Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3553

Search results for: capsule network

3553 Detecting Manipulated Media Using Deep Capsule Network

Authors: Joseph Uzuazomaro Oju


The ease at which manipulated media can be created, and the increasing difficulty in identifying fake media makes it a great threat. Most of the applications used for the creation of these high-quality fake videos and images are built with deep learning. Hence, the use of deep learning in creating a detection mechanism cannot be overemphasized. Any successful fake media that is being detected before it reached the populace will save people from the self-doubt of either a content is genuine or fake and will ensure the credibility of videos and images. The methodology introduced in this paper approaches the manipulated media detection challenge using a combo of VGG-19 and a deep capsule network. In the case of videos, they are converted into frames, which, in turn, are resized and cropped to the face region. These preprocessed images/videos are fed to the VGG-19 network to extract the latent features. The extracted latent features are inputted into a deep capsule network enhanced with a 3D -convolution dynamic routing agreement. The 3D –convolution dynamic routing agreement algorithm helps to reduce the linkages between capsules networks. Thereby limiting the poor learning shortcoming of multiple capsule network layers. The resultant output from the deep capsule network will indicate a media to be either genuine or fake.

Keywords: deep capsule network, dynamic routing, fake media detection, manipulated media

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3552 Optimizing the Capacity of a Convolutional Neural Network for Image Segmentation and Pattern Recognition

Authors: Yalong Jiang, Zheru Chi


In this paper, we study the factors which determine the capacity of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model and propose the ways to evaluate and adjust the capacity of a CNN model for best matching to a specific pattern recognition task. Firstly, a scheme is proposed to adjust the number of independent functional units within a CNN model to make it be better fitted to a task. Secondly, the number of independent functional units in the capsule network is adjusted to fit it to the training dataset. Thirdly, a method based on Bayesian GAN is proposed to enrich the variances in the current dataset to increase its complexity. Experimental results on the PASCAL VOC 2010 Person Part dataset and the MNIST dataset show that, in both conventional CNN models and capsule networks, the number of independent functional units is an important factor that determines the capacity of a network model. By adjusting the number of functional units, the capacity of a model can better match the complexity of a dataset.

Keywords: CNN, convolutional neural network, capsule network, capacity optimization, character recognition, data augmentation, semantic segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
3551 Mechanical Qualification Test Campaign on the Demise Observation Capsule

Authors: B. Tiseo, V. Quaranta, G. Bruno, R. Gardi, T. Watts, S. Dussy


This paper describes the qualification test campaign performed on the Demise Observation Capsule DOC-EQM as part of the Future Launch Preparatory Program FLPP3. The mechanical environment experienced during launch ascent and separation phase was first identified and then replicated in terms of sine, random and shock vibration. The loads identification is derived by selecting the worst possible case. Vibration and shock qualification test performed at CIRA Space Qualification laboratory is herein described. Mechanical fixtures’ design and validation, carried out by means of FEM, is also addressed due to its fundamental role in the vibrational test campaign. The Demise Observation Capsule (DOC) successfully passed the qualification test campaign. Functional test and resonance search have not been point any fault and damages of the capsule.

Keywords: capsule, demise, demise observation capsule, DOC, launch environment, re-ntry, qualification

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
3550 Effect of Capsule Storage on Viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in Yogurt Powder

Authors: Kanchana Sitlaothaworn


Yogurt capsule was made by mixing 14% w/v of reconstitution of skim milk with 2% FOS. The mixture was fermented by commercial yogurt starter comprising Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. These yogurts were made as yogurt powder by freeze-dried. Yogurt powder was put into capsule then stored for 28 days at 4oc. 8ml of commercial yogurt was found to be the most suitable inoculum size in yogurt production. After freeze-dried, the viability of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus reduced from 109 to 107 cfu/g. The precence of sucrose cannot help to protect cell from ice crystal formation in freeze-dried process, high (20%) sucrose reduced L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus growth during fermentation of yogurt. The addition of FOS had reduced slowly the viability of both L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus similar to control (without FOS) during 28 days of capsule storage. The viable cell exhibited satisfactory viability level in capsule storage (6.7x106cfu/g) during 21 days at 4oC.

Keywords: yogurt capsule, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, freeze-drying, sucrose

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3549 A Dissipative Particle Dynamics Study of a Capsule in Microfluidic Intracellular Delivery System

Authors: Nishanthi N. S., Srikanth Vedantam


Intracellular delivery of materials has always proved to be a challenge in research and therapeutic applications. Usually, vector-based methods, such as liposomes and polymeric materials, and physical methods, such as electroporation and sonoporation have been used for introducing nucleic acids or proteins. Reliance on exogenous materials, toxicity, off-target effects was the short-comings of these methods. Microinjection was an alternative process which addressed the above drawbacks. However, its low throughput had hindered its adoption widely. Mechanical deformation of cells by squeezing them through constriction channel can cause the temporary development of pores that would facilitate non-targeted diffusion of materials. Advantages of this method include high efficiency in intracellular delivery, a wide choice of materials, improved viability and high throughput. This cell squeezing process can be studied deeper by employing simple models and efficient computational procedures. In our current work, we present a finite sized dissipative particle dynamics (FDPD) model to simulate the dynamics of the cell flowing through a constricted channel. The cell is modeled as a capsule with FDPD particles connected through a spring network to represent the membrane. The total energy of the capsule is associated with linear and radial springs in addition to constraint of the fixed area. By performing detailed simulations, we studied the strain on the membrane of the capsule for channels with varying constriction heights. The strain on the capsule membrane was found to be similar though the constriction heights vary. When strain on the membrane was correlated to the development of pores, we found higher porosity in capsule flowing in wider channel. This is due to localization of strain to a smaller region in the narrow constriction channel. But the residence time of the capsule increased as the channel constriction narrowed indicating that strain for an increased time will cause less cell viability.

Keywords: capsule, cell squeezing, dissipative particle dynamics, intracellular delivery, microfluidics, numerical simulations

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3548 Aerodynamic Design Optimization Technique for a Tube Capsule That Uses an Axial Flow Air Compressor and an Aerostatic Bearing

Authors: Ahmed E. Hodaib, Muhammed A. Hashem


High-speed transportation has become a growing concern. To increase high-speed efficiencies and minimize power consumption of a vehicle, we need to eliminate the friction with the ground and minimize the aerodynamic drag acting on the vehicle. Due to the complexity and high power requirements of electromagnetic levitation, we make use of the air in front of the capsule, that produces the majority of the drag, to compress it in two phases and inject a proportion of it through small nozzles to make a high-pressure air cushion to levitate the capsule. The tube is partially-evacuated so that the air pressure is optimized for maximum compressor effectiveness, optimum tube size, and minimum vacuum pump power consumption. The total relative mass flow rate of the tube air is divided into two fractions. One is by-passed to flow over the capsule body, ensuring that no chocked flow takes place. The other fraction is sucked by the compressor where it is diffused to decrease the Mach number (around 0.8) to be suitable for the compressor inlet. The air is then compressed and intercooled, then split. One fraction is expanded through a tail nozzle to contribute to generating thrust. The other is compressed again. Bleed from the two compressors is used to maintain a constant air pressure in an air tank. The air tank is used to supply air for levitation. Dividing the total mass flow rate increases the achievable speed (Kantrowitz limit), and compressing it decreases the blockage of the capsule. As a result, the aerodynamic drag on the capsule decreases. As the tube pressure decreases, the drag decreases and the capsule power requirements decrease, however, the vacuum pump consumes more power. That’s why Design optimization techniques are to be used to get the optimum values for all the design variables given specific design inputs. Aerodynamic shape optimization, Capsule and tube sizing, compressor design, diffuser and nozzle expander design and the effect of the air bearing on the aerodynamics of the capsule are to be considered. The variations of the variables are to be studied for the change of the capsule velocity and air pressure.

Keywords: tube-capsule, hyperloop, aerodynamic design optimization, air compressor, air bearing

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3547 Wireless Capsule Endoscope - Antenna and Channel Characterization

Authors: Mona Elhelbawy, Mac Gray


Traditional wired endoscopy is an intrusive process that requires a long flexible tube to be inserted through the patient’s mouth while intravenously sedated. Only images of the upper 4 feet of stomach, colon, and rectum can be captured, leaving the remaining 20 feet of small intestines. Wireless capsule endoscopy offers a painless, non-intrusive, efficient and effective alternative to traditional endoscopy. In wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), ingestible vitamin-pill-shaped capsules with imaging capabilities, sensors, batteries, and antennas are designed to send images of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in real time. In this paper, we investigate the radiation performance and specific absorption rate (SAR) of a miniature conformal capsule antenna operating at the Medical Implant Communication Service (MICS) frequency band in the human body. We perform numerical simulations using the finite element method based commercial software, high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS) and the ANSYS human body model (HBM). We also investigate the in-body channel characteristics between the implantable capsule and an external antenna placed on the surface of the human body.

Keywords: IEEE 802.15.6, MICS, SAR, WCE

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3546 Determination of Morphological Characteristics of Brassica napus, Sinapis arvensis, Sinapis alba and Camelina sativa

Authors: Betül Gıdık, Fadul Önemli


The Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) is an important family of plants that include many economically important vegetable production, industrial oilseed, spice, fodder crop species and energy production. Canola and mustard species that are in Brassicaceae family have too high contribution to world herbal production. In this study, genotypes of two kinds of (Caravel and Excalibul) canola (Brassica napus), wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis), white mustard (Sinapis alba) and Camelina (Camelina sativa) were grown in the experimental field, and their morphological characteristics were determined. According to the results of the research; plant length was varied between 76.75 cm and 151.50 cm, and the longest plant was belonging to species of Sinapis arvensis. The number of branches varied from 3.75 piece/plant to 17.75 piece/plant and the most numerous branch was counted in species of Sinapis alba. It was determined that the number of grains in one capsule was between 3.75 piece/capsule and 35.75 piece/capsule and the largest amount of grains in the one capsule was in the Excalibul variety of species of Brassica napus. In our research, it has been determined that the plant of Sinapis arvensis is a potential plant for industrial of oil production; such as Brassica napus, Sinapis alba and Camelina (Camelina sativa).

Keywords: Brassica napus, Camelina sativa, canola, Sinapis alba, Sinapis arvensis, wild mustard

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
3545 Feature Extraction Based on Contourlet Transform and Log Gabor Filter for Detection of Ulcers in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy

Authors: Nimisha Elsa Koshy, Varun P. Gopi, V. I. Thajudin Ahamed


The entire visualization of GastroIntestinal (GI) tract is not possible with conventional endoscopic exams. Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a low risk, painless, noninvasive procedure for diagnosing diseases such as bleeding, polyps, ulcers, and Crohns disease within the human digestive tract, especially the small intestine that was unreachable using the traditional endoscopic methods. However, analysis of massive images of WCE detection is tedious and time consuming to physicians. Hence, researchers have developed software methods to detect these diseases automatically. Thus, the effectiveness of WCE can be improved. In this paper, a novel textural feature extraction method is proposed based on Contourlet transform and Log Gabor filter to distinguish ulcer regions from normal regions. The results show that the proposed method performs well with a high accuracy rate of 94.16% using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier in HSV colour space.

Keywords: contourlet transform, log gabor filter, ulcer, wireless capsule endoscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
3544 A Non-Destructive TeraHertz System and Method for Capsule and Liquid Medicine Identification

Authors: Ke Lin, Steve Wu Qing Yang, Zhang Nan


The medicine and drugs has in the past been manufactured to the final products and then used laboratory analysis to verify their quality. However the industry needs crucially a monitoring technique for the final batch to batch quality check. The introduction of process analytical technology (PAT) provides an incentive to obtain real-time information about drugs on the production line, with the following optical techniques being considered: near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and imaging, mid-infrared spectroscopy with the use of chemometric techniques to quantify the final product. However, presents problems in that the spectra obtained will consist of many combination and overtone bands of the fundamental vibrations observed, making analysis difficult. In this work, we describe a non-destructive system and method for capsule and liquid medicine identification, more particularly, using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and/or designed terahertz portable system for identifying different types of medicine in the package of capsule or in liquid medicine bottles. The target medicine can be detected directly, non-destructively and non-invasively.

Keywords: terahertz, non-destructive, non-invasive, chemical identification

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3543 Conceptional Design of a Hyperloop Capsule with Linear Induction Propulsion System

Authors: Ahmed E. Hodaib, Samar F. Abdel Fattah


High-speed transportation is a growing concern. To develop high-speed rails and to increase high-speed efficiencies, the idea of Hyperloop was introduced. The challenge is to overcome the difficulties of managing friction and air-resistance which become substantial when vehicles approach high speeds. In this paper, we are presenting the methodologies of the capsule design which got a design concept innovation award at SpaceX competition in January, 2016. MATLAB scripts are written for the levitation and propulsion calculations and iterations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the air flow around the capsule considering the effect of the axial-flow air compressor and the levitation cushion on the air flow. The design procedures of a single-sided linear induction motor are analyzed in detail and its geometric and magnetic parameters are determined. A structural design is introduced and Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to analyze the stresses in different parts. The configuration and the arrangement of the components are illustrated. Moreover, comments on manufacturing are made.

Keywords: high-speed transportation, hyperloop, railways transportation, single-sided linear induction Motor (SLIM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
3542 Comparison of Visual Acuity Outcome and Complication after Phacoemulsification between Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients at Burapha University Hospital, Chonburi, Thailand

Authors: Luksanaporn Krungkraipetch


One hundred cataract patients with phacoemulsification were enrolled in the study to compare of visual acuity outcome and complication after phacoemulsification between diabetic and non-diabetic patients at Burapha University Hospital, Chonburi, Thailand. Fifty patients were diabetic (type II) group and 50 patients were non-diabetic group. All cases were operated by one doctor with the same pre-operative care, operation (phacoemulsification), and post-operative care. Visual acuity and complication after surgery were assessed after the operation for two years. There were no significant differences in demographic data between the two groups. The visual outcome values ≥ 2 lines and ≥ 20/40 had no significant differences between two groups after two years of surgery. The complication rate in diabetic group had cystoid macular edema 16%, rupture posterior capsule 8%, posterior capsule opacity 2%, uveitis 2 %, and 2% endophthalmitis. The non-diabetic group had cystoid macular edema 12%, rupture posterior capsule 8%, uveitis 2%, posterior capsule opacity 2%, and 2% wound leak. Comparison of visual acuity outcome and complication after phacoemulsification between diabetic and non-diabetic patients had no statistical significant differences between these two groups. It was found that cystoid macular edema was the most common complication in both groups and 10% of retinopathy progression was seen.

Keywords: cataract, visual acuity, cataract extraction, phacoemulsification, diabetic retinopathy

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
3541 Aerodynamic Prediction and Performance Analysis for Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle

Authors: Tang Wei, Yang Xiaofeng, Gui Yewei, Du Yanxia


Complex lifting entry was selected for precise landing performance during the Mars Science Laboratory entry. This study aims to develop the three-dimensional numerical method for precise computation and the surface panel method for rapid engineering prediction. Detailed flow field analysis for Mars exploration mission was performed by carrying on a series of fully three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computations. The static aerodynamic performance was then discussed, including the surface pressure, lift and drag coefficient, lift-to-drag ratio with the numerical and engineering method. Computation results shown that the shock layer is thin because of lower effective specific heat ratio, and that calculated results from both methods agree well with each other, and is consistent with the reference data. Aerodynamic performance analysis shows that CG location determines trim characteristics and pitch stability, and certain radially and axially shift of the CG location can alter the capsule lifting entry performance, which is of vital significance for the aerodynamic configuration des0ign and inner instrument layout of the Mars entry capsule.

Keywords: Mars entry capsule, static aerodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, hypersonic

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3540 Network Security Attacks and Defences

Authors: Ranbir Singh, Deepinder Kaur


Network security is an important aspect in every field like government offices, Educational Institute and any business organization. Network security consists of the policies adopted to prevent and monitor forbidden access, misuse, modification, or denial of a computer network. Network security is very complicated subject and deal by only well trained and experienced people. However, as more and more people become wired, an increasing number of people need to understand the basics of security in a networked world. The history of the network security included an introduction to the TCP/IP and interworking. Network security starts with authenticating, commonly with a username and a password. In this paper, we study about various types of attacks on network security and how to handle or prevent this attack.

Keywords: network security, attacks, denial, authenticating

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
3539 Contourlet Transform and Local Binary Pattern Based Feature Extraction for Bleeding Detection in Endoscopic Images

Authors: Mekha Mathew, Varun P Gopi


Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) has become a great device in Gastrointestinal (GI) tract diagnosis, which can examine the entire GI tract, especially the small intestine without invasiveness and sedation. Bleeding in the digestive tract is a symptom of a disease rather than a disease itself. Hence the detection of bleeding is important in diagnosing many diseases. In this paper we proposes a novel method for distinguishing bleeding regions from normal regions based on Contourlet transform and Local Binary Pattern (LBP). Experiments show that this method provides a high accuracy rate of 96.38% in CIE XYZ colour space for k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN) classifier.

Keywords: Wireless Capsule Endoscopy, local binary pattern, k-NN classifier, contourlet transform

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3538 Relative Toxicity of Apparent Pesticides against Safflower Capsule Fly, Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae) under Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Karim Saeidi


Safflower capsule fly, Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a key pest of safflower in Iran. The toxicity of Methidathion, Malathion, Deltamethrin, and Lufenuron to adult males and females of Acanthiophilus helianthi was studied under laboratory conditions. Malathion was the most toxic among the tested compounds followed by Methidathion, Lufenuron, and Deltamethrin to Acanthiophilus helianthi at 24 h post treatment, the respective LC50 values were 0.40 ppm, 0.68 ppm, 10.99 ppm, and 11.75 ppm for males and 0.46 ppm, 0.97 ppm, 13.45 ppm, and 16.32 ppm for females. At 48 h post treatment, Malathion was the most toxic followed by Methidathion, Deltamethrin, and Lufenuron to Acanthiophilus helianthi, LC50 values were 0.08 ppm, 0.54 ppm, 1.80 ppm, and 1.96 ppm for males and 0.34 ppm, 0.64 ppm, 1.88 ppm, and 2.37 ppm for females. At 72 h post treatment, Malathion was the most toxic followed by Methidathion, Lufenuron, and Deltamethrin to Acanthiophilus helianthi LC50 values were 0.04 ppm, 0.33 ppm, 0.44 ppm, and 0.71 ppm for males and 0.09 ppm, 0.36 ppm, 0.75 ppm, and 0.82 ppm for females. It is observed that LC50 values for treated adult females increased more than in the treated adult males at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post treatment. It means that the adult males were more susceptible to the tested insecticides than the adult females.

Keywords: safflower, Methidathion, Deltamethrin, Lufenuron, Malathion, Tephritidae, safflower capsule fly, Acanthiophilus helianthi

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
3537 Enhancing the Network Security with Gray Code

Authors: Thomas Adi Purnomo Sidhi


Nowadays, network is an essential need in almost every part of human daily activities. People now can seamlessly connect to others through the Internet. With advanced technology, our personal data now can be more easily accessed. One of many components we are concerned for delivering the best network is a security issue. This paper is proposing a method that provides more options for security. This research aims to improve network security by focusing on the physical layer which is the first layer of the OSI model. The layer consists of the basic networking hardware transmission technologies of a network. With the use of observation method, the research produces a schematic design for enhancing the network security through the gray code converter.

Keywords: network, network security, grey code, physical layer

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3536 Network Functions Virtualization-Based Virtual Routing Function Deployment under Network Delay Constraints

Authors: Kenichiro Hida, Shin-Ichi Kuribayashi


NFV-based network implements a variety of network functions with software on general-purpose servers, and this allows the network operator to select any capabilities and locations of network functions without any physical constraints. In this paper, we evaluate the influence of the maximum tolerable network delay on the virtual routing function deployment guidelines which the authors proposed previously. Our evaluation results have revealed the following: (1) the more the maximum tolerable network delay condition becomes severe, the more the number of areas where the route selection function is installed increases and the total network cost increases, (2) the higher the routing function cost relative to the circuit bandwidth cost, the increase ratio of total network cost becomes larger according to the maximum tolerable network delay condition.

Keywords: NFV (Network Functions Virtualization), resource allocation, virtual routing function, minimum total network cost

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3535 Efficacy of Cool's and Rhythmic Stabilization Exercises on Scapular up Ward Rotation and Ut/Sa Ratio in Patients with Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

Authors: Mohammed Moustafa, Khaled Ayad, Waleed Reda


Shoulder impingement syndrome is the most common disorder of the shoulder, resulting in functional loss and disability. Objective: This study was designed to compare between the effects of scapular muscle training versus rhythmic stabilization exercises in treatment of shoulder impingement syndrome. Methods: Thirty patients participated in this study; they were assigned randomly into two experimental groups. The first experimental group (A) consisted of 15 patients with a mean age (21.87±2.72) years; they received graduated rhythmic stabilization exercises and stretching of the posterior capsule. The second experimental group (B) consisted of 15 patients with a mean age (22.27±2.94) years; they received scapular muscle training exercises in addition to stretching of the posterior capsule. Treatment was given three times per week, every other day, for four consecutive weeks. Patients have been evaluated pretreatment and post treatment for shoulder pain severity and functional disability. Results: Both groups showed highly statistical significant reduction in pain severity and functional disability measured post-treatment when compared with their corresponding values in pretreatment assessment. Conclusion: Both of rhythmic stabilization exercises and scapular muscle training are effective interventions to reduce shoulder pain severity and functional disability.

Keywords: impingement syndrome, scapular exercises, rhythmic stabilization exercises, posterior capsule stretch

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
3534 The Influence of Mechanical and Physicochemical Characteristics of Perfume Microcapsules on Their Rupture Behaviour and How This Relates to Performance in Consumer Products

Authors: Andrew Gray, Zhibing Zhang


The ability for consumer products to deliver a sustained perfume response can be a key driver for a variety of applications. Many compounds in perfume oils are highly volatile, meaning they readily evaporate once the product is applied, and the longevity of the scent is poor. Perfume capsules have been introduced as a means of abating this evaporation once the product has been delivered. The impermeable capsules are aimed to be stable within the formulation, and remain intact during delivery to the desired substrate, only rupturing to release the core perfume oil through application of mechanical force applied by the consumer. This opens up the possibility of obtaining an olfactive response hours, weeks or even months after delivery, depending on the nature of the desired application. Tailoring the properties of the polymeric capsules to better address the needs of the application is not a trivial challenge and currently design of capsules is largely done by trial and error. The aim of this work is to have more predictive methods for capsule design depending on the consumer application. This means refining formulations such that they rupture at the right time for the specific consumer application, not too early, not too late. Finding the right balance between these extremes is essential if a benefit is sought with respect to neat addition of perfume to formulations. It is important to understand the forces that influence capsule rupture, first, by quantifying the magnitude of these different forces, and then by assessing bulk rupture in real-world applications to understand how capsules actually respond. Samples were provided by an industrial partner and the mechanical properties of individual capsules within the samples were characterized via a micromanipulation technique, developed by Professor Zhang at the University of Birmingham. The capsules were synthesized such as to change one particular physicochemical property at a time, such as core: wall material ratio, and the average size of capsules. Analysis of shell thickness via Transmission Electron Microscopy, size distribution via the use of a Mastersizer, as well as a variety of other techniques confirmed that only one particular physicochemical property was altered for each sample. The mechanical analysis was subsequently undertaken, showing the effect that changing certain capsule properties had on the response under compression. It was, however, important to link this fundamental mechanical response to capsule performance in real-world applications. As such, the capsule samples were introduced to a formulation and exposed to full scale stresses. GC-MS headspace analysis of the perfume oil released from broken capsules enabled quantification of what the relative strengths of capsules truly means for product performance. Correlations have been found between the mechanical strength of capsule samples and performance in terms of perfume release in consumer applications. Having a better understanding of the key parameters that drive performance benefits the design of future formulations by offering better guidelines on the parameters that can be adjusted without worrying about the performance effects, and singles out those parameters that are essential in finding the sweet spot for capsule performance.

Keywords: consumer products, mechanical and physicochemical properties, perfume capsules, rupture behaviour

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3533 Survivable IP over WDM Network Design Based on 1 ⊕ 1 Network Coding

Authors: Nihed Bahria El Asghar, Imen Jouili, Mounir Frikha


Inter-datacenter transport network is very bandwidth and delay demanding. The data transferred over such a network is also highly QoS-exigent mostly because a huge volume of data should be transported transparently with regard to the application user. To avoid the data transfer failure, a backup path should be reserved. No re-routing delay should be observed. A dedicated 1+1 protection is however not applicable in inter-datacenter transport network because of the huge spare capacity. In this context, we propose a survivable virtual network with minimal backup based on network coding (1 ⊕ 1) and solve it using a modified Dijkstra-based heuristic.

Keywords: network coding, dedicated protection, spare capacity, inter-datacenters transport network

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3532 Reduction of Patient’s Dose of I-131 Therapy by Used Local Diuretic Juice

Authors: Mosab kh. A. A. Bashir, E. Mohamed-Ahmed


The aim of the study is to compare the results of the external exposure and the range of the dose spread by the patients, hospitalized in two different groups of 3-5 d receiving radioiodine therapy because of thyroid cancer, and one of group were giving the local diuretic plant (barley) as local juice. The control group was 28 patients they were isolated as international precautions after taken I-131 capsule 100 mCi, and their external exposure was recorded day by day after first 24 hrs. and the distance for external measurement was 1 m at the abdominal level. The mean of external exposure values of patients at fourth day were 30.24±12.92 µSv h−1. The second group after taking I-131 capsule 100 mCi we were given barley juice (250 mL) after every meal three times on day and their external exposure was recorded day by day after first 24 hrs. The mean of external exposure values of patients of this group at third day was 26.92±9.89 (14-55) µSv h−1. It was observed that the external exposure from the second group clearly decreased to low levels which contributed to the decrease in patient dose and also to the decrease in the exposure from the patient to his/her family.

Keywords: local diuretic juice, therapy, radiation medicine, diuretic plant

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3531 Powder Assisted Sheet Forming to Fabricate Ti Capsule Magnetic Hyperthermia Implant

Authors: Keigo Nishitani, Kohei Mizuta Mizuta, Kazuyoshi Kurita, Yukinori Taniguchi


To establish mass production process of Ti capsule which has Fe powder inside as magnetic hyperthermia implant, we assumed that Ti thin sheet can be drawn into a φ1.0 mm die hole through the medium of Fe Powder and becomes outer shell of capsule. This study discusses mechanism of powder assisted deep drawing process by both of numerical simulation and experiment. Ti thin sheet blank was placed on die, and was covered by Fe powder layer without pressurizing. Then upper punch was indented on the Fe powder layer, and the blank can be drawn into die cavity as pressurized powder particles were extruded into die cavity from behind of the drawn blank. Distinct Element Method (DEM) has been used to demonstrate the process. To identify bonding parameters on Fe particles which are cohesion, tensile bond stress and inter particle friction angle, axial and diametrical compression failure test of Fe powder compact was conducted. Several density ratios of powder compacts in range of 0.70 - 0.85 were investigated and relationship between mean stress and equivalent stress was calculated with consideration of critical state line which rules failure criterion in consolidation of Fe powder. Since variation of bonding parameters with density ratio has been experimentally identified, and good agreement has been recognized between several failure tests and its simulation, demonstration of powder assisted sheet forming by using DEM becomes applicable. Results of simulation indicated that indent/drawing length of Ti thin sheet is promoted by smaller Fe particle size, larger indent punch diameter, lower friction coefficient between die surface and Ti sheet and certain degrees of die inlet taper angle. In the deep drawing test, we have made die-set with φ2.4 mm punch and φ1.0 mm die bore diameter. Pure Ti sheet with 100 μm thickness, annealed at 650 deg. C has been tested. After indentation, indented/drawn capsule has been observed by microscope, and its length was measured to discuss the feasibility of this capsulation process. Longer drawing length exists on progressive loading pass comparing with the case of single stroke loading. It is expected that progressive loading has an advantage of which extrusion of powder particle into die cavity with Ti sheet is promoted since powder particle layer can be rebuilt while the punch is withdrawn from the layer in each loading steps. This capsulation phenomenon is qualitatively demonstrated by DEM simulation. Finally, we have fabricated Ti capsule which has Fe powder inside for magnetic hyperthermia cancer care treatment. It is concluded that suggested method is possible to use the manufacturing of Ti capsule implant for magnetic hyperthermia cancer care.

Keywords: metal powder compaction, metal forming, distinct element method, cancer care, magnetic hyperthermia

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
3530 Study on Energy Performance Comparison of Information Centric Network Based on Difference of Network Architecture

Authors: Takumi Shindo, Koji Okamura


The first generation of the wide area network was circuit centric network. How the optimal circuit can be signed was the most important issue to get the best performance. This architecture had succeeded for line based telephone system. The second generation was host centric network and Internet based on this architecture has very succeeded world widely. And Internet became as new social infrastructure. Currently the architecture of the network is based on the location of the information. This future network is called Information centric network (ICN). The information-centric network (ICN) has being researched by many projects and different architectures for implementation of ICN have been proposed. The goal of this study is to compare performances of those ICN architectures. In this paper, the authors propose general ICN model which can represent two typical ICN architectures and compare communication performances using request routing. Finally, simulation results are shown. Also, we assume that this network architecture should be adapt to energy on-demand routing.

Keywords: ICN, information centric network, CCN, energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
3529 Secure Content Centric Network

Authors: Syed Umair Aziz, Muhammad Faheem, Sameer Hussain, Faraz Idris


Content centric network is the network based on the mechanism of sending and receiving the data based on the interest and data request to the specified node (which has cached data). In this network, the security is bind with the content not with the host hence making it host independent and secure. In this network security is applied by taking content’s MAC (message authentication code) and encrypting it with the public key of the receiver. On the receiver end, the message is first verified and after verification message is saved and decrypted using the receiver's private key.

Keywords: content centric network, client-server, host security threats, message authentication code, named data network, network caching, peer-to-peer

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
3528 Survey on Securing the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) Protocol in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

Authors: Kimaya Subhash Gaikwad, S. B. Waykar


The mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is collection of various types of nodes. In MANET various protocols are used for communication. In OLSR protocol, a node is selected as multipoint relay (MPR) node which broadcast the messages. As the MANET is open kind of network any malicious node can easily enter into the network and affect the performance of the network. The performance of network mainly depends on the components which are taking part into the communication. If the proper nodes are not selected for the communication then the probability of network being attacked is more. Therefore, it is important to select the more reliable and secure components in the network. MANET does not have any filtering so that only selected nodes can be used for communication. The openness of the MANET makes it easier to attack the communication. The most of the attack are on the Quality of service (QoS) of the network. This paper gives the overview of the various attacks that are possible on OLSR protocol and some solutions. The papers focus mainly on the OLSR protocol.

Keywords: communication, MANET, OLSR, QoS

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
3527 A Social Network Analysis of the Palestinian Feminist Network Tal3at

Authors: Maath M. Musleh


This research aims to study recent trends in the Palestinian feminist movement through the case study of Tal3at. The study uses social network analysis as its primary method to analyze Twitter data. It attempts to interpret results through the lens of network theories and Parson’s AGIL paradigm. The study reveals major structural weaknesses in the Tal3at network. Our findings suggest that the movement will decline soon as sentiments of alienation amongst Palestinian women increases. These findings were validated by a couple of central actors in the network. This study contributes an SNA approach to the understanding of the understudied Palestinian feminism.

Keywords: feminism, Palestine, social network analysis, Tal3at

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
3526 Design a Network for Implementation a Hospital Information System

Authors: Abdulqader Rasool Feqi Mohammed, Ergun Erçelebi̇


A large number of hospitals from developed countries are adopting hospital information system to bring efficiency in hospital information system. The purpose of this project is to research on new network security techniques in order to enhance the current network security structure of save a hospital information system (HIS). This is very important because, it will avoid the system from suffering any attack. Security architecture was optimized but there are need to keep researching on best means to protect the network from future attacks. In this final project research, security techniques were uncovered to produce best network security results when implemented in an integrated framework.

Keywords: hospital information system, HIS, network security techniques, internet protocol, IP, network

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
3525 Monitoring and Prediction of Intra-Crosstalk in All-Optical Network

Authors: Ahmed Jedidi, Mesfer Mohammed Alshamrani, Alwi Mohammad A. Bamhdi


Optical performance monitoring and optical network management are essential in building a reliable, high-capacity, and service-differentiation enabled all-optical network. One of the serious problems in this network is the fact that optical crosstalk is additive, and thus the aggregate effect of crosstalk over a whole AON may be more nefarious than a single point of crosstalk. As results, we note a huge degradation of the Quality of Service (QoS) in our network. For that, it is necessary to identify and monitor the impairments in whole network. In this way, this paper presents new system to identify and monitor crosstalk in AONs in real-time fashion. particular, it proposes a new technique to manage intra-crosstalk in objective to relax QoS of the network.

Keywords: all-optical networks, optical crosstalk, optical cross-connect, crosstalk, monitoring crosstalk

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
3524 Software Quality Assurance in Network Security using Cryptographic Techniques

Authors: Sidra Shabbir, Ayesha Manzoor, Mehreen Sirshar


The use of the network communication has imposed serious threats to the security of assets over the network. Network security is getting more prone to active and passive attacks which may result in serious consequences to data integrity, confidentiality and availability. Various cryptographic techniques have been proposed in the past few years to combat with the concerned problem by ensuring quality but in order to have a fully secured network; a framework of new cryptosystem was needed. This paper discusses certain cryptographic techniques which have shown far better improvement in the network security with enhanced quality assurance. The scope of this research paper is to cover the security pitfalls in the current systems and their possible solutions based on the new cryptosystems. The development of new cryptosystem framework has paved a new way to the widespread network communications with enhanced quality in network security.

Keywords: cryptography, network security, encryption, decryption, integrity, confidentiality, security algorithms, elliptic curve cryptography

Procedia PDF Downloads 395