Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: tuff

11 Hydro-Mechanical Behavior of a Tuff and Calcareous Sand Mixture for Use in Pavement in Arid Region

Authors: I. Goual, M. S. Goual, M. K. Gueddouda, Taïbi Saïd, Abou-Bekr Nabil, A. Ferhat


The aim of the paper is to study the hydro-mechanical behavior of a tuff and calcareous sand mixture. A first experimental phase was carried out in order to find the optimal mixture. This showed that the material composed of 80% tuff and 20% calcareous sand provides the maximum mechanical strength. The second experimental phase concerns the study of the drying-wetting behavior of the optimal mixture was carried out on slurry samples and compacted samples at the MPO. Experimental results let to deduce the parameters necessary for the prediction of the hydro-mechanical behavior of pavement formulated from tuff and calcareous sand mixtures, related to moisture. This optimal mixture satisfies the regulation rules and hence constitutes a good local eco-material, abundantly available, for the conception of pavements.

Keywords: tuff, sandy calcareous, road engineering, hydro mechanical behaviour, suction

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10 Sustainable Biogas Upgrading: Characterization of Adsorption Properties of Tuff

Authors: Emanuele Bonamente, Andrea Aquino, Franco Cotana


This paper presents experimental results from the analysis of Tuff for CO2 and H2S removal from biogas. Synthetic zeolites, commonly used for biogas upgrading, are characterized by excellent performance in terms of carbon dioxide adsorption, however, cost and environmental footprint represent a negative contribute to their sustainability. Natural zeolites contained in Tuff, a totally inexpensive byproduct of the construction industry, show very interesting selective adsorption properties, associated with its availability in regions, as central Italy, where biogas production from small scale plants is rapidly increasing. An in-house experimental device was assembled to measure the adsorption capacity of Tuff as a function of partial CO2 pressure for different temperatures (i.e. adsorption isotherms). Results show performances as high as 66% with respect to commercial zeolites (13X). A sensitivity analysis of different regeneration processes is also presented. A comparative analysis of natural and synthetic zeolites was finally performed using biogas samples obtained from different types of feedstock and characterized by varying CO2 and H2S content.

Keywords: biogas upgrading, CO2 adsorption, sustainable energy, tuff

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9 Hydro-Mechanical Behavior of Calcareous Soils in Arid Region

Authors: I. Goual, M. S. Goual, M. K. Gueddouda, Taïbi Saïd, Abou-Bekr Nabil, A. Ferhat


This paper presents the study of hydro mechanical behavior of this optimal mixture. A first experimental phase was carried out in order to find the optimal mixture. This showed that the material composed of 80% tuff and 20% calcareous sand provides the maximum mechanical strength. The second experimental phase concerns the study of the drying- wetting behavior of the optimal mixture was carried out on slurry samples and compacted samples at the MPO. Experimental results let to deduce the parameters necessary for the prediction of the hydro-mechanical behavior of pavement formulated from tuff and calcareous sand mixtures, related to moisture. This optimal mixture satisfies the regulation rules and hence constitutes a good local eco-material, abundantly available, for the conception of pavements.

Keywords: tuff, sandy calcareous, road engineering, hydro mechanical behaviour, suction

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8 Characteristics of Pyroclastic and Igenous Rocks Mineralogy of Lahat Regency, South Sumatra

Authors: Ridho Widyantama Putra, Endang Wiwik Dyah Hastuti


The study area is located in Lahat Regency, South Sumatra and is part of a 500 m – 2000 m elevated perbukitan barisan zone controlled by the main fault of Sumatra (Semangko Fault), administratively located on S4.08197 - E103.01403 and S4.16786 - E103.07700, the product of Semangko Fault in the form of normal fault flight trending north-southeast, composed of lithologic is a pyroclastic rock, volcanic rock and plutonic rock intrusion. On the Manna and Enggano sheets of volcanic quartenary products are located along perbukitan barisan zone. Petrology types of pyroclastic rocks encountered in the form of welded tuff, tuff lapilli, agglomerate, pyroclastic sandstone, pyroclastic claystone, and lava. Some pyroclastic material containing sulfide minerals (pyrite), the type of sedimentation flow with different grain size from ash to lapilli. The present of tuff lapilli covers almost 50% of the total research area, through observation petrography encountered minerals in the form of glass, quartz, palgioklas, and biotite. Lava in this area has been altered characterized by the presence of minerals such as chlorite and secondary biotite, this change is caused by the structure that develops in the hilly zone and is proved by the presence of secondary structures in the form of stocky and normal faults as well as the primary structure of columnar joint, From medial facies to distal facies, the division of facies is divided based on geomorphological observations and dominant types of lithology.

Keywords: tuff lapili, pyroclastic, mineral, petrography, volcanic, lava

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7 Zeolite Origin within the Pliocene Sedimentary-Pyroclastic Deposits in the Southwestern Part of Syria

Authors: Abdulsalam Turkmani, Mohammed Khaled Yezbek, Farouk Al Imadi


Geological surveys in the southwestern part of Syria showed the presence of sedimentary-pyroclastic deposits, volcanic tuff, to the age of the Upper Pliocene and contain the following minerals according petrographical study and XRD, SEM, XRF analysis and surface properties. X-Ray diffraction results indicate the presence of analcime, phillipsite and chabazite in in all the studied localities. There are also amorphous materials and clay minerals such as illite and montmorillonite. The non-zeolite constituents include olivine, clinopyroxene orthopyroxene and spinel, and less of magnetite and feldspar. Some major oxides were determined through XRF geochemical analyses which include SiO₂, Al₂O₃, K₂O, Fe₂O₃, and CaO for volcanic tuff and zeolite. The formation of these depositions can be summarized in the following stages during the Pliocene: Volcanic activity at the edges of Al Rutba uplift and Jabal Al Arab depression was a rich by tuff bearing ultra basic and basic xenoliths plus second phase by scoria, during the early Pliocene. Volcanic calm with the activity of erosion and form lakes in which deposition of a set of wastes, including olivine resulting from the disintegration of xenoliths during the middle Pliocene. Zeolites minerals form later, which make up about 15-20% and increase and decrease in reverse relation with the olivine sand. Zeolite is formed from volcanic glass, and the results of SEM show that the zeolites minerals very well crystallized.

Keywords: minerals, origin, pyroclastic, zeolite

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6 Hydrothermal Alteration and Mineralization of Cisarua, Nanggung District, Bogor Regency, West Java, Indonesia

Authors: A. Asaga, N. I. Basuki


The research area is located in Cisarua, Bogor Regency, West Java, with 12,8 km2 wide. This area belongs to mining region of PT Aneka Tambang Tbk. The purpose of this research is to study geological condition, alteration type and pattern, and type of mineralization. Geomorphology of the research area is at young to mature stage, which can be divided into Ciparigi’s Parasite Volcanic Cone Unit, Ciparigi Caldera Valley Unit, Ciparigi Caldera Rim Hill Unit, and Pongkor Volcanic Hill. Stratigraphy of the research area consist of five units, they are Laharic Breccia (Pliocene), Pyroclastic Breccia, Lapilli Tuff, Flow Tuff, Fall Tuff, and Andesite Lava (Pleistocene). Based on mineral composition, it is interpreted that there is magma composition changing from rhyolite to andesitic. Geological structures in the research area are caused by NE-SW and N-S stress direction; they are Ciparay Right Strike-Slip Fault (Pliocene), Cisarua Right Strike-Slip Fault, G. Singa Left Strike-Slip Fault, and Cinyuncung Right Strike-Slip Fault (Pleistocene). Weak to strong hydrothermal alteration can be found in the research area.They are Chlorite ± Smectite ± Halloysite Zone, Smectite - Illite - Quartz Zone, Smectite - Kaolinite - Illite - Chlorite Zone, and Smectite - Chlorite - Calcite - Quartz Zone. The distribution and assemblage of alteration minerals is controlled by lithology and geological structures in Pleistocene. Mineralization produce ore minerals, those are pyrite, marcasite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcocite. There are calcite and quartz veins that show colloform, comb, and crystalline textures. Hydrothermal alteration assemblages, ore minerals, and cavity filling textures suggest that mineralization type in research area is epithermal low sulphidation.

Keywords: Pongkor, hydrothermal alteration, epithermal, geochemistry

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5 Geological Structure as the Main Factor in Landslide Deployment in Purworejo District Central Java Province Indonesia

Authors: Hilman Agil Satria, Rezky Naufan Hendrawan


Indonesia is vulnerable to geological hazard because of its location in subduction zone and have tropical climate. Landslide is one of the most happened geological hazard in Indonesia, based on Indonesia Geospasial data, at least 194 landslides recorded in 2013. In fact, research location is placed as the third city that most happened landslide in Indonesia. Landslide caused damage of many houses and wrecked the road. The purpose of this research is to make a landslide zone therefore can be used as one of mitigation consideration. The location is in Bruno, Porworejo district Central Java Province Indonesia at 109.903 – 109.99 and -7.59 – -7.50 with 10 Km x 10 Km wide. Based on geological mapping result, the research location consist of Late Miocene sandstone and claystone, and Pleistocene volcanic breccia and tuff. Those landslide happened in the lithology that close with fault zone. This location has so many geological structures: joints, faults and folds. There are 3 thrust faults, 1 normal faults, 4 strike slip faults and 6 folds. This geological structure movement is interpreted as the main factor that has triggered landslide in this location. This research use field data as well as samples of rock, joint, slicken side and landslide location which is combined with DEM SRTM to analyze geomorphology. As the final result of combined data will be presented as geological map, geological structure map and landslide zone map. From this research we can assume that there is correlation between geological structure and landslide locations.

Keywords: geological structure, landslide, Porworejo, Indonesia

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4 Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Slow Reversible Deformation of Concrete in Surface-Active Media

Authors: Nika Botchorishvili, Olgha Giorgishvili


Many-year investigations of the nature of damping creep of rigid bodies and materials led to the discovery of the fundamental character of this phenomenon. It occurs only when a rigid body comes in contact with a surface-active medium (liquid or gaseous), which brings about a decrease of the free surface energy of a rigid body as a result of adsorption, chemo-sorption or wetting. The reversibility of the process consists of a gradual disappearance of creep deformation when the action of a surface-active medium stops. To clarify the essence of processes, a physical model is constructed by using Griffith’s scheme and the well-known representation formulas of deformation origination and failure processes. The total creep deformation is caused by the formation and opening of microcracks throughout the material volume under the action of load. This supposedly happens in macroscopically homogeneous silicate and organic glasses, while in polycrystals (tuff, gypsum, steel) contacting with a surface-active medium micro crack are formed mainly on the grain boundaries. The creep of rubber is due to its swelling activated by stress. Acknowledgment: All experiments are financially supported by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia. Study of Properties of Concretes (Both Ordinary and Compacted) Made of Local Building Materials and Containing Admixtures, and Their Further Introduction in Construction Operations and Road Building. DP2016_26. 22.12.2016.

Keywords: process reversibility, surface-active medium, Rebinder’s effect, micro crack, creep

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3 Geological Structure Identification in Semilir Formation: An Correlated Geological and Geophysical (Very Low Frequency) Data for Zonation Disaster with Current Density Parameters and Geological Surface Information

Authors: E. M. Rifqi Wilda Pradana, Bagus Bayu Prabowo, Meida Riski Pujiyati, Efraim Maykhel Hagana Ginting, Virgiawan Arya Hangga Reksa


The VLF (Very Low Frequency) method is an electromagnetic method that uses low frequencies between 10-30 KHz which results in a fairly deep penetration. In this study, the VLF method was used for zonation of disaster-prone areas by identifying geological structures in the form of faults. Data acquisition was carried out in Trimulyo Region, Jetis District, Bantul Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia with 8 measurement paths. This study uses wave transmitters from Japan and Australia to obtain Tilt and Elipt values that can be used to create RAE (Rapat Arus Ekuivalen or Current Density) sections that can be used to identify areas that are easily crossed by electric current. This section will indicate the existence of a geological structure in the form of faults in the study area which is characterized by a high RAE value. In data processing of VLF method, it is obtained Tilt vs Elliptical graph and Moving Average (MA) Tilt vs Moving Average (MA) Elipt graph of each path that shows a fluctuating pattern and does not show any intersection at all. Data processing uses Matlab software and obtained areas with low RAE values that are 0%-6% which shows medium with low conductivity and high resistivity and can be interpreted as sandstone, claystone, and tuff lithology which is part of the Semilir Formation. Whereas a high RAE value of 10% -16% which shows a medium with high conductivity and low resistivity can be interpreted as a fault zone filled with fluid. The existence of the fault zone is strengthened by the discovery of a normal fault on the surface with strike N550W and dip 630E at coordinates X= 433256 and Y= 9127722 so that the activities of residents in the zone such as housing, mining activities and other activities can be avoided to reduce the risk of natural disasters.

Keywords: current density, faults, very low frequency, zonation

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2 Concentration Conditions of Industrially Valuable Accumulations of Gold Ore Mineralization of the Tulallar Ore-Bearing Structure

Authors: Narmina Ismayilova, Shamil Zabitov, Fuad Askerzadeh, Raqif Seyfullayev


Tulallar volcano-tectonic structure is located in the conjugation zone of the Gekgel horst-uplift, Dashkesan, and Agzhakend synclinorium. Regionally, these geological structures are an integral part of the Lok-Karabakh island arc system. Tulallar field is represented by three areas (Central, East, West). The area of the ore field is located within a partially eroded oblong volcano-tectonic depression. In the central part, the core is divided by the deep Tulallar-Chiragdara-Toganalinsky fault with arcuate fragments of the ring structure into three blocks -East, Central, and West, within which the same areas of the Tulallar field are located. In general, for the deposit, the position of both ore-bearing vein zones and ore-bearing blocks is controlled by fractures of two systems - sub-latitudinal and near-meridional orientations. Mineralization of gold-sulfide ores is confined to these zones of disturbances. The zones have a northwestern and northeastern (near-meridian) strike with a steep dip (70-85◦) to the southwest and southeast. The average thickness of the zones is 35 m; they are traced for 2.5 km along the strike and 500 m along with the dip. In general, for the indicated thickness, the zones contain an average of 1.56 ppm Au; however, areas enriched in noble metal are distinguished within them. The zones are complicated by postore fault tectonics. Gold mineralization is localized in the Kimmeridgian volcanics of andesi-basalt-porphyritic composition and their vitrolithoclastic, agglomerate tuffs, and tuff breccias. For the central part of the Tulallar ore field, a map of geochemical anomalies was built on the basis of analysis data carried out in an international laboratory. The total gold content ranges from 0.1-5 g/t, and in some places, even more than 5 g/t. The highest gold content is observed in the monoquartz facies among the secondary quartzites with quartz veins. The smallest amount of gold content appeared in the quartz-kaolin facies. And also, anomalous values of gold content are located in the upper part of the quartz vein. As a result, an en-echelon arrangement of anomalous values of gold along the strike and dip was revealed.

Keywords: geochemical anomaly, gold deposit, mineralization, Tulallar

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1 Geochemistry and Tectonic Framework of Malani Igneous Suite and Their Effect on Groundwater Quality of Tosham, India

Authors: Naresh Kumar, Savita Kumari, Naresh Kochhar


The objective of the study was to assess the role of mineralogy and subsurface structure on water quality of Tosham, Malani Igneous Suite (MIS), Western Rajasthan, India. MIS is the largest (55,000 km2) A-type, anorogenic and high heat producing acid magmatism in the peninsular India and owes its origin to hot spot tectonics. Apart from agricultural and industrial wastes, geogenic activities cause fluctuations in quality parameters of water resources. Twenty water samples (20) selected from Tosham and surrounding areas were analyzed for As, Pb, B, Al, Zn, Fe, Ni using Inductive coupled plasma emission and F by Ion Chromatography. The concentration of As, Pb, B, Ni and F was above the stipulated level specified by BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards IS-10500, 2012). The concentration of As and Pb in surrounding areas of Tosham ranged from 1.2 to 4.1 mg/l and from 0.59 to 0.9 mg/l respectively which is higher than limits of 0.05mg/l (As) and 0.01 mg/l (Pb). Excess trace metal accumulation in water is toxic to humans and adversely affects the central nervous system, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, skin and cause mental confusion. Groundwater quality is defined by nature of rock formation, mineral water reaction, physiography, soils, environment, recharge and discharge conditions of the area. Fluoride content in groundwater is due to the solubility of fluoride-bearing minerals like fluorite, cryolite, topaz, and mica, etc. Tosham is comprised of quartz mica schist, quartzite, schorl, tuff, quartz porphyry and associated granites, thus, fluoride is leached out and dissolved in groundwater. In the study area, Ni concentration ranged from 0.07 to 0.5 mg/l (permissible limit 0.02 mg/l). The primary source of nickel in drinking water is leached out nickel from ore-bearing rocks. Higher concentration of As is found in some igneous rocks specifically containing minerals as arsenopyrite (AsFeS), realgar (AsS) and orpiment (As2S3). MIS consists of granite (hypersolvus and subsolvus), rhyolite, dacite, trachyte, andesite, pyroclasts, basalt, gabbro and dolerite which increased the trace elements concentration in groundwater. Nakora, a part of MIS rocks has high concentration of trace and rare earth elements (Ni, Rb, Pb, Sr, Y, Zr, Th, U, La, Ce, Nd, Eu and Yb) which percolates the Ni and Pb to groundwater by weathering, contacts and joints/fractures in rocks. Additionally, geological setting of MIS also causes dissolution of trace elements in water resources beneath the surface. NE–SW tectonic lineament, radial pattern of dykes and volcanic vent at Nakora created a way for leaching of these elements to groundwater. Rain water quality might be altered by major minerals constituents of host Tosham rocks during its percolation through the rock fracture, joints before becoming the integral part of groundwater aquifer. The weathering process like hydration, hydrolysis and solution might be the cause of change in water chemistry of particular area. These studies suggest that geological relation of soil-water horizon with MIS rocks via mineralogical variations, structures and tectonic setting affects the water quality of the studied area.

Keywords: geochemistry, groundwater, malani igneous suite, tosham

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