Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1146

Search results for: value units

1146 Semantic Features of Turkish and Spanish Phraseological Units with a Somatic Component ‘Hand’

Authors: Narmina Mammadova


In modern linguistics, the comparative study of languages is becoming increasingly popular, the typology and comparison of languages that have different structures is expanding and deepening. Of particular interest is the study of phraseological units, which makes it possible to identify the specific features of the compared languages in all their national identity. This paper gives a brief analysis of the comparative study of somatic phraseological units (SFU) of the Spanish and Turkish languages with the component "hand" in the semantic aspect; identification of equivalents, analogs and non-equivalent units, as well as a description of methods of translation of non-equivalent somatic phraseological units. Comparative study of the phraseology of unrelated languages is of particular relevance since it allows us to identify both general, universal features and differential and specific features characteristic of a particular language. Based on the results of the generalization of the study, it can be assumed that phraseological units containing a somatic component have a high interlingual phraseological activity, which contributes to an increase in the degree of interlingual equivalence.

Keywords: Linguoculturology, Turkish, Spanish, language picture of the world, phraseological units, semantic microfield

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1145 A Condition-Based Maintenance Policy for Multi-Unit Systems Subject to Deterioration

Authors: Nooshin Salari, Viliam Makis


In this paper, we propose a condition-based maintenance policy for multi-unit systems considering the existence of economic dependency among units. We consider a system composed of N identical units, where each unit deteriorates independently. Deterioration process of each unit is modeled as a three-state continuous time homogeneous Markov chain with two working states and a failure state. The average production rate of units varies in different working states and demand rate of the system is constant. Units are inspected at equidistant time epochs, and decision regarding performing maintenance is determined by the number of units in the failure state. If the total number of units in the failure state exceeds a critical level, maintenance is initiated, where units in failed state are replaced correctively and deteriorated state units are maintained preventively. Our objective is to determine the optimal number of failed units to initiate maintenance minimizing the long run expected average cost per unit time. The problem is formulated and solved in the semi-Markov decision process (SMDP) framework. A numerical example is developed to demonstrate the proposed policy and the comparison with the corrective maintenance policy is presented.

Keywords: reliability, maintenance optimization, semi-Markov decision process, production

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
1144 A Study of Environmental Test Sequences for Electrical Units

Authors: Jung Ho Yang, Yong Soo Kim


Electrical units are operated by electrical and electronic components. An environmental test sequence is useful for testing electrical units to reduce reliability issues. This study introduces test sequence guidelines based on relevant principles and considerations for electronic testing according to international standard IEC-60068-1 and the United States military standard MIL-STD-810G. Then, test sequences were proposed based on the descriptions for each test. Finally, General Motors (GM) specification GMW3172 was interpreted and compared to IEC-60068-1 and MIL-STD-810G.

Keywords: reliability, environmental test sequence, electrical units, IEC 60068-1, MIL-STD-810G

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
1143 Ranking All of the Efficient DMUs in DEA

Authors: Elahe Sarfi, Esmat Noroozi, Farhad Hosseinzadeh Lotfi


One of the important issues in Data Envelopment Analysis is the ranking of Decision Making Units. In this paper, a method for ranking DMUs is presented through which the weights related to efficient units should be chosen in a way that the other units preserve a certain percentage of their efficiency with the mentioned weights. To this end, a model is presented for ranking DMUs on the base of their superefficiency by considering the mentioned restrictions related to weights. This percentage can be determined by decision Maker. If the specific percentage is unsuitable, we can find a suitable and feasible one for ranking DMUs accordingly. Furthermore, the presented model is capable of ranking all of the efficient units including nonextreme efficient ones. Finally, the presented models are utilized for two sets of data and related results are reported.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, efficiency, ranking, weight

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1142 Apply Commitment Method in Power System to Minimize the Fuel Cost

Authors: Mohamed Shaban, Adel Yahya


The goal of this paper study is to schedule the power generation units to minimize fuel consumption cost based on a model that solves unit commitment problems. This can be done by utilizing forward dynamic programming method to determine the most economic scheduling of generating units. The model was applied to a power station, which consists of four generating units. The obtained results show that the applications of forward dynamic programming method offer a substantial reduction in fuel consumption cost. The fuel consumption cost has been reduced from $116,326 to $102,181 within a 24-hour period. This means saving about 12.16 % of fuel consumption cost. The study emphasizes the importance of applying modeling schedule programs to the operation of power generation units. As a consequence less consumption of fuel, less loss of power and less pollution

Keywords: unit commitment, forward dynamic, fuel cost, programming, generation scheduling, operation cost, power system, generating units

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1141 The Interrelationship between Formal and Informal Institutions and Its Impacts on the Autonomy of Public Service Delivery Units: The Case of Vietnam

Authors: Minh Thi Hai Vo


This article draws on in-depth interviews with state employees at public hospitals and universities in its institutional analysis of the autonomy practices of public service delivery units in Vietnam. Unlike many empirical and theoretical studies that view formal and informal institutions as complements or substitutes, this article finds no evidence of complementary or substitutive relationships. Instead, the article finds that formal institutions accommodate informal ones and that informal institutions tend to compete and interfere, with the existing and ineffective formal institutions. The result of such conflicting relationship is that the actual autonomy of public service delivery units is, in most cases, perceived to be greater than the formal autonomy they are given. In the condition of poor regulation, the informal autonomy may result in unethical practices including rent-seeking and corruption. The implication of the study finding is policy-makers need to redesign and reorganize the autonomisation of public service delivery units to make informal institutions support and reinforce formal ones in a complementary manner.

Keywords: autonomy, formal institutions, informal institutions, public service delivery units, Vietnam

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
1140 Area-Efficient FPGA Implementation of an FFT Processor by Reusing Butterfly Units

Authors: Atin Mukherjee, Amitabha Sinha, Debesh Choudhury


Fast Fourier transform (FFT) of large-number of samples requires larger hardware resources of field programmable gate arrays and it asks for more area as well as power. In this paper, an area efficient architecture of FFT processor is proposed, that reuses the butterfly units more than once. The FFT processor is emulated and the results are validated on Virtex-6 FPGA. The proposed architecture outperforms the conventional architecture of a N-point FFT processor in terms of area which is reduced by a factor of log_N(2) with the negligible increase of processing time.

Keywords: FFT, FPGA, resource optimization, butterfly units

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1139 Foreign Literature at the Lessons of Individual Reading: Contemporary Methods of Phraseological Units Teaching

Authors: Diana Davletbaeva, Elena Pankratova


This article observes some current questions of use of foreign literature in a process of phraseological units teaching in schools. It reveals and establishes different advantages of literary read at the lessons of individual reading and gives some core points of arrangements and organizational work. The article touches upon some essential keys concerning successful phraseological units mastering and improvement of students’ knowledge in a sphere of phraseology.

Keywords: foreign languages teaching, literary read, individual reading, phraseological unit, complex of exercises

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
1138 Code Evaluation on Web-Shear Capacity of Presstressed Hollow-Core Slabs

Authors: Min-Kook Park, Deuck Hang Lee, Hyun Mo Yang, Jae Hyun Kim, Kang Su Kim


Prestressed hollow-core slabs (HCS) are structurally optimized precast units with light-weight hollowed-sections and very economical due to the mass production by a unique production method. They have been thus widely used in the precast concrete constructions in many countries all around the world. It is, however, difficult to provide shear reinforcement in HCS units produced by the extrusion method, and thus all the shear forces should be resisted solely by concrete webs in the HCS units. This means that, for the HCS units, it is very important to estimate the contribution of web concrete to the shear resistance accurately. In design codes, however, the shear strengths for HCS units are estimated by the same equations that are used for typical prestressed concrete members, which were determined from the calibrations to experimental results of conventional prestressed concrete members other than HCS units. In this study, therefore, shear test results of HCS members with a wide range of influential variables were collected, and the shear strength equations in design codes were thoroughly examined by comparing to the experimental results in the shear database of HCS members. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning(NRF-2016R1A2B2010277).

Keywords: hollow-core, web-shear, precast concrete, prestress, capacity

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1137 Spatial REE Geochemical Modeling at Lake Acıgöl, Denizli, Turkey: Analytical Approaches on Spatial Interpolation and Spatial Correlation

Authors: M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, A. Abdelnasser, M. Kumral


The spatial interpolation and spatial correlation of the rare earth elements (REE) of lake surface sediments of Lake Acıgöl and its surrounding lithological units is carried out by using GIS techniques like Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) techniques. IDW technique which makes the spatial interpolation shows that the lithological units like Hayrettin Formation at north of Lake Acigol have high REE contents than lake sediments as well as ∑LREE and ∑HREE contents. However, Eu/Eu* values (based on chondrite-normalized REE pattern) show high value in some lake surface sediments than in lithological units and that refers to negative Eu-anomaly. Also, the spatial interpolation of the V/Cr ratio indicated that Acıgöl lithological units and lake sediments deposited in in oxic and dysoxic conditions. But, the spatial correlation is carried out by GWR technique. This technique shows high spatial correlation coefficient between ∑LREE and ∑HREE which is higher in the lithological units (Hayrettin Formation and Cameli Formation) than in the other lithological units and lake surface sediments. Also, the matching between REEs and Sc and Al refers to REE abundances of Lake Acıgöl sediments weathered from local bedrock around the lake.

Keywords: spatial geochemical modeling, IDW, GWR techniques, REE, lake sediments, Lake Acıgöl, Turkey

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1136 Application of Analytical Method for Placement of DG Unit for Loss Reduction in Distribution Systems

Authors: G. V. Siva Krishna Rao, B. Srinivasa Rao


The main aim of the paper is to implement a technique using distributed generation in distribution systems to reduce the distribution system losses and to improve voltage profiles. The fuzzy logic technique is used to select the proper location of DG and an analytical method is proposed to calculate the size of DG unit at any power factor. The optimal sizes of DG units are compared with optimal sizes obtained using the genetic algorithm. The suggested method is programmed under Matlab software and is tested on IEEE 33 bus system and the results are presented.

Keywords: DG Units, sizing of DG units, analytical methods, optimum size

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
1135 Using Monte Carlo Model for Simulation of Rented Housing in Mashhad, Iran

Authors: Mohammad Rahim Rahnama


The study employs Monte Carlo method for simulation of rented housing in Mashhad second largest city in Iran. A total number of 334 rental residential units in Mashhad, including both apartments and houses (villa), were randomly selected from advertisements placed in Khorasan Newspapers during the months of July and August of 2015. In order to simulate the monthly rent price, the rent index was calculated through combining the mortgage and the rent price. In the next step, the relation between the variables of the floor area and that of the number of bedrooms for each unit, in both apartments and houses(villa), was calculated through multivariate regression using SPSS and was coded in XML. The initial model was called using simulation button in SPSS and was simulated using triangular and binominal algorithms. The findings revealed that the average simulated rental index was 548.5$ per month. Calculating the sensitivity of rental index to a number of bedrooms we found that firstly, 97% of units have three bedrooms, and secondly as the number of bedrooms increases from one to three, for the rent price of less than 200$, the percentage of units having one bedroom decreases from 10% to 0. Contrariwise, for units with the rent price of more than 571.4$, the percentage of bedrooms increases from 37% to 48%. In the light of these findings, it becomes clear that planning to build rental residential units, overseeing the rent prices, and granting subsidies to rental residential units, for apartments with two bedrooms, present a felicitous policy for regulating residential units in Mashhad.

Keywords: Mashhad, Monte Carlo, simulation, rent price, residential unit

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1134 Reliability and Maintainability Optimization for Aircraft’s Repairable Components Based on Cost Modeling Approach

Authors: Adel A. Ghobbar


The airline industry is continuously challenging how to safely increase the service life of the aircraft with limited maintenance budgets. Operators are looking for the most qualified maintenance providers of aircraft components, offering the finest customer service. Component owner and maintenance provider is offering an Abacus agreement (Aircraft Component Leasing) to increase the efficiency and productivity of the customer service. To increase the customer service, the current focus on No Fault Found (NFF) units must change into the focus on Early Failure (EF) units. Since the effect of EF units has a significant impact on customer satisfaction, this needs to increase the reliability of EF units at minimal cost, which leads to the goal of this paper. By identifying the reliability of early failure (EF) units with regards to No Fault Found (NFF) units, in particular, the root cause analysis with an integrated cost analysis of EF units with the use of a failure mode analysis tool and a cost model, there will be a set of EF maintenance improvements. The data used for the investigation of the EF units will be obtained from the Pentagon system, an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system used by Fokker Services. The Pentagon system monitors components, which needs to be repaired from Fokker aircraft owners, Abacus exchange pool, and commercial customers. The data will be selected on several criteria’s: time span, failure rate, and cost driver. When the selected data has been acquired, the failure mode and root cause analysis of EF units are initiated. The failure analysis approach tool was implemented, resulting in the proposed failure solution of EF. This will lead to specific EF maintenance improvements, which can be set-up to decrease the EF units and, as a result of this, increasing the reliability. The investigated EFs, between the time period over ten years, showed to have a significant reliability impact of 32% on the total of 23339 unscheduled failures. Since the EFs encloses almost one-third of the entire population.

Keywords: supportability, no fault found, FMEA, early failure, availability, operational reliability, predictive model

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1133 Total Organic Carbon, Porosity and Permeability Correlation: A Tool for Carbon Dioxide Storage Potential Evaluation in Irati Formation of the Parana Basin, Brazil

Authors: Richardson M. Abraham-A., Colombo Celso Gaeta Tassinari


The correlation between Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and flow units have been carried out to predict and compare the carbon dioxide (CO2) storage potential of the shale and carbonate rocks in Irati Formation of the Parana Basin. The equations for permeability (K), reservoir quality index (RQI) and flow zone indicator (FZI) are redefined and engaged to evaluate the flow units in both potential reservoir rocks. Shales show higher values of TOC compared to carbonates, as such,  porosity (Ф) is most likely to be higher in shales compared to carbonates. The increase in Ф corresponds to the increase in K (in both rocks). Nonetheless, at lower values of Ф, K is higher in carbonates compared to shales. This shows that at lower values of TOC in carbonates, Ф is low, yet, K is likely to be high compared to shale. In the same vein, at higher values of TOC in shales, Ф is high, yet, K is expected to be low compared to carbonates.  Overall, the flow unit factors (RQI and FZI) are better in the carbonates compared to the shales. Moreso, within the study location,  there are some portions where the thicknesses of the carbonate units are higher compared to the shale units. Most parts of the carbonate strata in the study location are fractured in situ, hence,  this could provide easy access for the storage of CO2. Therefore, based on these points and the disparities between the flow units in the evaluated rock types, the carbonate units are expected to show better potentials for the storage of CO2. The shale units may be considered as potential cap rocks or seals.

Keywords: total organic content, flow units, carbon dioxide storage, geologic structures

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1132 Landscape Classification in North of Jordan by Integrated Approach of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

Authors: Taleb Odeh, Nizar Abu-Jaber, Nour Khries


The southern part of Wadi Al Yarmouk catchment area covers north of Jordan. It locates within latitudes 32° 20’ to 32° 45’N and longitudes 35° 42’ to 36° 23’ E and has an area of about 1426 km2. However, it has high relief topography where the elevation varies between 50 to 1100 meter above sea level. The variations in the topography causes different units of landforms, climatic zones, land covers and plant species. As a results of these different landscapes units exists in that region. Spatial planning is a major challenge in such a vital area for Jordan which could not be achieved without determining landscape units. However, an integrated approach of remote sensing and geographic information Systems (GIS) is an optimized tool to investigate and map landscape units of such a complicated area. Remote sensing has the capability to collect different land surface data, of large landscape areas, accurately and in different time periods. GIS has the ability of storage these land surface data, analyzing them spatially and present them in form of professional maps. We generated a geo-land surface data that include land cover, rock units, soil units, plant species and digital elevation model using ASTER image and Google Earth while analyzing geo-data spatially were done by ArcGIS 10.2 software. We found that there are twenty two different landscape units in the study area which they have to be considered for any spatial planning in order to avoid and environmental problems.

Keywords: landscape, spatial planning, GIS, spatial analysis, remote sensing

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1131 Distributed Control Strategy for Dispersed Energy Storage Units in the DC Microgrid Based on Discrete Consensus

Authors: Hanqing Yang, Xiang Meng, Qi Li, Weirong Chen


The SOC (state of charge) based droop control has limitations on the load power sharing among different energy storage units, due to the line impedance. In this paper, a distributed control strategy for dispersed energy storage units in the DC microgrid based on discrete consensus is proposed. Firstly, a sparse information communication network is built. Thus, local controllers can communicate with its neighbors using voltage, current and SOC information. An average voltage of grid can be evaluated to compensate voltage offset by droop control, and an objective virtual resistance fulfilling above requirement can be dynamically calculated to distribute load power according to the SOC of the energy storage units. Then, the stability of the whole system and influence of communication delay are analyzed. It can be concluded that this control strategy can improve the robustness and flexibility, because of having no center controller. Finally, a model of DC microgrid with dispersed energy storage units and loads is built, the discrete distributed algorithm is established and communication protocol is developed. The co-simulation between Matlab/Simulink and JADE (Java agent development framework) has verified the effectiveness of proposed control strategy.

Keywords: dispersed energy storage units, discrete consensus algorithm, state of charge, communication delay

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1130 Efficacy and Safety of Uventa Metallic Stent for Malignant and Benign Ureteral Obstruction

Authors: Deok Hyun Han


Objective: To explore outcomes of UventaTM metallic ureteral stent between malignant and benign ureteral obstruction. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 90 consecutive patients who underwent Uventa stent placement for benign or malignant ureteral obstruction from December 2009 to June 2013. We evaluated the clinical outcomes, complications, and reasons and results for unexpected stent removals. Results: The median follow-up was 10.7 (0.9 – 41) months. From a total of 125 ureter units, there were 24 units with benign obstructions and 101 units with malignant obstructions. Initial technical successes were achieved in all patients. The overall success rate was 70.8% with benign obstructions and 84.2% with malignant obstructions. The major reasons for treatment failure were stent migration (12.5%) in benign and tumor progression (11.9%) in malignant obstructions. The overall complication rate was similar between benign and malignant obstructions (58.3% and 42.6%), but severe complications, which are Clavien grade 3 or more, occurred in 41.7% of benign and 6.9% of malignant obstructions. The most common complications were stent migration (25.0%) in benign obstructions and persistent pain (14.9%) in malignant obstructions. The stent removal was done in 16 units; nine units that were removed by endoscopy and seven units were by open surgery. Conclusions: In malignant ureteral obstructions, the Uventa stent showed favorable outcomes with high success rate and acceptable complication rate. However, in benign ureteral obstructions, overall success rate and complication rate were less favorable. Malignant ureteral obstruction seems to be appropriate indication of Uventa stent placement. However, in chronic diffuse benign ureteral obstructions the decision of placement of Uventa stent has to be careful.

Keywords: cause, complication, ureteral obstruction, metal stent

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1129 A Study on Energy-Saving Modular Housing Units Considering Environmental and Aesthetic Aspects

Authors: Jae Hee Chung, Tae Uk Kang, Byung Seo Kim


This study aims to propose design technologies for the energy-saving modular housing units considering environmental and aesthetic aspects. Modular houses are environmentally friendly based on 3R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) because they can dramatically reduce carbon dioxide and construction wastes generated during the construction, use, and disposal process by the pre-fabrication at the factory and the recyclability of the unit, compared to the existing construction methods. The existing modular housing, however, tends to focus on quantitative aspects of energy reduction, such as windows, insulation, and introduction of renewable energy, and there is not much research on energy-saving type units considering the environmental aspects such as daylighting and ventilation, and the design that goes beyond the standardized appearance. Therefore, this study conducts theoretical investigation and analytical case studies on the energy-saving methods through various architectural planning elements as well as materials like insulation considering the environmental and aesthetic aspects in the modular housing. Then, comparative analysis on the energy efficiency through the energy simulation is conducted. As a conclusion, the energy-saving modular housing units considering environmental and aesthetics aspects are proposed. It is expected that this study will contribute to the supply and activation of modular housing through deriving design technologies for the energy-saving modular housing units that consider not only quantitative aspects but also qualitative aspects.

Keywords: aesthetic aspects, energy-saving, environmental, modular housing

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1128 Energy and Economic Analysis of Heat Recovery from Boiler Exhaust Flue Gas

Authors: Kemal Comakli, Meryem Terhan


In this study, the potential of heat recovery from waste flue gas was examined in 60 MW district heating system of a university, and fuel saving was aimed by using the recovered heat in the system as a source again. Various scenarios are intended to make use of waste heat. For this purpose, actual operation data of the system were taken. Besides, the heat recovery units that consist of heat exchangers such as flue gas condensers, economizers or air pre-heaters were designed theoretically for each scenario. Energy analysis of natural gas-fired boiler’s exhaust flue gas in the system, and economic analysis of heat recovery units to predict payback periods were done. According to calculation results, the waste heat loss ratio from boiler flue gas in the system was obtained as average 16%. Thanks to the heat recovery units, thermal efficiency of the system can be increased, and fuel saving can be provided. At the same time, a huge amount of green gas emission can be decreased by installing the heat recovery units.

Keywords: heat recovery from flue gas, energy analysis of flue gas, economical analysis, payback period

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
1127 An Investigation on Interface Shear Resistance of Twinwall Units for Tank Structures

Authors: Jaylina Rana, Chanakya Arya, John Stehle


Hybrid precast twinwall concrete units, mainly used in basement, core and crosswall construction, are now being adopted in water retaining tank structures. Their use offers many advantages compared with conventional in-situ concrete alternatives, however, the design could be optimised further via a deeper understanding of the unique load transfer mechanisms in the system. In the tank application, twinwall units, which consist of two precast concrete biscuits connected by steel lattices and in-situ concrete core, are subject to bending. Uncertainties about the degree of composite action between the precast biscuits and hence flexural performance of the units necessitated laboratory tests to investigate the interface shear resistance. Testing was also required to assess both the leakage performance and buildability of a variety of joint details. This paper describes some aspects of this novel approach to the design/construction of tank structures as well as selected results from some of the tests that were carried out.

Keywords: hybrid construction, twinwall, precast construction, composite action

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
1126 Study on Total Chlorine in Crude Palm Oil from Various Palm Oil Mill Operation Units

Authors: Norliza Saparin, Ahmadilfitri Noor, Mohd Suria Affandi Yusoff, Shawaluddin Tahiruddin


A palm oil mill produces crude palm oil (CPO) and has many operation units that comprises of sterilization, stripping, digestion and pressing, clarification, purification, drying and storage. This study investigated the total chlorine in palm fruit and CPO after each operating units. The total chlorine were determined by Mitsubishi NSX-2100 H, Trace Elemental Analyzer. The trace elemental analyzer is a furnace system with a micro-coulometric detector that was used for measuring and detecting total chlorine whether in organic or inorganic form. This determination is important as the chlorine is a direct precursor for 3-MCPD ester.

Keywords: chlorine, micro-coulometric, palm oil, 3-MCPD

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1125 Choosing the Right Lignin for Phenolic Adhesive Application

Authors: Somayyeh Kalami, Mojgan Nejad


Based on the source (softwood, hardwood or annual crop) and isolation method (kraft, organosolv, sulfite or pre-enzymatic treatment), there are significant variations in lignin structure and properties. The first step in using lignin as biobased feedstock is to make sure that specific lignin is suitable for intended application. Complete characterization of lignin and measuring its chemical, physical and thermal properties can help to predict its suitability. To replace 100% phenol portion of phenolic adhesive, lignin should have high reactivity toward formaldehyde. Theoretically, lignins with closer backbone structure to phenol should be better candidate for this application. In this study, a number of different lignins were characterized and used to formulate phenolic adhesive. One of the main findings was that lignin sample with higher percentage of hydroxyl-phenyl units was better candidate than lignin with more syringyl units. This could be explained by the fact that hydroxyl-phenyl lignin units have two available ortho positions for reaction with formaldehyde while in syringyl units all ortho and para positions are occupied, and there is no available site in lignin structure to react with formaldehyde.

Keywords: lignin, phenolic adhesive, biobased, sustainable

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1124 A Two Tailed Secretary Problem with Multiple Criteria

Authors: Alaka Padhye, S. P. Kane


The following study considers some variations made to the secretary problem (SP). In a multiple criteria secretary problem (MCSP), the selection of a unit is based on two independent characteristics. The units that appear before an observer are known say N, the best rank of a unit being N. A unit is selected, if it is better with respect to either first or second or both the characteristics. When the number of units is large and due to constraints like time and cost, the observer might want to stop earlier instead of inspecting all the available units. Let the process terminate at r2th unit where r1Keywords: joint distribution, marginal distribution, real ranks, secretary problem, selection criterion, two tailed secretary problem

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1123 Optimizing the Capacity of a Convolutional Neural Network for Image Segmentation and Pattern Recognition

Authors: Yalong Jiang, Zheru Chi


In this paper, we study the factors which determine the capacity of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model and propose the ways to evaluate and adjust the capacity of a CNN model for best matching to a specific pattern recognition task. Firstly, a scheme is proposed to adjust the number of independent functional units within a CNN model to make it be better fitted to a task. Secondly, the number of independent functional units in the capsule network is adjusted to fit it to the training dataset. Thirdly, a method based on Bayesian GAN is proposed to enrich the variances in the current dataset to increase its complexity. Experimental results on the PASCAL VOC 2010 Person Part dataset and the MNIST dataset show that, in both conventional CNN models and capsule networks, the number of independent functional units is an important factor that determines the capacity of a network model. By adjusting the number of functional units, the capacity of a model can better match the complexity of a dataset.

Keywords: CNN, convolutional neural network, capsule network, capacity optimization, character recognition, data augmentation, semantic segmentation

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1122 Defects Classification of Stator Coil Generators by Phase Resolve Partial Discharge

Authors: Chun-Yao Lee, Nando Purba, Benny Iskandar


This paper proposed a phase resolve partial discharge (PRPD) shape method to classify types of defect stator coil generator by using off-line PD measurement instrument. The recorded PRPD, by using the instruments MPD600, can illustrate the PRPD patterns of partial discharge of unit’s defects. In the paper, two of large units, No.2 and No.3, in Inalum hydropower plant, North Sumatera, Indonesia is adopted in the experimental measurement. The proposed PRPD shape method is to mark auxiliary lines on the PRPD patterns. The shapes of PRPD from two units are marked with the proposed method. Then, four types of defects in IEC 60034-27 standard is adopted to classify the defect types of the two units, which types are microvoids (S1), delamination tape layer (S2), slot defect (S3) and internal delamination (S4). Finally, the two units are actually inspected to validate the availability of the proposed PRPD shape method.

Keywords: partial discharge (PD), stator coil, defect, phase resolve pd (PRPD)

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1121 Experimental Investigation of Air Gap Membrane Distillation System with Heat Recovery

Authors: Yasser Elhenaw, A. Farag, Mohamed El-Ghandour, M. Shatat, G. H. Moustafa


This study investigates the performance of two spiral-wound Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) units. These units are connected in two different configurations in order to be tested and compared experimentally. In AGMD, the coolant water is used to condensate water vapor leaving membrane via condensing plate. The rejected cooling water has a relativity high temperature which can be used, depending on operation parameters, to increase the thermal efficiency and water productivity. In the first configuration, the seawater feed flows parallel and equally through both units then rejected. The coolant water is divided into the two units, and the heat source is divided into the two heat exchangers. In the second one, only the feed of the first unit is heated while the cooling rejected from the unit is used in heating the feed to the second. The performance of the system, estimated by the water productivity as well as the Gain Output Ratio (GOR), is measured for the two configurations at different feed flow rates, temperatures and salinities. The results show that at steady state condition, the heat recovery configurations lead to an increase in water productivity by 25%.

Keywords: membrane distillation, heat transfer, heat recovery, desalination

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1120 Sub-Municipal Government as a Tool for Decentralization

Authors: Mirko Klaric


In different countries, sub-municipal units have different organizational and political positions. In some countries, the role of sub-municipal units is important; in others, it is marginal. That depends on the organization of the local government system in different countries, and the political role of local self-government units, their size, public authorities, and the possibility for managing various local public tasks. This paper attempts to analyze the sub-municipal government as an organizational form of local governance participation of citizens in the local community with a comparative perspective. Secondly, it presents elements that generally format sub-municipal government as a tool for strengthening of democratization processes in local government units. Those elements are crucial for the understanding of the dynamic in relation to local government vs. sub-municipal government. Special focus is put on the sub-municipal government in South-Eastern European countries, which have a common history and institutional framework, with this main question: how can sub-municipal government contribute to strengthening democratic processes in these countries. In centralized countries, the sub-municipal government usually has a reduced role, which relates to managing public tasks connected with local community needs. The purpose of this comparative research methodology is used for analyzing the present organization and role of sub-municipal government in local government systems in Croatia and other significant countries in Europe, with a special focus on the states in South-Eastern Europe and Croatia. Comparative analyses attempt to show that local government systems with bigger local government units have more significant sub-municipal government. On the other hand, local government systems with small local government units don’t have a strong sub-municipal government. Finally, this paper aims to present ideas on how the sub-municipal government can improve decentralization and contribute to better development of the local community and the whole of society.

Keywords: public administration, local government, sub-municipal government, decentralization

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1119 The Role of Paraphrase in Interpreting Students’ Writing

Authors: Maya Lisa Aryanti, S. S. M. Hum


To improve students’ skill, writing is the most challenging skill to be developed. The reason is that besides helping the students to develop their skill, this activity also helps them to express themselves. This paper depicts how paraphrasing is very helpful to interpret students’ writing. Syntactic units, used tenses and meanings will indeed change once the writings were paraphrased. The objectives of this research are to reveal the inappropriate structure of syntactic units, to show what types of sentences the students often make, and to show how paraphrasing can help to infer the message. The methodology of this research is descriptive qualitative research. In addition, theories of linguistics are also included. This includes theory of Syntax to describe syntactic units and tenses and theory of Semantics to describe theories of meaning and how paraphrasing works. The theories of general linguistics, grammar and writing are also provided to support the theories of Syntax and Semantics. The results of this research are concerned with how the message is received in the end. The message written in the students’ essay is not clear because of the improper structure of syntactic units and use of incorrect of tenses. The students tend to use simple sentences, compound sentences and complex sentences with a few mistakes in their writing. In addition, they tend to create unnecessary phrases. The last point is that this research shows how paraphrase works to attain complete meaning of a sentence.

Keywords: meanings, syntactic units, tenses, syntax and semantics

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1118 Effective Wind-Induced Natural Ventilation in a Residential Apartment Typology

Authors: Tanvi P. Medshinge, Prasad Vaidya, Monisha E. Royan


In India, cooling loads in residential sector is a major contributor to its total energy consumption. Due to the increasing cooling need, the market penetration of air-conditioners is further expected to rise. Natural Ventilation (NV), however, possesses great potential to save significant energy consumption especially for residential buildings in moderate climates. As multifamily residential apartment buildings are designed by repetitive use of prototype designs, deriving individual NV based design prototype solutions for a combination of different wind incidence angles and orientations would provide significant opportunity to address the rise in cooling loads by residential sector. This paper presents the results of NV performance of a selected prototype apartment design with a cluster of four units in Pune, India, and an attempt to improve the NV performance through design modifications. The water table apparatus, a physical modelling tool, is used to study the flow patterns and simulate wind-induced NV performance. Quantification of NV performance is done by post processing images captured from video recordings in terms of percentage of area with good and poor access to ventilation. NV performance of the existing design for eight wind incidence angles showed that of the cluster of four units, the windward units showed good access to ventilation for all rooms, and the leeward units had lower access to ventilation with the bedrooms in the leeward units having the least access. The results showed improved performance in all the units for all wind incidence angles to more than 80% good access to ventilation. Some units showed an additional improvement to more than 90% good access to ventilation. This process of design and performance evaluation improved some individual units from 0% to 100% for good access to ventilation. The results demonstrate the ease of use and the power of the water table apparatus for performance-based design to simulate wind induced NV.  

Keywords: fluid dynamics, prototype design, natural ventilation, simulations, water table apparatus, wind incidence angles

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1117 Research on the Evaluation and Delineation of Value Units of New Industrial Parks Based on Implementation-Orientation

Authors: Chengfang Wang, Zichao Wu, Jianying Zhou


At present, much attention is paid to the development of new industrial parks in the era of inventory planning. Generally speaking, there are two types of development models: incremental development models and stock development models. The former relies on key projects to build a value innovation park, and the latter relies on the iterative update of the park to build a value innovation park. Take the Baiyun Western Digital Park as an example, considering the growth model of value units, determine the evaluation target. Based on a GIS platform, comprehensive land-use status, regulatory detailed planning, land use planning, blue-green ecological base, rail transit system, road network system, industrial park distribution, public service facilities, and other factors are used to carry out the land use within the planning multi-factor superimposed comprehensive evaluation, constructing a value unit evaluation system, and delineating value units based on implementation orientation and combining two different development models. The research hopes to provide a reference for the planning and construction of new domestic industrial parks.

Keywords: value units, GIS, multi-factor evaluation, implementation orientation

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