Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3495

Search results for: stochastic modeling

3495 A Stochastic Diffusion Process Based on the Two-Parameters Weibull Density Function

Authors: Meriem Bahij, Ahmed Nafidi, Boujemâa Achchab, Sílvio M. A. Gama, José A. O. Matos

Abstract:

Stochastic modeling concerns the use of probability to model real-world situations in which uncertainty is present. Therefore, the purpose of stochastic modeling is to estimate the probability of outcomes within a forecast, i.e. to be able to predict what conditions or decisions might happen under different situations. In the present study, we present a model of a stochastic diffusion process based on the bi-Weibull distribution function (its trend is proportional to the bi-Weibull probability density function). In general, the Weibull distribution has the ability to assume the characteristics of many different types of distributions. This has made it very popular among engineers and quality practitioners, who have considered it the most commonly used distribution for studying problems such as modeling reliability data, accelerated life testing, and maintainability modeling and analysis. In this work, we start by obtaining the probabilistic characteristics of this model, as the explicit expression of the process, its trends, and its distribution by transforming the diffusion process in a Wiener process as shown in the Ricciaardi theorem. Then, we develop the statistical inference of this model using the maximum likelihood methodology. Finally, we analyse with simulated data the computational problems associated with the parameters, an issue of great importance in its application to real data with the use of the convergence analysis methods. Overall, the use of a stochastic model reflects only a pragmatic decision on the part of the modeler. According to the data that is available and the universe of models known to the modeler, this model represents the best currently available description of the phenomenon under consideration.

Keywords: diffusion process, discrete sampling, likelihood estimation method, simulation, stochastic diffusion process, trends functions, bi-parameters weibull density function

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3494 Stability of Solutions of Semidiscrete Stochastic Systems

Authors: Ramazan Kadiev, Arkadi Ponossov

Abstract:

Semidiscrete systems contain both continuous and discrete components. This means that the dynamics is mostly continuous, but at certain instants, it is exposed to abrupt influences. Such systems naturally appear in applications, for example, in biological and ecological models as well as in the control theory. Therefore, the study of semidiscrete systems has recently attracted the attention of many specialists. Stochastic effects are an important part of any realistic approach to modeling. For example, stochasticity arises in the population dynamics, demographic and ecological due to a change in time of factors external to the system affecting the survival of the population. In control theory, random coefficients can simulate inaccuracies in measurements. It will be shown in the presentation how to incorporate such effects into semidiscrete systems. Stability analysis is an essential part of modeling real-world problems. In the presentation, it will be explained how sufficient conditions for the moment stability of solutions in terms of the coefficients for linear semidiscrete stochastic equations can be derived using non-Lyapunov technique.

Keywords: abrupt changes, exponential stability, regularization, stochastic noises

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3493 Stochastic Modeling for Parameters of Modified Car-Following Model in Area-Based Traffic Flow

Authors: N. C. Sarkar, A. Bhaskar, Z. Zheng

Abstract:

The driving behavior in area-based (i.e., non-lane based) traffic is induced by the presence of other individuals in the choice space from the driver’s visual perception area. The driving behavior of a subject vehicle is constrained by the potential leaders and leaders are frequently changed over time. This paper is to determine a stochastic model for a parameter of modified intelligent driver model (MIDM) in area-based traffic (as in developing countries). The parametric and non-parametric distributions are presented to fit the parameters of MIDM. The goodness of fit for each parameter is measured in two different ways such as graphically and statistically. The quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot is used for a graphical representation of a theoretical distribution to model a parameter and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test is used for a statistical measure of fitness for a parameter with a theoretical distribution. The distributions are performed on a set of estimated parameters of MIDM. The parameters are estimated on the real vehicle trajectory data from India. The fitness of each parameter with a stochastic model is well represented. The results support the applicability of the proposed modeling for parameters of MIDM in area-based traffic flow simulation.

Keywords: area-based traffic, car-following model, micro-simulation, stochastic modeling

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3492 Low Cost Inertial Sensors Modeling Using Allan Variance

Authors: A. A. Hussen, I. N. Jleta

Abstract:

Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometers and gyroscopes are suitable for the inertial navigation system (INS) of many applications due to the low price, small dimensions and light weight. The main disadvantage in a comparison with classic sensors is a worse long term stability. The estimation accuracy is mostly affected by the time-dependent growth of inertial sensor errors, especially the stochastic errors. In order to eliminate negative effect of these random errors, they must be accurately modeled. Where the key is the successful implementation that depends on how well the noise statistics of the inertial sensors is selected. In this paper, the Allan variance technique will be used in modeling the stochastic errors of the inertial sensors. By performing a simple operation on the entire length of data, a characteristic curve is obtained whose inspection provides a systematic characterization of various random errors contained in the inertial-sensor output data.

Keywords: Allan variance, accelerometer, gyroscope, stochastic errors

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3491 Stochastic Age-Structured Population Models

Authors: Arcady Ponosov

Abstract:

Many well-known age-structured population models are derived from the celebrated McKendrick-von Foerster equation (MFE), also called the biological conservation law. A similar technique is suggested for the stochastically perturbed MFE. This technique is shown to produce stochastic versions of the deterministic population models, which appear to be very different from those one can construct by simply appending additive stochasticity to deterministic equations. In particular, it is shown that stochastic Nicholson’s blowflies model should contain both additive and multiplicative stochastic noises. The suggested transformation technique is similar to that used in the deterministic case. The difference is hidden in the formulas for the exact solutions of the simplified boundary value problem for the stochastically perturbed MFE. The analysis is also based on the theory of stochastic delay differential equations.

Keywords: boundary value problems, population models, stochastic delay differential equations, stochastic partial differential equation

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3490 Method to Find a ε-Optimal Control of Stochastic Differential Equation Driven by a Brownian Motion

Authors: Francys Souza, Alberto Ohashi, Dorival Leao

Abstract:

We present a general solution for finding the ε-optimal controls for non-Markovian stochastic systems as stochastic differential equations driven by Brownian motion, which is a problem recognized as a difficult solution. The contribution appears in the development of mathematical tools to deal with modeling and control of non-Markovian systems, whose applicability in different areas is well known. The methodology used consists to discretize the problem through a random discretization. In this way, we transform an infinite dimensional problem in a finite dimensional, thereafter we use measurable selection arguments, to find a control on an explicit form for the discretized problem. Then, we prove the control found for the discretized problem is a ε-optimal control for the original problem. Our theory provides a concrete description of a rather general class, among the principals, we can highlight financial problems such as portfolio control, hedging, super-hedging, pairs-trading and others. Therefore, our main contribution is the development of a tool to explicitly the ε-optimal control for non-Markovian stochastic systems. The pathwise analysis was made through a random discretization jointly with measurable selection arguments, has provided us with a structure to transform an infinite dimensional problem into a finite dimensional. The theory is applied to stochastic control problems based on path-dependent stochastic differential equations, where both drift and diffusion components are controlled. We are able to explicitly show optimal control with our method.

Keywords: dynamic programming equation, optimal control, stochastic control, stochastic differential equation

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3489 Non-Stationary Stochastic Optimization of an Oscillating Water Column

Authors: María L. Jalón, Feargal Brennan

Abstract:

A non-stationary stochastic optimization methodology is applied to an OWC (oscillating water column) to find the design that maximizes the wave energy extraction. Different temporal cycles are considered to represent the long-term variability of the wave climate at the site in the optimization problem. The results of the non-stationary stochastic optimization problem are compared against those obtained by a stationary stochastic optimization problem. The comparative analysis reveals that the proposed non-stationary optimization provides designs with a better fit to reality. However, the stationarity assumption can be adequate when looking at averaged system response.

Keywords: non-stationary stochastic optimization, oscillating water, temporal variability, wave energy

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3488 Weak Solutions Of Stochastic Fractional Differential Equations

Authors: Lev Idels, Arcady Ponosov

Abstract:

Stochastic fractional differential equations have recently attracted considerable attention, as they have been used to model real-world processes, which are subject to natural memory effects and measurement uncertainties. Compared to conventional hereditary differential equations, one of the advantages of fractional differential equations is related to more realistic geometric properties of their trajectories that do not intersect in the phase space. In this report, a Peano-like existence theorem for nonlinear stochastic fractional differential equations is proven under very general hypotheses. Several specific classes of equations are checked to satisfy these hypotheses, including delay equations driven by the fractional Brownian motion, stochastic fractional neutral equations and many others.

Keywords: delay equations, operator methods, stochastic noise, weak solutions

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3487 Forecasting the Volatility of Geophysical Time Series with Stochastic Volatility Models

Authors: Maria C. Mariani, Md Al Masum Bhuiyan, Osei K. Tweneboah, Hector G. Huizar

Abstract:

This work is devoted to the study of modeling geophysical time series. A stochastic technique with time-varying parameters is used to forecast the volatility of data arising in geophysics. In this study, the volatility is defined as a logarithmic first-order autoregressive process. We observe that the inclusion of log-volatility into the time-varying parameter estimation significantly improves forecasting which is facilitated via maximum likelihood estimation. This allows us to conclude that the estimation algorithm for the corresponding one-step-ahead suggested volatility (with ±2 standard prediction errors) is very feasible since it possesses good convergence properties.

Keywords: Augmented Dickey Fuller Test, geophysical time series, maximum likelihood estimation, stochastic volatility model

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3486 Lyapunov and Input-to-State Stability of Stochastic Differential Equations

Authors: Arcady Ponosov, Ramazan Kadiev

Abstract:

Input-to-State Stability (ISS) is widely used in deterministic control theory but less known in the stochastic case. Roughly speaking, the theory explains when small perturbations of the right-hand sides of the system on the entire semiaxis cause only small changes in the solutions of the system, again on the entire semiaxis. This property is crucial in many applications. In the report, we explain how to define and study ISS for systems of linear stochastic differential equations with or without delays. The central result connects ISS with the property of Lyapunov stability. This relationship is well-known in the deterministic setting, but its stochastic version is new. As an application, a method of studying asymptotic Lyapunov stability for stochastic delay equations is described and justified. Several examples are provided that confirm the efficiency and simplicity of the framework.

Keywords: asymptotic stability, delay equations, operator methods, stochastic perturbations

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3485 On Stability of Stochastic Differential Equations with Non Trivial Solutions

Authors: Fakhreddin Abedi, Wah June Leong

Abstract:

Exponential stability of stochastic differential equations with non-trivial solutions is provided in terms of Lyapunov functions. The main result of this paper establishes that, under certain hypotheses for the dynamics f (.) and g(.), practical exponential stability in probability at the small neighborhood of the origin is equivalent to the existence of an appropriate Lyapunov function. Indeed, we establish exponential stability of stochastic differential equations when almost all the state trajectories are bounded and approach a sufficiently small neighborhood of the origin. We derive sufficient conditions for the exponential stability of stochastic differential equations. Finally, we give a numerical example illustrating our results.

Keywords: exponential stability in probability, stochastic differential equations, Lyapunov technique, Ito’s formula

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3484 Prediction of Gully Erosion with Stochastic Modeling by using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Data in North of Iran

Authors: Reza Zakerinejad

Abstract:

Gully erosion is a serious problem that threading the sustainability of agricultural area and rangeland and water in a large part of Iran. This type of water erosion is the main source of sedimentation in many catchment areas in the north of Iran. Since in many national assessment approaches just qualitative models were applied the aim of this study is to predict the spatial distribution of gully erosion processes by means of detail terrain analysis and GIS -based logistic regression in the loess deposition in a case study in the Golestan Province. This study the DEM with 25 meter result ion from ASTER data has been used. The Landsat ETM data have been used to mapping of land use. The TreeNet model as a stochastic modeling was applied to prediction the susceptible area for gully erosion. In this model ROC we have set 20 % of data as learning and 20 % as learning data. Therefore, applying the GIS and satellite image analysis techniques has been used to derive the input information for these stochastic models. The result of this study showed a high accurate map of potential for gully erosion.

Keywords: TreeNet model, terrain analysis, Golestan Province, Iran

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3483 A Multi-Criteria Model for Scheduling of Stochastic Single Machine Problem with Outsourcing and Solving It through Application of Chance Constrained

Authors: Homa Ghave, Parmis Shahmaleki

Abstract:

This paper presents a new multi-criteria stochastic mathematical model for a single machine scheduling with outsourcing allowed. There are multiple jobs processing in batch. For each batch, all of job or a quantity of it can be outsourced. The jobs have stochastic processing time and lead time and deterministic due dates arrive randomly. Because of the stochastic inherent of processing time and lead time, we use the chance constrained programming for modeling the problem. First, the problem is formulated in form of stochastic programming and then prepared in a form of deterministic mixed integer linear programming. The objectives are considered in the model to minimize the maximum tardiness and outsourcing cost simultaneously. Several procedures have been developed to deal with the multi-criteria problem. In this paper, we utilize the concept of satisfaction functions to increases the manager’s preference. The proposed approach is tested on instances where the random variables are normally distributed.

Keywords: single machine scheduling, multi-criteria mathematical model, outsourcing strategy, uncertain lead times and processing times, chance constrained programming, satisfaction function

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3482 Stochastic Energy and Reserve Scheduling with Wind Generation and Generic Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Amirhossein Khazali, Mohsen Kalantar

Abstract:

Energy storage units can play an important role to provide an economic and secure operation of future energy systems. In this paper, a stochastic energy and reserve market clearing scheme is presented considering storage energy units. The approach is proposed to deal with stochastic and non-dispatchable renewable sources with a high level of penetration in the energy system. A two stage stochastic programming scheme is formulated where in the first stage the energy market is cleared according to the forecasted amount of wind generation and demands and in the second stage the real time market is solved according to the assumed scenarios.

Keywords: energy and reserve market, energy storage device, stochastic programming, wind generation

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3481 Stochastic Richelieu River Flood Modeling and Comparison of Flood Propagation Models: WMS (1D) and SRH (2D)

Authors: Maryam Safrai, Tewfik Mahdi

Abstract:

This article presents the stochastic modeling of the Richelieu River flood in Quebec, Canada, occurred in the spring of 2011. With the aid of the one-dimensional Watershed Modeling System (WMS (v.10.1) and HEC-RAS (v.4.1) as a flood simulator, the delineation of the probabilistic flooded areas was considered. Based on the Monte Carlo method, WMS (v.10.1) delineated the probabilistic flooded areas with corresponding occurrence percentages. Furthermore, results of this one-dimensional model were compared with the results of two-dimensional model (SRH-2D) for the evaluation of efficiency and precision of each applied model. Based on this comparison, computational process in two-dimensional model is longer and more complicated versus brief one-dimensional one. Although, two-dimensional models are more accurate than one-dimensional method, but according to existing modellers, delineation of probabilistic flooded areas based on Monte Carlo method is achievable via one-dimensional modeler. The applied software in this case study greatly responded to verify the research objectives. As a result, flood risk maps of the Richelieu River with the two applied models (1d, 2d) could elucidate the flood risk factors in hydrological, hydraulic, and managerial terms.

Keywords: flood modeling, HEC-RAS, model comparison, Monte Carlo simulation, probabilistic flooded area, SRH-2D, WMS

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3480 Finding DEA Targets Using Multi-Objective Programming

Authors: Farzad Sharifi, Raziyeh Shamsi

Abstract:

In this paper, we obtain the projection of inefficient units in data envelopment analysis (DEA) in the case of stochastic inputs and outputs using the multi-objective programming (MOP) structure. In some problems, the inputs might be stochastic while the outputs are deterministic, and vice versa. In such cases, we propose molti-objective DEA-R model, because in some cases (e.g., when unnecessary and irrational weights by the BCC model reduces the efficiency score), an efficient DMU is introduced as inefficient by the BCC model, whereas the DMU is considered efficient by the DEA-R model. In some other case, only the ratio of stochastic data may be available (e.g; the ratio of stochastic inputs to stochastic outputs). Thus, we provide multi objective DEA model without explicit outputs and prove that in-put oriented MOP DEA-R model in the invariable return to scale case can be replacing by MOP- DEA model without explicit outputs in the variable return to scale and vice versa. Using the interactive methods for solving the proposed model, yields a projection corresponding to the viewpoint of the DM and the analyst, which is nearer to reality and more practical. Finally, an application is provided.

Keywords: DEA, MOLP, STOCHASTIC, DEA-R

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3479 Stochastic Modeling and Productivity Analysis of a Flexible Manufacturing System

Authors: Mehmet Savsar, Majid Aldaihani

Abstract:

Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) are used to produce a variety of parts on the same equipment. Therefore, their utilization is higher than traditional machining systems. Higher utilization, on the other hand, results in more frequent equipment failures and additional need for maintenance. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully analyze operational characteristics and productivity of FMS or Flexible Manufacturing Cells (FMC), which are smaller configuration of FMS, before installation or during their operation. Appropriate models should be developed to determine production rates based on operational conditions, including equipment reliability, availability, and repair capacity. In this paper, a stochastic model is developed for an automated FMC system, which consists of two machines served by two robots and a single repairman. The model is used to determine system productivity and equipment utilization under different operational conditions, including random machine failures, random repairs, and limited repair capacity. The results are compared to previous study results for FMC system with sufficient repair capacity assigned to each machine. The results show that the model will be useful for design engineers and operational managers to analyze performance of manufacturing systems at the design or operational stages.

Keywords: flexible manufacturing, FMS, FMC, stochastic modeling, production rate, reliability, availability

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3478 An Approach to Noise Variance Estimation in Very Low Signal-to-Noise Ratio Stochastic Signals

Authors: Miljan B. Petrović, Dušan B. Petrović, Goran S. Nikolić

Abstract:

This paper describes a method for AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) variance estimation in noisy stochastic signals, referred to as Multiplicative-Noising Variance Estimation (MNVE). The aim was to develop an estimation algorithm with minimal number of assumptions on the original signal structure. The provided MATLAB simulation and results analysis of the method applied on speech signals showed more accuracy than standardized AR (autoregressive) modeling noise estimation technique. In addition, great performance was observed on very low signal-to-noise ratios, which in general represents the worst case scenario for signal denoising methods. High execution time appears to be the only disadvantage of MNVE. After close examination of all the observed features of the proposed algorithm, it was concluded it is worth of exploring and that with some further adjustments and improvements can be enviably powerful.

Keywords: noise, signal-to-noise ratio, stochastic signals, variance estimation

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3477 A Multi-Objective Programming Model to Supplier Selection and Order Allocation Problem in Stochastic Environment

Authors: Rouhallah Bagheri, Morteza Mahmoudi, Hadi Moheb-Alizadeh

Abstract:

This paper aims at developing a multi-objective model for supplier selection and order allocation problem in stochastic environment, where purchasing cost, percentage of delivered items with delay and percentage of rejected items provided by each supplier are supposed to be stochastic parameters following any arbitrary probability distribution. In this regard, dependent chance programming is used which maximizes probability of the event that total purchasing cost, total delivered items with delay and total rejected items are less than or equal to pre-determined values given by decision maker. The abovementioned stochastic multi-objective programming problem is then transformed into a stochastic single objective programming problem using minimum deviation method. In the next step, the further problem is solved applying a genetic algorithm, which performs a simulation process in order to calculate the stochastic objective function as its fitness function. Finally, the impact of stochastic parameters on the given solution is examined via a sensitivity analysis exploiting coefficient of variation. The results show that whatever stochastic parameters have greater coefficients of variation, the value of the objective function in the stochastic single objective programming problem is deteriorated.

Keywords: supplier selection, order allocation, dependent chance programming, genetic algorithm

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3476 Gamification Using Stochastic Processes: Engage Children to Have Healthy Habits

Authors: Andre M. Carvalho, Pedro Sebastiao

Abstract:

This article is based on a dissertation that intends to analyze and make a model, intelligently, algorithms based on stochastic processes of a gamification application applied to marketing. Gamification is used in our daily lives to engage us to perform certain actions in order to achieve goals and gain rewards. This strategy is an increasingly adopted way to encourage and retain customers through game elements. The application of gamification aims to encourage children between 6 and 10 years of age to have healthy habits and the purpose of serving as a model for use in marketing. This application was developed in unity; we implemented intelligent algorithms based on stochastic processes, web services to respond to all requests of the application, a back-office website to manage the application and the database. The behavioral analysis of the use of game elements and stochastic processes in children’s motivation was done. The application of algorithms based on stochastic processes in-game elements is very important to promote cooperation and to ensure fair and friendly competition between users which consequently stimulates the user’s interest and their involvement in the application and organization.

Keywords: engage, games, gamification, randomness, stochastic processes

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3475 Supplier Selection and Order Allocation Using a Stochastic Multi-Objective Programming Model and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Rouhallah Bagheri, Morteza Mahmoudi, Hadi Moheb-Alizadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, we develop a supplier selection and order allocation multi-objective model in stochastic environment in which purchasing cost, percentage of delivered items with delay and percentage of rejected items provided by each supplier are supposed to be stochastic parameters following any arbitrary probability distribution. To do so, we use dependent chance programming (DCP) that maximizes probability of the event that total purchasing cost, total delivered items with delay and total rejected items are less than or equal to pre-determined values given by decision maker. After transforming the above mentioned stochastic multi-objective programming problem into a stochastic single objective problem using minimum deviation method, we apply a genetic algorithm to get the later single objective problem solved. The employed genetic algorithm performs a simulation process in order to calculate the stochastic objective function as its fitness function. At the end, we explore the impact of stochastic parameters on the given solution via a sensitivity analysis exploiting coefficient of variation. The results show that as stochastic parameters have greater coefficients of variation, the value of objective function in the stochastic single objective programming problem is worsened.

Keywords: dependent chance programming, genetic algorithm, minimum deviation method, order allocation, supplier selection

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3474 Stochastic Variation of the Hubble's Parameter Using Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Process

Authors: Mary Chriselda A

Abstract:

This paper deals with the fact that the Hubble's parameter is not constant and tends to vary stochastically with time. This premise has been proven by converting it to a stochastic differential equation using the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. The formulated stochastic differential equation is further solved analytically using the Euler and the Kolmogorov Forward equations, thereby obtaining the probability density function using the Fourier transformation, thereby proving that the Hubble's parameter varies stochastically. This is further corroborated by simulating the observations using Python and R-software for validation of the premise postulated. We can further draw conclusion that the randomness in forces affecting the white noise can eventually affect the Hubble’s Parameter leading to scale invariance and thereby causing stochastic fluctuations in the density and the rate of expansion of the Universe.

Keywords: Chapman Kolmogorov forward differential equations, fourier transformation, hubble's parameter, ornstein-uhlenbeck process , stochastic differential equations

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3473 On Differential Growth Equation to Stochastic Growth Model Using Hyperbolic Sine Function in Height/Diameter Modeling of Pines

Authors: S. O. Oyamakin, A. U. Chukwu

Abstract:

Richard's growth equation being a generalized logistic growth equation was improved upon by introducing an allometric parameter using the hyperbolic sine function. The integral solution to this was called hyperbolic Richard's growth model having transformed the solution from deterministic to a stochastic growth model. Its ability in model prediction was compared with the classical Richard's growth model an approach which mimicked the natural variability of heights/diameter increment with respect to age and therefore provides a more realistic height/diameter predictions using the coefficient of determination (R2), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Square Error (MSE) results. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test was also used to test the behavior of the error term for possible violations. The mean function of top height/Dbh over age using the two models under study predicted closely the observed values of top height/Dbh in the hyperbolic Richard's nonlinear growth models better than the classical Richard's growth model.

Keywords: height, Dbh, forest, Pinus caribaea, hyperbolic, Richard's, stochastic

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3472 A Large Dataset Imputation Approach Applied to Country Conflict Prediction Data

Authors: Benjamin Leiby, Darryl Ahner

Abstract:

This study demonstrates an alternative stochastic imputation approach for large datasets when preferred commercial packages struggle to iterate due to numerical problems. A large country conflict dataset motivates the search to impute missing values well over a common threshold of 20% missingness. The methodology capitalizes on correlation while using model residuals to provide the uncertainty in estimating unknown values. Examination of the methodology provides insight toward choosing linear or nonlinear modeling terms. Static tolerances common in most packages are replaced with tailorable tolerances that exploit residuals to fit each data element. The methodology evaluation includes observing computation time, model fit, and the comparison of known values to replaced values created through imputation. Overall, the country conflict dataset illustrates promise with modeling first-order interactions while presenting a need for further refinement that mimics predictive mean matching.

Keywords: correlation, country conflict, imputation, stochastic regression

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3471 Stochastic Prioritization of Dependent Actuarial Risks: Preferences among Prospects

Authors: Ezgi Nevruz, Kasirga Yildirak, Ashis SenGupta

Abstract:

Comparing or ranking risks is the main motivating factor behind the human trait of making choices. Cumulative prospect theory (CPT) is a preference theory approach that evaluates perception and bias in decision making under risk and uncertainty. We aim to investigate the aggregate claims of different risk classes in terms of their comparability and amenability to ordering when the impact of risk perception is considered. For this aim, we prioritize the aggregate claims taken as actuarial risks by using various stochastic ordering relations. In order to prioritize actuarial risks, we use stochastic relations such as stochastic dominance and stop-loss dominance that are proposed in the frame of partial order theory. We take into account the dependency of the individual claims exposed to similar environmental risks. At first, we modify the zero-utility premium principle in order to obtain a solution for the stop-loss premium under CPT. Then, we propose a stochastic stop-loss dominance of the aggregate claims and find a relation between the stop-loss dominance and the first-order stochastic dominance under the dependence assumption by using properties of the familiar as well as some emerging multivariate claim distributions.

Keywords: cumulative prospect theory, partial order theory, risk perception, stochastic dominance, stop-loss dominance

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3470 Building a Stochastic Simulation Model for Blue Crab Population Evolution in Antinioti Lagoon

Authors: Nikolaos Simantiris, Markos Avlonitis

Abstract:

This work builds a simulation platform, modeling the spatial diffusion of the invasive species Callinectes sapidus (blue crab) as a random walk, incorporating also generation, fatality, and fishing rates modeling the time evolution of its population. Antinioti lagoon in West Greece was used as a testbed for applying the simulation model. Field measurements from June 2020 to June 2021 on the lagoon’s setting, bathymetry, and blue crab juveniles provided the initial population simulation of blue crabs, as well as biological parameters from the current literature were used to calibrate simulation parameters. The scope of this study is to render the authors able to predict the evolution of the blue crab population in confined environments of the Ionian Islands region in West Greece. The first result of the simulation experiments shows the possibility for a robust prediction for blue crab population evolution in the Antinioti lagoon.

Keywords: antinioti lagoon, blue crab, stochastic simulation, random walk

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3469 Formulating the Stochastic Finite Elements for Free Vibration Analysis of Plates with Variable Elastic Modulus

Authors: Mojtaba Aghamiri Esfahani, Mohammad Karkon, Seyed Majid Hosseini Nezhad, Reza Hosseini-Ara

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of uncertainty in elastic modulus of a plate on free vibration response is investigated. For this purpose, the elastic modulus of the plate is modeled as stochastic variable with normal distribution. Moreover, the distance autocorrelation function is used for stochastic field. Then, by applying the finite element method and Monte Carlo simulation, stochastic finite element relations are extracted. Finally, with a numerical test, the effect of uncertainty in the elastic modulus on free vibration response of a plate is studied. The results show that the effect of uncertainty in elastic modulus of the plate cannot play an important role on the free vibration response.

Keywords: stochastic finite elements, plate bending, free vibration, Monte Carlo, Neumann expansion method.

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3468 Portfolio Optimization under a Hybrid Stochastic Volatility and Constant Elasticity of Variance Model

Authors: Jai Heui Kim, Sotheara Veng

Abstract:

This paper studies the portfolio optimization problem for a pension fund under a hybrid model of stochastic volatility and constant elasticity of variance (CEV) using asymptotic analysis method. When the volatility component is fast mean-reverting, it is able to derive asymptotic approximations for the value function and the optimal strategy for general utility functions. Explicit solutions are given for the exponential and hyperbolic absolute risk aversion (HARA) utility functions. The study also shows that using the leading order optimal strategy results in the value function, not only up to the leading order, but also up to first order correction term. A practical strategy that does not depend on the unobservable volatility level is suggested. The result is an extension of the Merton's solution when stochastic volatility and elasticity of variance are considered simultaneously.

Keywords: asymptotic analysis, constant elasticity of variance, portfolio optimization, stochastic optimal control, stochastic volatility

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3467 Three-Stage Multivariate Stratified Sample Surveys with Probabilistic Cost Constraint and Random Variance

Authors: Sanam Haseen, Abdul Bari

Abstract:

In this paper a three stage multivariate programming problem with random survey cost and variances as random variables has been formulated as a non-linear stochastic programming problem. The problem has been converted into an equivalent deterministic form using chance constraint programming and modified E-modeling. An empirical study of the problem has been done at the end of the paper using R-simulation.

Keywords: chance constraint programming, modified E-model, stochastic programming, stratified sample surveys, three stage sample surveys

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3466 Urban Growth Analysis Using Multi-Temporal Satellite Images, Non-stationary Decomposition Methods and Stochastic Modeling

Authors: Ali Ben Abbes, ImedRiadh Farah, Vincent Barra

Abstract:

Remotely sensed data are a significant source for monitoring and updating databases for land use/cover. Nowadays, changes detection of urban area has been a subject of intensive researches. Timely and accurate data on spatio-temporal changes of urban areas are therefore required. The data extracted from multi-temporal satellite images are usually non-stationary. In fact, the changes evolve in time and space. This paper is an attempt to propose a methodology for changes detection in urban area by combining a non-stationary decomposition method and stochastic modeling. We consider as input of our methodology a sequence of satellite images I1, I2, … In at different periods (t = 1, 2, ..., n). Firstly, a preprocessing of multi-temporal satellite images is applied. (e.g. radiometric, atmospheric and geometric). The systematic study of global urban expansion in our methodology can be approached in two ways: The first considers the urban area as one same object as opposed to non-urban areas (e.g. vegetation, bare soil and water). The objective is to extract the urban mask. The second one aims to obtain a more knowledge of urban area, distinguishing different types of tissue within the urban area. In order to validate our approach, we used a database of Tres Cantos-Madrid in Spain, which is derived from Landsat for a period (from January 2004 to July 2013) by collecting two frames per year at a spatial resolution of 25 meters. The obtained results show the effectiveness of our method.

Keywords: multi-temporal satellite image, urban growth, non-stationary, stochastic model

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