horizontal load per pile exceeds the bearing capacity of the vertical piles in that case batter piles are used with vertical piles because batter piles can take more lateral loads than vertical piles. In this paper, a model study was conducted on three vertical pile group with single positive and negative battered pile subjected to lateral loads. The batter angle for battered piles was ±35◦ with the vertical axis. Piles were spaced at 2.5d (d=diameter of pile) to each other. The soil used for model test was cohesionless soil. Lateral loads were applied in three stages on all the pile groups individually and it was found that under the repeated action of lateral loading, the deflection of the piles increased under the same loading. After comparing the results, it was found that the pile group with positive batter pile fails at 28 kgf and the pile group with negative batter pile fails at 24 kgf so it shows that positive battered piles are stronger than the negative battered piles.

Keywords: vertical piles, positive battered piles, negative battered piles, cohesionless soil, lateral loads, model test

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
5481 Load-Settlement Behaviour of Geogrid-Reinforced Sand Bed over Granular Piles

Authors: Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sanjay Kumar Shukla


Granular piles are a popular ground improvement technique in soft cohesive soils as well as for loose non-cohesive soils. The present experimental study has been carried out on granular piles in loose (Relative density = 30%) and medium dense (Relative density = 60%) sands with geogrid reinforcement within the sand bed over the granular piles. A group of five piles were installed in the sand at different spacing, s = 2d, 3d and 4d, d being the diameter of the pile. The length (L = 0.4 m) and diameter (d = 50 mm) of the piles were kept constant for all the series of experiments. The load-settlement behavior of reinforced sand bed and granular piles system was studied by applying the load on a square footing. The results show that the effect of reinforcement increases the load bearing capacity of the piles. It is also found that an increase in spacing between piles decreases the settlement for both loose and medium dense soil.

Keywords: granular pile, load-carrying capacity, settlement, geogrid reinforcement, sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
5480 An Analytical Approach to Calculate Thermo-Mechanical Stresses in Integral Abutment Bridge Piles

Authors: Jafar Razmi


Integral abutment bridges are bridges that do not have joints. If these bridges are subject to large seasonal and daily temperature variations, the expansion and contraction of the bridge slab is transferred to the piles. Since the piles are deep into the soil, displacement induced by slab can cause bending and stresses in piles. These stresses cause fatigue and failure of piles. A complex mechanical interaction exists between the slab, pile, soil and abutment. This complex interaction needs to be understood in order to calculate the stresses in piles. This paper uses a mechanical approach in developing analytical equations for the complex structure to determine the stresses in piles. The solution to these analytical solutions is developed and compared with finite element analysis results and experimental data. Our comparison shows that using analytical approach can accurately predict the displacement in piles. This approach offers a simplified technique that can be utilized without the need for computationally extensive finite element model.

Keywords: integral abutment bridges, piles, thermo-mechanical stress, stress and strains

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
5479 3 Dimensions Finite Element Analysis of Tunnel-Pile Interaction Scenarios Using Abaqus Software

Authors: Haitham J. M. Odeh


This paper introduced an analysis of the effect of tunneling near pile foundations. Accomplished by three-dimensional finite element modeling. The numerical simulation is conducted using Abaqus finite element software. By examining different Tunnel-pile scenarios. The paper presents the tunnel induced pile responses, Such as pile settlement, pile internal forces, and the comments made on changing the vertical and transversal location of the tunnel related to the piles, the study contains two pile-supported structure cases, single and a group of piles. A comprehensive comparison between real case study results and numerical simulation is presented. The results of the analysis reveal the critical and safe location of tunnel construction and the positive effect of a group of piles existing instead of single piles. Also, demonstrates the changes in pile responses by changing the tunnel location.

Keywords: pile responses, single pile, group of piles, pile-tunnel interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
5478 Pullout Capacity of Hybrid Anchor Piles

Authors: P. Hari Krishna, V. Ramana Murty


Different types of foundations are subjected to pullout or tensile loads depending on the soil in which they are embedded or due to the structural loads coming on them. In those circumstances, anchors were generally used to resist these loads. This paper presents the field pullout studies on hybrid anchor piles embedded in different types of soils. The pullout capacity and resistance of the hybrid granular anchor piles installed in the native expansive soil which is available in the campus are compared with similar hybrid concrete anchor piles which were installed in similar field conditions.

Keywords: expansive soil, hybrid concrete anchor piles, hybrid granular anchor piles, pullout tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
5477 Wetting-Drying Cycles Effect on Piles Embedded in a Very High Expansive Soil

Authors: Bushra Suhail, Laith Kadim


The behavior of model piles embedded in a very high expansive soil was investigated, a specially manufactured saturation-drying tank was used to apply three cycles of wetting and drying to the expansive soil surrounding the model straight shaft and under reamed piles, the relative movement of the piles with respect to the soil surface was recorded with time, also the exerted uplift pressure of the piles due to soil swelling was recorded. The behavior of unloaded straight shaft and under reamed piles was investigated. Two design charts were presented for straight shaft and under reamed piles one for the required pile depth for zero upward movement due to soil swelling, the other for the required pile depth to exert zero uplift pressure when the soil swells. Under reamed piles showed a decrease in upward movement of 20% to 40%, and an uplift pressure decrease of 10% to 30%.

Keywords: expansive soil, piles, under reamed, structural and geotechnical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
5476 Effect of Elastic Modulus Anisotropy on Helical Piles Behavior in Sandy Soil

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Javad Shamsi Soosahab


Helical piles are being used extensively in engineering applications all over the world. There are insufficient studies on the helical piles' behavior in anisotropic soils. In this paper, numerical modeling was adopted to investigate the effect of elastic modulus anisotropy on helical pile behavior resting on anisotropic sand by using a finite element limit analysis. The load-displacement behavior of helical piles under compression and tension loads is investigated in different relative densities of soils, and the effect of the ratio of horizontal elastic modulus with respect to vertical elastic modulus (EH/EV) is evaluated. The obtained results illustrate that in sandy soils, the anisotropic ratio of elastic modulus (EH/EV) has notable effect on bearing capacity of helical piles in different relative density. Therefore, it may be recommended that the effect of anisotropic condition of soil elastic modulus should be considered in helical piles behavior.

Keywords: helical piles, bearing capacity, numerical modeling, soil anisotropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
5475 Influence of Nonlinearity of Concrete and Reinforcement Using Micropiles on the Seismic Interaction of Soil-Piles-Bridge

Authors: Mohanad Alfach, Amjad Al Helwani


Post-seismic observations of recent devastating earthquakes have shown that the behavior of the soil-pile-structure shows strong nonlinearity of soil and concrete under intensive seismic loading. Many of pile ruptures recently observed after the strong earthquake due to structural reasons (development of plastic hinges in the piles). The most likely reason for this rupture is the exceeding of maximum bending moment supported by the pile at several points. An analysis of these problems is necessary to take into account the nonlinearity of concrete, the strategy of strengthening the damaged piles and the interaction of these piles with the proposed strengthening by using micropiles. This study aims to investigate the interaction aspects for soil-piles- micropiles-structure using a global approach with a three dimensional finite difference code Flac 3D (Fast lagrangian analysis of continua in 3 dimensions).

Keywords: interaction, piles, micropiles, concrete, seismic, nonlinear, three-dimensional

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
5474 Optimum Design of Piled-Raft Systems

Authors: Alaa Chasib Ghaleb, Muntadher M. Abbood


This paper presents a study of the problem of the optimum design of piled-raft foundation systems. The study has been carried out using a hypothetic problem and soil investigations of six sites locations in Basrah city to evaluate the adequacy of using the piled-raft foundation concept. Three dimensional finite element analysis method has been used, to perform the structural analysis. The problem is optimized using Hooke and Jeeves method with the total weight of the foundation as objective function and each of raft thickness, piles length, number of piles and piles diameter as design variables. It is found that the total and differential settlement decreases with increasing the raft thickness, the number of piles, the piles length, and the piles diameter. Finally parametric study for load values, load type and raft dimensions have been studied and the results have been discussed.

Keywords: Hooke and Jeeves, optimum design, piled-raft, foundations

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
5473 Behavior of Helical Piles as Foundation of Photovoltaic Panels in Tropical Soils

Authors: Andrea J. Alarcón, Maxime Daulat, Raydel Lorenzo, Renato P. Da Cunha, Pierre Breul


Brazil has increased the use of renewable energy during the last years. Due to its sunshine and large surface area, photovoltaic panels founded in helical piles have been used to produce solar energy. Since Brazilian territory is mainly cover by highly porous structured tropical soils, when the helical piles are installed this structure is broken and its soil properties are modified. Considering the special characteristics of these soils, helical foundations behavior must be extensively studied. The first objective of this work is to determine the most suitable method to estimate the tensile capacity of helical piles in tropical soils. The second objective is to simulate the behavior of these piles in tropical soil. To obtain the rupture to assess load-displacement curves and the ultimate load, also a numerical modelling using Plaxis software was conducted. Lastly, the ultimate load and the load-displacements curves are compared with experimental values to validate the implemented model.

Keywords: finite element, helical piles, modelling, tropical soil, uplift capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
5472 Settlement Analysis of Axially Loaded Bored Piles: A Case History

Authors: M. Mert, M. T. Ozkan


Pile load tests should be applied to check the bearing capacity calculations and to determine the settlement of the pile corresponding to test load. Strain gauges can be installed into pile in order to determine the shaft resistance of the piles for every soil layer respectively. Detailed results can be obtained by means of strain gauges placed at certain levels into test piles. In the scope of this study, pile load test data obtained from two different projects are examined.  Instrumented static pile load tests were applied on totally 7 test bored piles of different diameters (80 cm, 150 cm, and 200 cm) and different lengths (between 30-76 m) in two different project site. Settlement analysis of test piles is done by using some of load transfer methods and finite element method. Plaxis 3D which is a three-dimensional finite element program is also used for settlement analysis of the test piles. In this study, firstly bearing capacity of test piles are determined and compared with strain gauge data which is required for settlement analysis. Then, settlement values of the test piles are estimated by using load transfer methods developed in recent years and finite element method. The aim of this study is to show similarities and differences between the results obtained from settlement analysis methods and instrumented pile load tests.

Keywords: failure, finite element method, monitoring and instrumentation, pile, settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
5471 Experimental Study on Weak Cohesion Less Soil Using Granular Piles with Geogrid Reinforcement

Authors: Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Swetha Priya Pisini


Granular piles are becoming popular as a technique of deep ground improvement not only in soft cohesive soils but also in loose cohesionless deposits. The present experimental study has been carried out on granular piles in sand (loose sand and medium dense sand i.e. relative density at 15% and 30%) with geogrid reinforcement. In this experimental study, a group of five piles installed in sand (at different spacing i.e s = 2d, 3d and 4d) the length and diameter of the pile (L = 0.4 m and d= 50 mm) kept as same for all series of experiments. Geogrid reinforcement is provided on granular piles with a limited number of laboratory tests. It has been conducted in laboratory to study the behavior of a granular pile with reinforced geogrid layers supporting a square footing at different s/d ratios. The influence of geogrid layers providing on granular piles investigated through model tests. In this paper the experimental study carried out results in significant increase in load carrying capacity and decrease in settlement reduction of the weak cohesionless soil. Also, the behavior of load carrying capacity and settlement with changing the s/d ratio has been carried out through a parametric study.

Keywords: granular piles, cohesionless soil, geogrid reinforcement, load carrying capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
5470 Effect of Installation Method on the Ratio of Tensile to Compressive Shaft Capacity of Piles in Dense Sand

Authors: A. C. Galvis-Castro, R. D. Tovar, R. Salgado, M. Prezzi


It is generally accepted that the shaft capacity of piles in the sand is lower for tensile loading that for compressive loading. So far, very little attention has been paid to the role of the influence of the installation method on the tensile to compressive shaft capacity ratio. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of installation method on the tensile to compressive shaft capacity of piles in dense sand as observed in tests on half-circular model pile tests in a half-circular calibration chamber with digital image correlation (DIC) capability. Model piles are either monotonically jacked, jacked with multiple strokes or pre-installed into the dense sand samples. Digital images of the model pile and sand are taken during both the installation and loading stages of each test and processed using the DIC technique to obtain the soil displacement and strain fields. The study provides key insights into the mobilization of shaft resistance in tensile and compressive loading for both displacement and non-displacement piles.

Keywords: digital image correlation, piles, sand, shaft resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
5469 Shoring System Selection for Deep Excavation

Authors: Faouzi Ahtchi-Ali, Marcus Vitiello


A study was conducted in the east region of the Middle East to assess the constructability of a shoring system for a 12-meter deep excavation. Several shoring systems were considered in this study including secant concrete piling, contiguous concrete piling, and sheet-piling. The excavation was carried out in a very dense sand with the groundwater level located at 3 meters below ground surface. The study included conducting a pilot test for each shoring system listed above. The secant concrete piling included overlapping concrete piles to a depth of 16 meters. Drilling method with full steel casing was utilized to install the concrete piles. The verticality of the piles was a concern for the overlap. The contiguous concrete piling required the installation of micro-piles to seal the gap between the concrete piles. This method revealed that the gap between the piles was not fully sealed as observed by the groundwater penetration to the excavation. The sheet-piling method required pre-drilling due to the high blow count of the penetrated layer of saturated sand. This study concluded that the sheet-piling method with pre-drilling was the most cost effective and recommended a method for the shoring system.

Keywords: excavation, shoring system, middle east, Drilling method

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
5468 The Effects of Time and Cyclic Loading to the Axial Capacity for Offshore Pile in Shallow Gas

Authors: Christian H. Girsang, M. Razi B. Mansoor, Noorizal N. Huang


An offshore platform was installed in 1977 at about 260km offshore West Malaysia at the water depth of 73.6m. Twelve (12) piles were installed with four (4) are skirt piles. The piles have 1.219m outside diameter and wall thickness of 31mm and were driven to 109m below seabed. Deterministic analyses of the pile capacity under axial loading were conducted using the current API (American Petroleum Institute) method and the four (4) CPT-based methods: the ICP (Imperial College Pile)-method, the NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute)-Method, the UWA (University of Western Australia)-method and the Fugro-method. A statistical analysis of the model uncertainty associated with each pile capacity method was performed. There were two (2) piles analysed: Pile 1 and piles other than Pile 1, where Pile 1 is the pile that was most affected by shallow gas problems. Using the mean estimate of soil properties, the five (5) methods used for deterministic estimation of axial pile capacity in compression predict an axial capacity from 28 to 42MN for Pile 1 and 32 to 49MN for piles other than Pile 1. These values refer to the static capacity shortly after pile installation. They do not include the effects of cyclic loading during the design storm or time after installation on the axial pile capacity. On average, the axial pile capacity is expected to have increased by about 40% because of ageing since the installation of the platform in 1977. On the other hand, the cyclic loading effects during the design storm may reduce the axial capacity of the piles by around 25%. The study concluded that all piles have sufficient safety factor when the pile aging and cyclic loading effect are considered, as all safety factors are above 2.0 for maximum operating and storm loads.

Keywords: axial capacity, cyclic loading, pile ageing, shallow gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
5467 Geotechnical Investigation of Soil Foundation for Ramps of Dawar El-Tawheed Bridge in Jizan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ali H. Mahfouz, Hossam E. M. Sallam, Abdulwali Wazir, Hamod H. Kharezi


The soil profile at site of the bridge project includes soft fine grained soil layer located between 5.0 m to 11.0 m in depth, it has high water content, low SPT no., and low bearing capacity. The clay layer induces high settlement due to surcharge application of earth embankment at ramp T1, ramp T2, and ramp T3 especially at heights from 9m right 3m. Calculated settlement for embankment heights less than 3m may be accepted regarding Saudi Code for soil and foundation. The soil and groundwater at the project site comprise high contents of sulfates and chlorides of high aggressively on concrete and steel bars, respectively. Regarding results of the study, it has been recommended to use stone column piles or new technology named PCC piles as soil improvement to improve the bearing capacity of the weak layer. The new technology is cast in-situ thin wall concrete pipe piles (PCC piles), it has economically advantageous and high workability. The technology can save time of implementation and cost of application is almost 30% of other types of piles.

Keywords: soft foundation soil, bearing capacity, bridge ramps, soil improvement, geogrid, PCC piles

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
5466 Effect of Bored Pile Diameter in Sand on Friction Resistance

Authors: Ashraf Mohammed M. Eid, Hossam El Badry


The bored pile friction resistance may be affected by many factors such as the method of construction, pile length and diameter, the soil properties, as well as the depth below ground level. These factors can be represented analytically to study the influence of diameter on the unit skin friction. In this research, the Egyptian Code of soil mechanics is used to assess the skin friction capacity for either the ordinary pile diameter as well as for the large pile diameter. The later is presented in the code and through the work of some researchers based on the results of investigations adopted for a sufficient number of field tests. The comparative results of these researchers with respect to the Egyptian Code are used to check the adequacy of both methods. Based on the results of this study, the traditional static formula adopted for piles of diameter less than 60 cm may be continually used for larger piles by correlating the analyzed formulae. Accordingly, the corresponding modified angle of internal friction is concluded demonstrating a reduction of shear strength due to soil disturbance along the pile shaft. Based on this research the difference between driven piles and bored piles constructed in same soil can be assessed and a better understanding can be evaluated for the effect of different factors on pile skin friction capacity.

Keywords: large piles, static formula, friction piles, sandy soils

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
5465 Use of Short Piles for Stabilizing the Side Slope of the Road Embankment along the Canal

Authors: Monapat Sasingha, Suttisak Soralump


This research presents the behavior of slope of the road along the canal stabilized by short piles. In this investigation, the centrifuge machine was used, modelling the condition of the water levels in the canal. The centrifuge tests were performed at 35 g. To observe the movement of the soil, visual analysis was performed to evaluate the failure behavior. Conclusively, the use of short piles to stabilize the canal slope proved to be an effective solution. However, the certain amount of settlement was found behind the short pile rows.

Keywords: centrifuge test, slope failure, embankment, stability of slope

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
5464 The Effect of Soil Reinforcement on Pullout Behaviour of Flat Under-Reamer Anchor Pile Placed in Sand

Authors: V. K. Arora, Amit Rastogi


To understand the anchor pile behaviour and to predict the capacity of piles under uplift loading are important concerns in foundation analysis. Experimental model tests have been conducted on single anchor pile embedded in cohesionless soil and subjected to pure uplift loading. A gravel-filled geogrid layer was located around the enlarged pile base. The experimental tests were conducted on straight-shafted vertical steel piles with an outer diameter of 20 mm in a steel soil tank. The tested piles have embedment depth-to-diameter ratios (L/D) of 2, 3, and 4. The sand bed is prepared at three different values of density of 1.67, 1.59, and 1.50gm/cc. Single piles embedded in sandy soil were tested and the results are presented and analysed in this paper. The influences of pile embedment ratio, reinforcement, relative density of soil on the uplift capacity of piles were investigated. The study revealed that the behaviour of single piles under uplift loading depends mainly on both the pile embedment depth-to-diameter ratio and the soil density. It is believed that the experimental results presented in this study would be beneficial to the professional understanding of the soil–pile-uplift interaction problem.

Keywords: flat under-reamer anchor pile, geogrid, pullout reinforcement, soil reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
5463 Evaluation of Cast-in-Situ Pile Condition Using Pile Integrity Test

Authors: Mohammad I. Hossain, Omar F. Hamim


This paper presents a case study on a pile integrity test for assessing the integrity of piles as well as a physical dimension (e.g., cross-sectional area, length), continuity, and consistency of the pile materials. The recent boom in the socio-economic condition of Bangladesh has given rise to the building of high-rise commercial and residential infrastructures. The advantage of the pile integrity test lies in the fact that it is possible to get an approximate indication regarding the quality of the sub-structure before commencing the construction of the super-structure. This paper aims at providing a classification of cast-in-situ piles based on characteristic reflectograms obtained using the Sonic Integrity Testing program for the sub-soil condition of Narayanganj, Bangladesh. The piles have been classified as 'Pile Type-1', 'Pile Type-2', 'Pile Type-3', 'Pile type-4', 'Pile Type-5' or 'Pile Type-6' from the visual observations of reflections from the generated stress waves by striking the pile head with a handheld hammer. With respect to construction quality and integrity, piles have been further classified into three distinct categories, i.e., satisfactory, may be satisfactory, and unsatisfactory.

Keywords: cast-in-situ piles, characteristic reflectograms, pile integrity test, sonic integrity testing program

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
5462 Analysis of Behaviors of Single and Group Helical Piles in Sands from Experiment Results

Authors: Jongho Park, Junwon Lee, Byeonghyun Choi, Kicheol Lee, Dongwook Kim


The typically-used oil sand plant foundations are driven pile or drilled shaft. With more strict environmental regulations world widely, it became more important to completely remove the foundation during the stage of plant demolition. However, it is difficult to remove driven piles or drilled shafts that are installed at a deeper and stronger depth to gain more bearing pile capacity. The helical pile can be easily removed after its use and recycled; therefore it is suitable for oil sand plant foundation. This study analyzes the behavior of helical piles in sands. Axial pile load tests were carried out the varying spacing of helix plates (helices), rotation speed and weight of axial loading during pile installation. From the experiments, optimal helix plate spacing, rotation speed, axial loading during installation were determined. In addition, the behavior of helical pile groups was examined varying pile spacing. Finally, the behavior of single helical piles and that of group helical piles were compared.

Keywords: oil sand plant, pile load test, helical pile, group helical pile, behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
5461 Evaluation of Pile Performance in Different Layers of Soil

Authors: Orod Zarrin, Mohesn Ramezan Shirazi, Hassan Moniri


The use of pile foundations technique is developed to support structures and buildings on soft soil. The most important dynamic load that can affect the pile structure is earthquake vibrations. Pile foundations during earthquake excitation indicate that piles are subject to damage by affecting the superstructure integrity and serviceability. During an earthquake, two types of stresses can damage the pile head, inertial load that is caused by superstructure and deformation which caused by the surrounding soil. Soil deformation and inertial load are associated with the acceleration developed in an earthquake. The acceleration amplitude at the ground surface depends on the magnitude of earthquakes, soil properties and seismic source distance. According to the investigation, the damage is between the liquefiable and non-liquefiable layers and also soft and stiff layers. This damage crushes the pile head by increasing the inertial load which is applied by the superstructure. On the other hand, the cracks on the piles due to the surrounding soil are directly related to the soil profile and causes cracks from small to large. However, the large cracks reason have been listed such as liquefaction, lateral spreading, and inertial load. In the field of designing, elastic response of piles is always a challenge for designer in liquefaction soil, by allowing deflection at top of piles. Moreover, absence of plastic hinges in piles should be insured, because the damage in the piles is not observed directly. In this study, the performance and behavior of pile foundations during liquefaction and lateral spreading are investigated. In addition, emphasize on the soil behavior in the liquefiable and non-liquefiable layers by different aspect of piles damage such as ranking, location and degree of damage are going to discuss.

Keywords: pile, earthquake, liquefaction, non-liquefiable, damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
5460 Effects of Axial Loads and Soil Density on Pile Group Subjected to Triangular Soil Movement

Authors: Ihsan Al-Abboodi, Tahsin Toma-Sabbagh


Laboratory tests have been carried out to investigate the response of 2x2 pile group subjected to triangular soil movement. The pile group was instrumented with displacement and tilting devices at the pile cap and strain gauges on two piles of the group. In this paper, results from four model tests were presented to study the effects of axial loads and soil density on the lateral behavior of piles. The responses in terms of bending moment, shear force, soil pressure, deflection, and rotation of piles were compared. Test results indicate that increasing the soil strength could increase the measured moment, shear, soil pressure, and pile deformations. Most importantly, adding loads to the pile cap induces additional moment to the head of front-pile row unlike the back-pile row which was influenced insignificantly.

Keywords: pile group, passive piles, lateral soil movement, soil density, axial loads

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
5459 Experimental Investigations on Group Interaction Effects of Laterally Loaded Piles in Submerged Sand

Authors: Jasaswini Mishra, Ashim K. Dey


This paper aims to investigate the group interaction effects of laterally loaded pile groups driven into a medium dense sand layer in submerged state. Static lateral load tests were carried out on pile groups consisting of varying number of piles and at different spacings. The test setup consists of a load cell (500 kg capacity) and an LVDT (50 mm) to measure the load and pile head deflection respectively. The piles were extensively instrumented with strain gauges so as to study the variation of soil resistance within the group. The bending moments at various depths were calculated from strain gauge data and these curves were fitted using a higher order polynomial in order to get 'p-y' curves. A comparative study between a single pile and a pile under a group has also been done for a better understanding of the group effect. It is observed that average load per pile is significantly reduced relative to single pile and it decreases with increase in the number of piles in a pile group. The loss of efficiency of the piles in the group, commonly referred to as "shadowing" effect, has been expressed by the use of a 'p-multiplier'. Leading rows carries greater amount of load when compared with the trailing rows. The variations of bending moment with depth for different rows of pile within a group and different spacing have been analyzed and compared with that of a single pile. p multipliers within different rows in a pile group were evaluated from the experimental study.

Keywords: group action, laterally loaded piles, p-multiplier, strain gauge

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
5458 Seismic Retrofit of Existing Bridge Foundations with Micropiles: 3D Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Mohanad Talal Alfach


This paper concerns the seismic behaviour of soil-piles-bridge reinforced by additional micropiles. The analysis carried out by three-dimensional finite element modelling using the FE software ABAQUS. The soil behaviour is assumed to be elastic with Rayleigh damping, while the micropiles are modeled as 3D elastic beam elements. The bridge deck slab was represented by a concentrated mass at the top of the pier column. The interaction between the added micropiles and the existing piles as well as the performance of the retrofitted soil-pile-superstructure system were investigated for different configurations of additional micropiles (number, position, inclination). Numerical simulation results show that additional micropiles constitute an efficient retrofitting solution. Analysis of results also shows that spacing between existing piles and retrofitting micropiles has little effect; while it is observed a substantial improvement (in case of weak piles/micropiles - soil interface) with reducing the inclination angle of retrofitting micropiles.

Keywords: retrofitting, seismic, finite element, micropiles, elastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
5457 The Pile Group Efficiency for Different Embedment Lengths in Dry Sand

Authors: Mohamed M. Shahin


This study investigated the design of the pile foundation to support heavy structures-especially bridges for highways-in the Sahara, which contains many dunes of medium dense sand in different levels, where the foundation is supposed to be piles. The base resistance of smooth model pile groups in sand under static loading is investigated experimentally in a pile soil test apparatus. Improvement were made to the sand around the piles in order to increase the shaft resistance of the single pile and the pile groups, and also base resistance especially for the central pile in pile groups. The study outlines the behaviour of a single-pile, 4-, 5-, and 9- pile groups arranged in a doubly symmetric [square] layout with different embedment lengths and pile spacing in loose dry sand [normal] and dense dry sand [compacted] around the piles. This study evaluate the variation of the magnitude and the proportion of end bearing capacity of individual piles in different pile groups. Also to investigate the magnitude of the efficiency coefficient in the case of different pile groups.

Keywords: pile group, base resistance, efficiency coefficient, pile spacing, pile-soil interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
5456 The Investigation of Fiber Reinforcement Self-Compacting Concrete and Fiber Reinforcement Concrete

Authors: Orod Zarrin, Mohesn Ramezan Shirazi, Hassan Moniri


The use of pile foundations technique is developed to support structures and buildings on soft soil. The most important dynamic load that can affect the pile structure is earthquake vibrations. From the 1960s the comprehensive investigation of pile foundations during earthquake excitation indicate that, piles are subject to damage by affecting the superstructure integrity and serviceability. The main part of these research has been focused on the behavior of liquefiable soil and lateral spreading load on piles. During an earthquake, two types of stresses can damage the pile head, inertial load that is caused by superstructure and deformation which caused by the surrounding soil. Soil deformation and inertial load are associated with the acceleration developed in an earthquake. The acceleration amplitude at the ground surface depends on the magnitude of earthquakes, soil properties and seismic source distance. According to the investigation, the damage is between the liquefiable and non-liquefiable layers and also soft and stiff layers. This damage crushes the pile head by increasing the inertial load which is applied by the superstructure. On the other hand, the cracks on the piles due to the surrounding soil are directly related to the soil profile and causes cracks from small to large. And researchers have been listed the large cracks reason such as liquefaction, lateral spreading and inertial load. In the field of designing, elastic response of piles are always a challenge for designer in liquefaction soil, by allowing deflection at top of piles. Moreover, absence of plastic hinges in piles should be insured, because the damage in the piles is not observed directly. In this study, the performance and behavior of pile foundations during liquefaction and lateral spreading are investigated. And emphasize on the soil behavior in the liquefiable and non-liquefiable layers by different aspect of piles damage such as ranking, location and degree of damage are going to discuss.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, fiber, tensile strength, post-cracking, direct and inverse technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
5455 Cantilever Shoring Piles with Prestressing Strands: An Experimental Approach

Authors: Hani Mekdash, Lina Jaber, Yehia Temsah


Underground space is becoming a necessity nowadays, especially in highly congested urban areas. Retaining underground excavations using shoring systems is essential in order to protect adjoining structures from potential damage or collapse. Reinforced Concrete Piles (RCP) supported by multiple rows of tie-back anchors are commonly used type of shoring systems in deep excavations. However, executing anchors can sometimes be challenging because they might illegally trespass neighboring properties or get obstructed by infrastructure and other underground facilities. A technique is proposed in this paper, and it involves the addition of eccentric high-strength steel strands to the RCP section through ducts without providing the pile with lateral supports. The strands are then vertically stressed externally on the pile cap using a hydraulic jack, creating a compressive strengthening force in the concrete section. An experimental study about the behavior of the shoring wall by pre-stressed piles is presented during the execution of an open excavation in an urban area (Beirut city) followed by numerical analysis using finite element software. Based on the experimental results, this technique is proven to be cost-effective and provides flexible and sustainable construction of shoring works.

Keywords: deep excavation, prestressing, pre-stressed piles, shoring system

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5454 Provision of Slope Stability with Barette Piles: A Case Analysis

Authors: Leyla Yesilbas, M. Sukru Ozcoban, M. Ergenekon Selcuk


From past to present, there is a constant need for engineering structures such as high-rise buildings, wide-span bridges, airports and stadiums, business towers due to technological developments and increasing population. Because of the large loads transferred from the superstructure to the ground layers in these types of structures, the bearing strength and seating problems usually occur on the floors. In order to solve these problems, piled foundations are used by passing the weak soil layers and transferring the loads from the superstructure to the solid soil layers. Considering the factors such as the characteristics of the building to be constructed, the purpose and location of the building, the basic cost of the pile should be at normal levels. When these requirements are taken into consideration, a new basic system called 'Barette Foundation' has been developed. In this thesis, an application made to provide slope stability with 'Baret Piles' was investigated. In addition, the ground parameters obtained from the field and laboratory experiments were numerically modeled using a PLAXİS 2D finite element software and barette piles. The effects of barette piles on slope stability were investigated by numerical analysis, and the results of inclinometer measurements in the field were compared with numerical analysis results.

Keywords: barette pile, PLAXİS 2D, slope, soil

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5453 Experimental Study on Floating Breakwater Anchored by Piles

Authors: Yessi Nirwana Kurniadi, Nira Yunita Permata


Coastline is vulnerable to coastal erosion which damage infrastructure and buildings. Floating breakwaters are applied in order to minimize material cost but still can reduce wave height. In this paper, we investigated floating breakwater anchored by piles based on experimental study in the laboratory with model scale 1:8. Two type of floating model were tested with several combination wave height, wave period and surface water elevation to determined transmission coefficient. This experimental study proved that floating breakwater with piles can prevent wave height up to 27 cm. The physical model shows that ratio of depth to wave length is less than 0.6 and ratio of model width to wave length is less than 0.3. It is confirmed that if those ratio are less than those value, the transmission coefficient is 0.5. The result also showed that the first type model of floating breakwater can reduce wave height by 60.4 % while the second one can reduce up to 55.56 %.

Keywords: floating breakwater, experimental study, pile, transimission coefficient

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