Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 397

Search results for: vacuum glazing

397 Theoretical Study of Flexible Edge Seals for Vacuum Glazing

Authors: Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde

Abstract:

The development of vacuum glazing represents a significant advancement in the area of low heat loss glazing systems with the potential to substantially reduce building heating and cooling loads. Vacuum glazing consists of two or more glass panes hermetically sealed together around the edge with a vacuum gap between the panes. To avoid the glass panes from collapsing and touching each other under the influence of atmospheric pressure an array of support pillars is provided between the glass panes. A high level of thermal insulation is achieved by evacuating the spaces between the glass panes to a very low pressure which greatly reduces conduction and convection within the space; therefore heat transfer through this kind of glazing is significantly lower when compared with conventional insulating glazing. However, vacuum glazing is subject to inherent stresses due to atmospheric pressure and temperature differentials which can lead to fracture of the glass panes and failure of the edge seal. A flexible edge seal has been proposed to minimise the impact of these issues. In this paper, vacuum glazing system with rigid and flexible edge seals is theoretically studied and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

Keywords: flexible edge seal, stress, support pillar, vacuum glazing

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
396 The Effect of Glass Thickness on Stress in Vacuum Glazing

Authors: Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde, Andrea Trevisi, Paolo Basso, Danilo Bardaro

Abstract:

Heat transfer through multiple pane windows can be reduced by creating a vacuum pressure less than 0.1 Pa between the glass panes, with low emittance coatings on one or more of the internal surfaces. Fabrication of vacuum glazing (VG) requires the formation of a hermetic seal around the periphery of the glass panes together with an array of support pillars between the panes to prevent them from touching under atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure and temperature differentials induce stress which can affect the integrity of the glazing. Several parameters define the stresses in VG including the glass thickness, pillar specifications, glazing dimensions and edge seal configuration. Inherent stresses in VG can result in fractures in the glass panes and failure of the edge seal. In this study, stress in VG with different glass thicknesses is theoretically studied using Finite Element Modelling (FEM). Based on the finding in this study, suggestions are made to address problems resulting from the use of thinner glass panes in the fabrication of VG. This can lead to the development of high performance, light and thin VG.

Keywords: vacuum glazing, stress, vacuum insulation, support pillars

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
395 Manufacturing of Vacuum Glazing with Metal Edge Seal

Authors: Won Kyeong Kang, Tae-Ho Song

Abstract:

Vacuum glazing (VG) is a super insulator, which is able to greatly improve the energy efficiency of building. However, a significant amount of heat loss occurs through the welded edge of conventional VG. The joining method should be improved for further application and commercialization. For this purpose VG with metal edge seal is conceived. In this paper, the feasibility of joining stainless steel and soda lime glass using glass solder is assessed numerically and experimentally. In the case of very thin stainless steel, partial joining with glass is identified, which need further improvement for practical application.

Keywords: VG, metal edge seal, vacuum glazing, manufacturing,

Procedia PDF Downloads 528
394 An Investigation into Sealing Materials for Vacuum Glazing

Authors: Paul Onyegbule, Harjit Singh

Abstract:

Vacuum glazing is an innovative transparent thermal insulator that has application in high performance window, especially in renewable energy. Different materials as well as sealing methods have been adopted to seal windows with different temperatures. The impact of temperatures on sealing layers has been found to have significant effects on the microstructure of the seal. This paper seeks to investigate the effects of sealing materials specifically glass powder and flux compound (borax) for vacuum glazing. The findings of the experiment conducted show that the sealing material was rigid with some leakage around the edge, and we found that this could be stopped by enhancing the uniformity of the seal within the periphery. Also, we found that due to the intense tensile stress from the oven surface temperature of the seal at 200 0C, a crack was observed at the side of the glass. Based on the above findings, this study concludes that a glass powder with a lower melting temperature of below 250 0C with the addition of an adhesive (borax flux) should be used for future vacuum seals.

Keywords: double glazed windows, U-value, heat loss, borax powder, edge seal

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
393 Soft Ground Improved by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with Vacuum and Thermal Preloading

Authors: Gia Lam Le, Dennis T. Bergado, Thi Ngoc Truc Nguyen

Abstract:

This study focuses on behaviors of improved soft clay using prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) combined with vacuum and electro-osmotic preloading. Large-scale consolidations of reconstituted soft Bangkok clay were conducted for PVD improvement with vacuum (vacuum-PVD), and vacuum combined with heat (vacuum-thermo-PVD). The research revealed that vacuum-thermo-PVD gives high efficiency of the consolidation rate compared to the vacuum-PVD. In addition, the magnitude of settlement of the specimen improved by the vacuum-thermo-PVD is higher than the vacuum-PVD because the assistance of heat causes the collapse of the clay structure. Particularly, to reach 90% degree of consolidation, the thermal-vacuum-PVD reduced about 58% consolidation time compared to the vacuum-PVD. The increase in consolidation rate is resulted from the increase in horizontal coefficient of consolidation, Ch, the reduction of the smear effect expressed by the ratio of the horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the undisturbed zone, kh, and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the smeared zone, ks. Furthermore, the shear strength, Su, increased about 100% when compared using the vacuum-thermal-PVD to the vacuum PVD. In addition, numerical simulations gave reasonable results compared to the laboratory data.

Keywords: PVD improvement, vacuum preloading, prefabricated vertical drain, thermal PVD

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
392 Application of Electrochromic Glazing for Reducing Peak Cooling Loads

Authors: Ranojoy Dutta

Abstract:

HVAC equipment capacity has a direct impact on occupant comfort and energy consumption of a building. Glazing gains, especially in buildings with high window area, can be a significant contributor to the total peak load on the HVAC system, leading to over-sized systems that mostly operate at poor part load efficiency. In addition, radiant temperature, which largely drives occupant comfort in glazed perimeter zones, is often not effectively controlled despite the HVAC being designed to meet the air temperature set-point. This is due to short wave solar radiation transmitted through windows, that is not sensed by the thermostat until much later when the thermal mass in the room releases the absorbed solar heat to the indoor air. The implication of this phenomenon is increased cooling energy despite poor occupant comfort. EC glazing can significantly eliminate direct solar transmission through windows, reducing both the space cooling loads for the building and improving comfort for occupants near glazing. This paper will review the exact mechanism of how EC glazing would reduce the peak load under design day conditions, leading to reduced cooling capacity vs regular high-performance glazing. Since glazing heat transfer only affects the sensible load, system sizing will be evaluated both with and without the availability of a DOAS to isolate the downsizing potential of the primary cooling equipment when outdoor air is conditioned separately. Given the dynamic nature of glazing gains due to the sun’s movement, effective peak load mitigation with EC requires an automated control system that can predict solar movement and radiation levels so that the right tint state with the appropriate SHGC is utilized at any given time for a given façade orientation. Such an automated EC product will be evaluated for a prototype commercial office model situated in four distinct climate zones.

Keywords: electrochromic glazing, peak sizing, thermal comfort, glazing load

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
391 Re-Analyzing Energy-Conscious Design

Authors: Svetlana Pushkar, Oleg Verbitsky

Abstract:

An energy-conscious design for a classroom in a hot-humid climate is reanalyzed. The hypothesis of this study is that use of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation in building operation energy consumption will lead to re-analysis of the energy-conscious design. Therefore, the objective of this study is to reanalyze the energy-conscious design by evaluating the environmental impact of operational energy with PV electrical generation. Using the hierarchical design structure of Eco-indicator 99, the alternatives for energy-conscious variables are statistically evaluated by applying a two-stage nested (hierarchical) ANOVA. The recommendations for the preferred solutions for application of glazing types, wall insulation, roof insulation, window size, roof mass, and window shading design alternatives were changed (for example, glazing type recommendations were changed from low-emissivity glazing, green, and double- glazed windows to low-emissivity glazing only), whereas the applications for the lighting control system and infiltration are not changed. Such analysis of operational energy can be defined as environment-conscious analysis.

Keywords: ANOVA, Eco-Indicator 99, energy-conscious design, hot–humid climate, photovoltaic

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
390 Structure Design of Vacuum Vessel with Large Openings for Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test

Authors: Han Xiao, Ruan Qi, Zhang Lei, Qi Yan

Abstract:

Space environment simulator is a facility used to conduct thermal test for spacecraft, and vacuum vessel is the main body of it. According to the requirements for thermal tests of the spacecraft and its solar array panels, the primary vessel and the side vessels are designed to be a combinative structure connected with aperture, which ratio reaches 0.7. Since the vacuum vessel suffers 0.1MPa external pressure during the process of thermal test, in order to ensure the simulator’s reliability and safety, it’s necessary to calculate the vacuum vessel’s intensity and stability. Based on the impact of large openings to vacuum vessel structure, this paper explored the reinforce design and analytical way of vacuum vessel with large openings, using a large space environment simulator’s vacuum vessel design as an example. Tests showed that the reinforce structure is effective to fulfill the requirements of external pressure and the gravity. This ensured the reliability of the space environment simulator, providing a guarantee for developing the spacecraft.

Keywords: vacuum vessel, large opening, space environment simulator, structure design

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
389 Drying Kinetics of Vacuum Dried Beef Meat Slices

Authors: Elif Aykin Dincer, Mustafa Erbas

Abstract:

The vacuum drying behavior of beef slices (10 x 4 x 0.2 cm3) was experimentally investigated at the temperature of 60, 70, and 80°C under 25 mbar ultimate vacuum pressure and the mathematical models (Lewis, Page, Midilli, Two-term, Wangh and Singh and Modified Henderson and Pabis) were used to fit the vacuum drying of beef slices. The increase in drying air temperature resulted in a decrease in drying time. It took approximately 206, 180 and 157 min to dry beef slices from an initial moisture content to a final moisture content of 0.05 kg water/kg dry matter at 60, 70 and 80 °C of vacuum drying, respectively. It is also observed that the drying rate increased with increasing drying temperature. The coefficients (R2), the reduced chi-square (x²) and root mean square error (RMSE) values were obtained by application of six models to the experimental drying data. The best model with the highest R2 and, the lowest x² and RMSE values was selected to describe the drying characteristics of beef slices. The Page model has shown a better fit to the experimental drying data as compared to other models. In addition, the effective moisture diffusivities of beef slices in the vacuum drying at 60 - 80 °C varied in the range of 1.05 – 1.09 x 10-10 m2/s. Consequently, this results can be used to simulate vacuum drying process of beef slices and improve efficiency of the drying process.

Keywords: beef slice, drying models, effective diffusivity, vacuum

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
388 Construction Technology of Modified Vacuum Pre-Loading Method for Slurry Dredged Soil

Authors: Ali H. Mahfouz, Gao Ming-Jun, Mohamad Sharif

Abstract:

Slurry dredged soil at coastal area has a high water content, poor permeability, and low surface intensity. Hence, it is infeasible to use vacuum preloading method to treat this type of soil foundation. For the special case of super soft ground, a floating bridge is first constructed on muddy soil and used as a service road and platform for implementing the modified vacuum preloading method. The modified technique of vacuum preloading and its construction process for the super soft soil foundation improvement is then studied. Application of modified vacuum preloading method shows that the technology and its construction process are highly suitable for improving the super soft soil foundation in coastal areas.

Keywords: super soft foundation, dredger fill, vacuum preloading, foundation treatment, construction technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
387 Using Dynamic Glazing to Eliminate Mechanical Cooling in Multi-family Highrise Buildings

Authors: Ranojoy Dutta, Adam Barker

Abstract:

Multifamily residential buildings are increasingly being built with large glazed areas to provide tenants with greater daylight and outdoor views. However, traditional double-glazed window assemblies can lead to significant thermal discomfort from high radiant temperatures as well as increased cooling energy use to address solar gains. Dynamic glazing provides an effective solution by actively controlling solar transmission to maintain indoor thermal comfort, without compromising the visual connection to outdoors. This study uses thermal simulations across three Canadian cities (Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal) to verify if dynamic glazing along with operable windows and ceiling fans can maintain the indoor operative temperature of a prototype southwest facing high-rise apartment unit within the ASHRAE 55 adaptive comfort range for a majority of the year, without any mechanical cooling. Since this study proposes the use of natural ventilation for cooling and the typical building life cycle is 30-40 years, the typical weather files have been modified based on accepted global warming projections for increased air temperatures by 2050. Results for the prototype apartment confirm that thermal discomfort with dynamic glazing occurs only for less than 0.7% of the year. However, in the baseline scenario with low-E glass there are up to 7% annual hours of discomfort despite natural ventilation with operable windows and improved air movement with ceiling fans.

Keywords: electrochromic glazing, multi-family housing, passive cooling, thermal comfort, natural ventilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
386 Experimental Measurements of Evacuated Enclosure Thermal Insulation Effectiveness for Vacuum Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collectors

Authors: Paul Henshall, Philip Eames, Roger Moss, Stan Shire, Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde

Abstract:

Encapsulating the absorber of a flat plate solar thermal collector in vacuum by an enclosure that can be evacuated can result in a significant increase in collector performance and achievable operating temperatures. This is a result of the thermal insulation effectiveness of the vacuum layer surrounding the absorber, as less heat is lost during collector operation. This work describes experimental thermal insulation characterization tests of prototype vacuum flat plate solar thermal collectors that demonstrate the improvement in absorber heat loss coefficients. Furthermore, this work describes the selection and sizing of a getter, suitable for maintaining the vacuum inside the enclosure for the lifetime of the collector, which can be activated at low temperatures.

Keywords: vacuum, thermal, flat-plate solar collector, insulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
385 Electrical Power Distribution Reliability Improvement by Retrofitting 4.16 kV Vacuum Contactor in Badak LNG Plant

Authors: David Hasurungan

Abstract:

This paper objective is to assess the power distribution reliability improvement by retrofitting obsolete vacuum contactor. The case study in Badak Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant is presented in this paper. To support plant operational, Badak LNG is equipped with 4.16 kV switchgear for supplying the storage and loading facilities, utilities facilities, and train facilities. However, there is a problem in two switch gears of sixteen switch gears. The problem is the obsolescence issue in its vacuum contactor. Not only that, but the same switchgear also has suffered from electrical fault due to contact fingering misalignment. In order to improve the reliability in switchgear, the vacuum contactor retrofit project is done. The retrofit will introduce new vacuum contactor design. The comparison between existing design and the new design is presented in this paper. Meanwhile, The reliability assessment and calculation are performed using software Reliasoft 7.

Keywords: reliability, obsolescence, retrofit, vacuum contactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
384 Current Developments in Flat-Plate Vacuum Solar Thermal Collectors

Authors: Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde, Paul Henshall, Phillip Eames, Roger Moss, Stan Shire

Abstract:

Vacuum flat plate solar thermal collectors offer several advantages over other collectors namely the excellent optical and thermal characteristics they exhibit due to a combination of their wide surface area and high vacuum thermal insulation. These characteristics can offer a variety of applications for industrial process heat as well as for building integration as they are much thinner than conventional collectors making installation possible in limited spaces. However, many technical challenges which need to be addressed to enable wide scale adoption of the technology still remain. This paper will discuss the challenges, expectations and requirements for the flat-plate vacuum solar collector development. In addition, it will provide an overview of work undertaken in Ulster University, Loughborough University, and the University of Warwick on flat-plate vacuum solar thermal collectors. Finally, this paper will present a detailed experimental investigation on the development of a vacuum panel with a novel sealing method which will be used to accommodate a novel slim hydroformed solar absorber.

Keywords: hot box calorimeter, infrared thermography, solar thermal collector, vacuum insulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
383 Effect of Packaging Methods and Storage Time on Oxidative Stability of Traditional Fermented Sausage

Authors: Vladimir M. Tomović, Branislav V. Šojić, Predrag M. Ikonić, Ljiljana S. Petrović, Anamarija I. Mandić, Natalija R. Džinić, Snežana B. Škaljac, Tatjana A. Tasić, Marija R. Jokanović

Abstract:

In this paper influence of packaging method (vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging) on lipid oxidative stability and sensory properties of odor and taste of the traditional sausage Petrovská klobása were examined. These parameters were examined during storage period (7 months). In the end of storage period, vacuum packed sausage showed better oxidative stability. Propanal content was significantly lower (P<0.05) in vacuum packed sausage compared to these values in unpacked and modified atmosphere packaging sausage. Hexanal content in vacuum packed sausage was 1.85 µg/g, in MAP sausage 2.98 µg/g and in unpacked sausage 4.94 µg/g. After 2 and 7 months of storage, sausages packed in vacuum had the highest grades for sensory properties of odor and taste.

Keywords: lipid oxidation, MAP, sensory properties, traditional sausage, vacuum

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
382 Iranian Refinery Vacuum Residue Upgrading Using Microwave Irradiation: Effects of Catalyst Type and Amount

Authors: Zarrin Nasri

Abstract:

Microwave irradiation is an innovative technology in the petroleum industry. This kind of energy has been considered to convert vacuum residue of oil refineries into useful products. The advantages of microwaves energy are short time, fast heating, high energy efficiency, and precise process control. In this paper, the effects of catalyst type and amount have been investigated on upgrading of vacuum residue using microwave irradiation. The vacuum residue used in this research is from Tehran oil refinery, Iran. Additives include different catalysts, active carbon as sensitizer, and sodium borohydride as a solid hydrogen donor. Various catalysts contain iron, nickel, molybdenum disulfide, iron oxide and copper. The amount of catalysts in two cases of presence and absence of sodium borohydride have been evaluated. The objective parameters include temperature, asphaltene, viscosity, and API. The specifications of vacuum residue are API, 8.79, viscosity, 16391 cSt (60°C), asphaltene, 13.3 wt %. The results show that there is a significant difference between the effects of catalysts. Among the used catalysts, Fe powder is the best catalyst for upgrading vacuum residue using microwave irradiation and resulted in asphaltene reduction, 31.3 %; viscosity reduction, 76.43 %; and 23.43 % in API increase.

Keywords: asphaltene, microwave, upgrading, vacuum residue, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
381 Complex Shaped Prepreg Part Drapability Using Vacuum Bagging

Authors: Saran Toure

Abstract:

Complex shaped parts manufactured using out of autoclave prepreg vacuum bagging has a high quality finish. This is not only due to in the control of resin to fibre ratio in prepregs, but also to a reduction in fibre misalignment, slippage and stresses occurring within plies during compaction. In a bid to further reduce deformation modes and control failure modes, we carried experiments where, we introduced wetted fabrics within a prepreg plybook during compaction. Here are presented the results obtained from the vacuum bagging of a complex shaped part. The shape is that of a turbine fan blade with smooth curves all throughout ending with sharp edged angles. The quality of the final part made from this blade is compared to that of the same blade made from standard vacuum bagging process of prepregs, without introducing wetted fabrics.

Keywords: complex shaped part, prepregs, drapability, vacuum bagging

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
380 Working Mode and Key Technology of Thermal Vacuum Test Software for Spacecraft Test

Authors: Zhang Lei, Zhan Haiyang, Gu Miao

Abstract:

A universal software platform is developed for improving the defects in the practical one. This software platform has distinct advantages in modularization, information management, and the interfaces. Several technologies such as computer technology, virtualization technology, network technology, etc. are combined together in this software platform, and four working modes are introduced in this article including single mode, distributed mode, cloud mode, and the centralized mode. The application area of the software platform is extended through the switch between these working modes. The software platform can arrange the thermal vacuum test process automatically. This function can improve the reliability of thermal vacuum test.

Keywords: software platform, thermal vacuum test, control and measurement, work mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
379 Energy Efficient Building Design in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Effect of the Sun on Energy Consumption in Residential Buildings

Authors: Ekele T. Ochedi, Ahmad H. Taki, Birgit Painter

Abstract:

The effect of the sun and its path on thermal comfort and energy consumption in residential buildings in tropical climates constitute a serious concern for designers, building owners, and users. Passive design approaches based on the sun and its path have been identified as a means of reducing energy consumption as well as enhancing thermal comfort in buildings worldwide. Hence, a thorough understanding regarding the sun path is key to achieving this. This is necessary due to energy need, poor energy supply, and distribution, energy poverty, and over-dependence on electric generators for power supply in Nigeria. These challenges call for a change in the approach to energy-related issues, especially in terms of buildings. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of building orientation, glazing and the use of shading devices on residential buildings in Nigeria. This is intended to provide data that will guide designers in the design of energy-efficient residential buildings. The paper used EnergyPlus to analyze a typical semi-detached residential building in Lokoja, Nigeria using hourly weather data for a period of 10 years. Building performance was studied as well as possible improvement regarding different orientations, glazing types and shading devices. The simulation results show some reductions in energy consumption in response to changes in building orientation, types of glazing and the use of shading devices. The results indicate 29.45% reduction in solar gains and 1.90% in annual operative temperature using natural ventilation only. This shows a huge potential to reduce energy consumption and improve people’s well-being through the use of proper building orientation, glazing and appropriate shading devices on building envelope. The study concludes that for a significant reduction in total energy consumption by residential buildings, the design should focus on multiple design options rather than concentrating on one or few building elements. Moreover, the investigation confirms that energy performance modeling can be used by building designers to take advantage of the sun and to evaluate various design options.

Keywords: energy consumption, energy-efficient buildings, glazing, thermal comfort, shading devices, solar gains

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
378 Non-Perturbative Vacuum Polarization Effects in One- and Two-Dimensional Supercritical Dirac-Coulomb System

Authors: Andrey Davydov, Konstantin Sveshnikov, Yulia Voronina

Abstract:

There is now a lot of interest to the non-perturbative QED-effects, caused by diving of discrete levels into the negative continuum in the supercritical static or adiabatically slowly varying Coulomb fields, that are created by the localized extended sources with Z > Z_cr. Such effects have attracted a considerable amount of theoretical and experimental activity, since in 3+1 QED for Z > Z_cr,1 ≈ 170 a non-perturbative reconstruction of the vacuum state is predicted, which should be accompanied by a number of nontrivial effects, including the vacuum positron emission. Similar in essence effects should be expected also in both 2+1 D (planar graphene-based hetero-structures) and 1+1 D (one-dimensional ‘hydrogen ion’). This report is devoted to the study of such essentially non-perturbative vacuum effects for the supercritical Dirac-Coulomb systems in 1+1D and 2+1D, with the main attention drawn to the vacuum polarization energy. Although the most of works considers the vacuum charge density as the main polarization observable, vacuum energy turns out to be not less informative and in many respects complementary to the vacuum density. Moreover, the main non-perturbative effects, which appear in vacuum polarization for supercritical fields due to the levels diving into the lower continuum, show up in the behavior of vacuum energy even more clear, demonstrating explicitly their possible role in the supercritical region. Both in 1+1D and 2+1D, we explore firstly the renormalized vacuum density in the supercritical region using the Wichmann-Kroll method. Thereafter, taking into account the results for the vacuum density, we formulate the renormalization procedure for the vacuum energy. To evaluate the latter explicitly, an original technique, based on a special combination of analytical methods, computer algebra tools and numerical calculations, is applied. It is shown that, for a wide range of the external source parameters (the charge Z and size R), in the supercritical region the renormalized vacuum energy could significantly deviate from the perturbative quadratic growth up to pronouncedly decreasing behavior with jumps by (-2 x mc^2), which occur each time, when the next discrete level dives into the negative continuum. In the considered range of variation of Z and R, the vacuum energy behaves like ~ -Z^2/R in 1+1D and ~ -Z^3/R in 2+1D, exceeding deeply negative values. Such behavior confirms the assumption of the neutral vacuum transmutation into the charged one, and thereby of the spontaneous positron emission, accompanying the emergence of the next vacuum shell due to the total charge conservation. To the end, we also note that the methods, developed for the vacuum energy evaluation in 2+1 D, with minimal complements could be carried over to the three-dimensional case, where the vacuum energy is expected to be ~ -Z^4/R and so could be competitive with the classical electrostatic energy of the Coulomb source.

Keywords: non-perturbative QED-effects, one- and two-dimensional Dirac-Coulomb systems, supercritical fields, vacuum polarization

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
377 The Effect of Dark energy on Amplitude of Gravitational Waves

Authors: Jafar Khodagholizadeh

Abstract:

In this talk, we study the tensor mode equation of perturbation in the presence of nonzero $-\Lambda$ as dark energy, whose dynamic nature depends on the Hubble parameter $ H$ and/or its time derivative. Dark energy, according to the total vacuum contribution, has little effect during the radiation-dominated era, but it reduces the squared amplitude of gravitational waves (GWs) up to $60\%$ for the wavelengths that enter the horizon during the matter-dominated era. Moreover, the observations bound on dark energy models, such as running vacuum model (RVM), generalized running vacuum model (GRVM), and generalized running vacuum subcase (GRVS), are effective in reducing the GWs’ amplitude. Although this effect is less for the wavelengths that enter the horizon at later times, this reduction is stable and permanent.

Keywords: gravitational waves, dark energy, GW's amplitude, all stage universe

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
376 Causes Analysis of Vacuum Consolidation Failure to Soft Foundation Filled by Newly Dredged Mud

Authors: Bao Shu-Feng, Lou Yan, Dong Zhi-Liang, Mo Hai-Hong, Chen Ping-Shan

Abstract:

For soft foundation filled by newly dredged mud, after improved by Vacuum Preloading Technology (VPT), the soil strength was increased only a little, the effective improved depth was small, and the ground bearing capacity is still low. To analyze the causes in depth, it was conducted in laboratory of several comparative single well model experiments of VPT. It was concluded: (1) it mainly caused serious clogging problem and poor drainage performance in vertical drains of high content of fine soil particles and strong hydrophilic minerals in dredged mud, too fast loading rate at the early stage of vacuum preloading (namely rapidly reaching-80kPa) and too small characteristic opening size of the filter of the existed vertical drains; (2) it commonly reduced the drainage efficiency of drainage system, in turn weaken vacuum pressure in soils and soil improvement effect of the greater partial loss and friction loss of vacuum pressure caused by larger curvature of vertical drains and larger transfer resistance of vacuum pressure in horizontal drain.

Keywords: newly dredged mud, single well model experiments of vacuum preloading technology, poor drainage performance of vertical drains, poor soil improvement effect, causes analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
375 Measurement of VIP Edge Conduction Using Vacuum Guarded Hot Plate

Authors: Bongsu Choi, Tae-Ho Song

Abstract:

Vacuum insulation panel (VIP) is a promising thermal insulator for buildings, refrigerator, LNG carrier and so on. In general, it has the thermal conductivity of 2~4 mW/m•K. However, this thermal conductivity is that measured at the center of VIP. The total effective thermal conductivity of VIP is larger than this value due to the edge conduction through the envelope. In this paper, the edge conduction of VIP is examined theoretically, numerically and experimentally. To confirm the existence of the edge conduction, numerical analysis is performed for simple two-dimensional VIP model and a theoretical model is proposed to calculate the edge conductivity. Also, the edge conductivity is measured using the vacuum guarded hot plate and the experiment is validated against numerical analysis. The results show that the edge conductivity is dependent on the width of panel and thickness of Al-foil. To reduce the edge conduction, it is recommended that the VIP should be made as big as possible or made of thin Al film envelope.

Keywords: envelope, edge conduction, thermal conductivity, vacuum insulation panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
374 Influence of Vacuum Pressure on the Thermal Bonding Energy of Water in Wood

Authors: Aleksandar Dedic, Dusko Salemovic, Milorad Danilovic, Radomir Kuzmanovic

Abstract:

This paper takes into consideration the influence of bonding energy of water on energy demand of vacuum wood drying using the specific method of obtaining sorption isotherms. The experiment was carried out on oak wood at vacuum pressures of: 0.7 bar, 0.5bar and 0.3bar. The experimental work was done to determine a mathematical equation between the moisture content and energy of water-bonding. This equation helps in finding the average amount of energy of water-bonding necessary in calculation of energy consumption by use of the equation of heat balance in real drying chambers. It is concluded that the energy of water-bonding is large enough to be included into consideration. This energy increases at lower values of moisture content, when drying process approaches to the end, and its average values are lower on lower pressure.

Keywords: bonding energy, drying, isosters, oak, vacuum

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
373 Alternative Animal Feed Additive Obtain with Different Drying Methods from Carrot Unsuitable for Human Consumption

Authors: Rabia Göçmen, Gülşah Kanbur, Sinan Sefa Parlat

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine that carrot powder obtain by different drying methods (oven and vacuum-freeze dryer) of carrot unfit for human consumption that whether feed additives in animal nutrition or not. Carrots randomly divided 2 groups. First group was dried by using oven, second group was by using vacuum freeze dryer methods. Dried carrot prepared from fresh carrot was analysed nutrient matter (energy, crude protein, crude oil, crude ash, beta carotene, mineral concentration and colour). The differences between groups in terms of energy, crude protein, ash, Ca and Mg was not significant (P> 0,05). Crude oil, P, beta carotene content and colour values (L, a, b) with vacuum-freeze dryer group was greater than oven group (P<0,05). Consequently, carrot powder obtained by drying the vacuum-freeze dryer method can be used as a source of carotene.

Keywords: carrot, vacuum freeze dryer, oven, beta carotene

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
372 Three Dimensional Analysis of Cubesat Thermal Vacuum Test

Authors: Maged Assem Soliman Mossallam

Abstract:

Thermal vacuum testing target is to qualify the space system and ensure its operability under harsh space environment. The functionality of the cubesat was checked at extreme orbit conditions. Test was performed for operational and nonoperational modes. Analysis is done to simulate the cubesat thermal cycling inside thermal vacuum chamber. Comsol Multiphysics finite element is used to solve three dimensional problem for the cubesat inside TVAC. Three dimensional CAD model is done using Autodesk Inventor program. The boundary conditions were applied from the actual shroud temperature. The input heat load variation with time is considered to solve the transient three dimensional problem. Results show that the simulated temperature profiles are within an acceptable range from the real testing data.

Keywords: cubesat, thermal vacuum test, testing simulation, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
371 Design of the Fiber Lay-Up for the Composite Wind Turbine Blade in VARTM

Authors: Tzai-Shiung Li, Wen-Bin Young

Abstract:

The wind turbine blade sustains various kinds of loadings during the operating and parking state. Due to the increasing size of the wind turbine blade, it is important to arrange the composite materials in a sufficient way to reach the optimal utilization of the material strength. In the fabrication process of the vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, the fiber content of the turbine blade depends on the vacuum pressure. In this study, a design of the fiber layup for the vacuum assisted resin transfer molding is conducted to achieve the efficient utilization the material strength. This design is for the wind turbine blade consisting of shell skins with or without the spar structure.

Keywords: resin film infiltration, vacuum assisted resin transfer molding process, wind turbine blade, composite materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
370 RBS Characteristic of Cd1−xZnxS Thin Film Fabricated by Vacuum Deposition Method

Authors: N. Dahbi, D. E. Arafah

Abstract:

Cd1−xZnxS thins films have been fabricated from ZnS/CdS/ZnS multilayer thin film systems, by using the vacuum deposition method; the Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) technique have been applied in order to determine the: structure, composition, depth profile, and stoichiometric of these films. The influence of the chemical and heat treatments on the produced films also have been investigated; the RBS spectra of the films showed that homogenous Cd1−xZnxS can be synthesized with x=0.45.

Keywords: Cd1−xZnxS, chemical treatment, depth profile, heat treatment, RBS, RUMP simulation, thin film, vacuum deposition, ZnS/CdS/ZnS

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
369 Effect of Permeability on Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic Laminate Produced by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding Process

Authors: Nagri Sateesh, Kundavarapu Vengalrao, Kopparthi Phaneendra Kumar

Abstract:

Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is one of the manufacturing technique that is viable for production of fiber reinforced polymer composite components suitable for aerospace, marine and commercial applications. However, the repeatable quality of the product can be achieved by critically fixing the process parameters such as Vacuum Pressure (VP) and permeability of the preform. The present investigation is aimed at studying the effect of permeability for production of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) components with consistent quality. The VARTM mould is made with an acrylic transparent top cover to observe and record the resin flow pattern. Six layers of randomly placed glass fiber under five different vacuum pressures VP1 = 0.013, VP2 = 0.026, VP3 = 0.039, VP4 = 0.053 and VP5 = 0.066 MPa were studied. The laminates produced by this process under the above mentioned conditions were characterized with ASTM D procedures so as to study the effect of these process parameters on the quality of the laminate. Moreover, as mentioned there is a considerable effect of permeability on the impact strength and the void content in the laminates under different vacuum pressures. SEM analysis of the impact tested fractured GFRP composites showed the bonding of fiber and matrix.

Keywords: permeability, vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), ASTM D standards, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
368 Decreasing of Oil Absorption in Vacuum Fried Mango Chips by Using Hydrocolloids

Authors: Nuntaporn Aukkanit

Abstract:

Objective of this study was to investigate hydrocolloids (pectin, carboxyl methylcellulose, and alginate) for their influences on the oil absorption in vacuum fried mango chips. Usage of hydrocolloids significantly (p≤0.05) affected fried mango oil uptake. Control samples (without hydrocolloids) had high fat content at 24.57g/100g whereas other samples, treated with 0.5g pectin/100ml water exhibited the highest decrease of oil absorption. Fat content of chips, treated with 0.5 g pectin /100ml was 14.01g/100g. With this concentration of pectin at 0.5 g /100ml, fat content could be reduced by 43%. Moreover, chips treated with 0.5 g pectin/100ml water had the highest sensory scores (color, appearance, crispiness and overall acceptability). These results showed that pectin was the most effective hydrocolloid for low fat vacuum fried mango chips production.

Keywords: alginate, carboxyl methylcellulose, hydrocolloids, oil absorption, pectin, vacuum fried mango chips

Procedia PDF Downloads 163