Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2428

Search results for: automatic speech recognition

2428 Possibilities, Challenges and the State of the Art of Automatic Speech Recognition in Air Traffic Control

Authors: Van Nhan Nguyen, Harald Holone

Abstract:

Over the past few years, a lot of research has been conducted to bring Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) into various areas of Air Traffic Control (ATC), such as air traffic control simulation and training, monitoring live operators for with the aim of safety improvements, air traffic controller workload measurement and conducting analysis on large quantities controller-pilot speech. Due to the high accuracy requirements of the ATC context and its unique challenges, automatic speech recognition has not been widely adopted in this field. With the aim of providing a good starting point for researchers who are interested bringing automatic speech recognition into ATC, this paper gives an overview of possibilities and challenges of applying automatic speech recognition in air traffic control. To provide this overview, we present an updated literature review of speech recognition technologies in general, as well as specific approaches relevant to the ATC context. Based on this literature review, criteria for selecting speech recognition approaches for the ATC domain are presented, and remaining challenges and possible solutions are discussed.

Keywords: automatic speech recognition, asr, air traffic control, atc

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2427 Modern Machine Learning Conniptions for Automatic Speech Recognition

Authors: S. Jagadeesh Kumar

Abstract:

This expose presents a luculent of recent machine learning practices as employed in the modern and as pertinent to prospective automatic speech recognition schemes. The aspiration is to promote additional traverse ablution among the machine learning and automatic speech recognition factions that have transpired in the precedent. The manuscript is structured according to the chief machine learning archetypes that are furthermore trendy by now or have latency for building momentous hand-outs to automatic speech recognition expertise. The standards offered and convoluted in this article embraces adaptive and multi-task learning, active learning, Bayesian learning, discriminative learning, generative learning, supervised and unsupervised learning. These learning archetypes are aggravated and conferred in the perspective of automatic speech recognition tools and functions. This manuscript bequeaths and surveys topical advances of deep learning and learning with sparse depictions; further limelight is on their incessant significance in the evolution of automatic speech recognition.

Keywords: automatic speech recognition, deep learning methods, machine learning archetypes, Bayesian learning, supervised and unsupervised learning

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2426 Automatic Speech Recognition Systems Performance Evaluation Using Word Error Rate Method

Authors: João Rato, Nuno Costa

Abstract:

The human verbal communication is a two-way process which requires a mutual understanding that will result in some considerations. This kind of communication, also called dialogue, besides the supposed human agents it can also be performed between human agents and machines. The interaction between Men and Machines, by means of a natural language, has an important role concerning the improvement of the communication between each other. Aiming at knowing the performance of some speech recognition systems, this document shows the results of the accomplished tests according to the Word Error Rate evaluation method. Besides that, it is also given a set of information linked to the systems of Man-Machine communication. After this work has been made, conclusions were drawn regarding the Speech Recognition Systems, among which it can be mentioned their poor performance concerning the voice interpretation in noisy environments.

Keywords: automatic speech recognition, man-machine conversation, speech recognition, spoken dialogue systems, word error rate

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2425 A Two-Stage Adaptation towards Automatic Speech Recognition System for Malay-Speaking Children

Authors: Mumtaz Begum Mustafa, Siti Salwah Salim, Feizal Dani Rahman

Abstract:

Recently, Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems were used to assist children in language acquisition as it has the ability to detect human speech signal. Despite the benefits offered by the ASR system, there is a lack of ASR systems for Malay-speaking children. One of the contributing factors for this is the lack of continuous speech database for the target users. Though cross-lingual adaptation is a common solution for developing ASR systems for under-resourced language, it is not viable for children as there are very limited speech databases as a source model. In this research, we propose a two-stage adaptation for the development of ASR system for Malay-speaking children using a very limited database. The two stage adaptation comprises the cross-lingual adaptation (first stage) and cross-age adaptation. For the first stage, a well-known speech database that is phonetically rich and balanced, is adapted to the medium-sized Malay adults using supervised MLLR. The second stage adaptation uses the speech acoustic model generated from the first adaptation, and the target database is a small-sized database of the target users. We have measured the performance of the proposed technique using word error rate, and then compare them with the conventional benchmark adaptation. The two stage adaptation proposed in this research has better recognition accuracy as compared to the benchmark adaptation in recognizing children’s speech.

Keywords: Automatic Speech Recognition System, children speech, adaptation, Malay

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2424 Recognition by the Voice and Speech Features of the Emotional State of Children by Adults and Automatically

Authors: Elena E. Lyakso, Olga V. Frolova, Yuri N. Matveev, Aleksey S. Grigorev, Alexander S. Nikolaev, Viktor A. Gorodnyi

Abstract:

The study of the children’s emotional sphere depending on age and psychoneurological state is of great importance for the design of educational programs for children and their social adaptation. Atypical development may be accompanied by violations or specificities of the emotional sphere. To study characteristics of the emotional state reflection in the voice and speech features of children, the perceptual study with the participation of adults and the automatic recognition of speech were conducted. Speech of children with typical development (TD), with Down syndrome (DS), and with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) aged 6-12 years was recorded. To obtain emotional speech in children, model situations were created, including a dialogue between the child and the experimenter containing questions that can cause various emotional states in the child and playing with a standard set of toys. The questions and toys were selected, taking into account the child’s age, developmental characteristics, and speech skills. For the perceptual experiment by adults, test sequences containing speech material of 30 children: TD, DS, and ASD were created. The listeners were 100 adults (age 19.3 ± 2.3 years). The listeners were tasked with determining the children’s emotional state as “comfort – neutral – discomfort” while listening to the test material. Spectrographic analysis of speech signals was conducted. For automatic recognition of the emotional state, 6594 speech files containing speech material of children were prepared. Automatic recognition of three states, “comfort – neutral – discomfort,” was performed using automatically extracted from the set of acoustic features - the Geneva Minimalistic Acoustic Parameter Set (GeMAPS) and the extended Geneva Minimalistic Acoustic Parameter Set (eGeMAPS). The results showed that the emotional state is worse determined by the speech of TD children (comfort – 58% of correct answers, discomfort – 56%). Listeners better recognized discomfort in children with ASD and DS (78% of answers) than comfort (70% and 67%, respectively, for children with DS and ASD). The neutral state is better recognized by the speech of children with ASD (67%) than by the speech of children with DS (52%) and TD children (54%). According to the automatic recognition data using the acoustic feature set GeMAPSv01b, the accuracy of automatic recognition of emotional states for children with ASD is 0.687; children with DS – 0.725; TD children – 0.641. When using the acoustic feature set eGeMAPSv01b, the accuracy of automatic recognition of emotional states for children with ASD is 0.671; children with DS – 0.717; TD children – 0.631. The use of different models showed similar results, with better recognition of emotional states by the speech of children with DS than by the speech of children with ASD. The state of comfort is automatically determined better by the speech of TD children (precision – 0.546) and children with ASD (0.523), discomfort – children with DS (0.504). The data on the specificities of recognition by adults of the children’s emotional state by their speech may be used in recruitment for working with children with atypical development. Automatic recognition data can be used to create alternative communication systems and automatic human-computer interfaces for social-emotional learning. Acknowledgment: This work was financially supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project 18-18-00063).

Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, automatic recognition of speech, child’s emotional speech, Down syndrome, perceptual experiment

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2423 Distant Speech Recognition Using Laser Doppler Vibrometer

Authors: Yunbin Deng

Abstract:

Most existing applications of automatic speech recognition relies on cooperative subjects at a short distance to a microphone. Standoff speech recognition using microphone arrays can extend the subject to sensor distance somewhat, but it is still limited to only a few feet. As such, most deployed applications of standoff speech recognitions are limited to indoor use at short range. Moreover, these applications require air passway between the subject and the sensor to achieve reasonable signal to noise ratio. This study reports long range (50 feet) automatic speech recognition experiments using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) sensor. This study shows that the LDV sensor modality can extend the speech acquisition standoff distance far beyond microphone arrays to hundreds of feet. In addition, LDV enables 'listening' through the windows for uncooperative subjects. This enables new capabilities in automatic audio and speech intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) for law enforcement, homeland security and counter terrorism applications. The Polytec LDV model OFV-505 is used in this study. To investigate the impact of different vibrating materials, five parallel LDV speech corpora, each consisting of 630 speakers, are collected from the vibrations of a glass window, a metal plate, a plastic box, a wood slate, and a concrete wall. These are the common materials the application could encounter in a daily life. These data were compared with the microphone counterpart to manifest the impact of various materials on the spectrum of the LDV speech signal. State of the art deep neural network modeling approaches is used to conduct continuous speaker independent speech recognition on these LDV speech datasets. Preliminary phoneme recognition results using time-delay neural network, bi-directional long short term memory, and model fusion shows great promise of using LDV for long range speech recognition. To author’s best knowledge, this is the first time an LDV is reported for long distance speech recognition application.

Keywords: covert speech acquisition, distant speech recognition, DSR, laser Doppler vibrometer, LDV, speech intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance, ISR

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2422 The Capacity of Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients for Speech Recognition

Authors: Fawaz S. Al-Anzi, Dia AbuZeina

Abstract:

Speech recognition is of an important contribution in promoting new technologies in human computer interaction. Today, there is a growing need to employ speech technology in daily life and business activities. However, speech recognition is a challenging task that requires different stages before obtaining the desired output. Among automatic speech recognition (ASR) components is the feature extraction process, which parameterizes the speech signal to produce the corresponding feature vectors. Feature extraction process aims at approximating the linguistic content that is conveyed by the input speech signal. In speech processing field, there are several methods to extract speech features, however, Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) is the popular technique. It has been long observed that the MFCC is dominantly used in the well-known recognizers such as the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Sphinx and the Markov Model Toolkit (HTK). Hence, this paper focuses on the MFCC method as the standard choice to identify the different speech segments in order to obtain the language phonemes for further training and decoding steps. Due to MFCC good performance, the previous studies show that the MFCC dominates the Arabic ASR research. In this paper, we demonstrate MFCC as well as the intermediate steps that are performed to get these coefficients using the HTK toolkit.

Keywords: speech recognition, acoustic features, mel frequency, cepstral coefficients

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2421 Combined Automatic Speech Recognition and Machine Translation in Business Correspondence Domain for English-Croatian

Authors: Sanja Seljan, Ivan Dunđer

Abstract:

The paper presents combined automatic speech recognition (ASR) for English and machine translation (MT) for English and Croatian in the domain of business correspondence. The first part presents results of training the ASR commercial system on two English data sets, enriched by error analysis. The second part presents results of machine translation performed by online tool Google Translate for English and Croatian and Croatian-English language pairs. Human evaluation in terms of usability is conducted and internal consistency calculated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, enriched by error analysis. Automatic evaluation is performed by WER (Word Error Rate) and PER (Position-independent word Error Rate) metrics, followed by investigation of Pearson’s correlation with human evaluation.

Keywords: automatic machine translation, integrated language technologies, quality evaluation, speech recognition

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2420 An Automatic Speech Recognition Tool for the Filipino Language Using the HTK System

Authors: John Lorenzo Bautista, Yoon-Joong Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a Filipino speech recognition tool using the HTK System. The system was trained from a subset of the Filipino Speech Corpus developed by the DSP Laboratory of the University of the Philippines-Diliman. The speech corpus was both used in training and testing the system by estimating the parameters for phonetic HMM-based (Hidden-Markov Model) acoustic models. Experiments on different mixture-weights were incorporated in the study. The phoneme-level word-based recognition of a 5-state HMM resulted in an average accuracy rate of 80.13 for a single-Gaussian mixture model, 81.13 after implementing a phoneme-alignment, and 87.19 for the increased Gaussian-mixture weight model. The highest accuracy rate of 88.70% was obtained from a 5-state model with 6 Gaussian mixtures.

Keywords: Filipino language, Hidden Markov Model, HTK system, speech recognition

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2419 The Combination of the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC), Perceptual Linear Prediction (PLP), JITTER and SHIMMER Coefficients for the Improvement of Automatic Recognition System for Dysarthric Speech

Authors: Brahim-Fares Zaidi, Malika Boudraa, Sid-Ahmed Selouani

Abstract:

Our work aims to improve our Automatic Recognition System for Dysarthria Speech (ARSDS) based on the Hidden Models of Markov (HMM) and the Hidden Markov Model Toolkit (HTK) to help people who are sick. With pronunciation problems, we applied two techniques of speech parameterization based on Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC's) and Perceptual Linear Prediction (PLP's) and concatenated them with JITTER and SHIMMER coefficients in order to increase the recognition rate of a dysarthria speech. For our tests, we used the NEMOURS database that represents speakers with dysarthria and normal speakers.

Keywords: hidden Markov model toolkit (HTK), hidden models of Markov (HMM), Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), perceptual linear prediction (PLP’s)

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2418 Speech Detection Model Based on Deep Neural Networks Classifier for Speech Emotions Recognition

Authors: A. Shoiynbek, K. Kozhakhmet, P. Menezes, D. Kuanyshbay, D. Bayazitov

Abstract:

Speech emotion recognition has received increasing research interest all through current years. There was used emotional speech that was collected under controlled conditions in most research work. Actors imitating and artificially producing emotions in front of a microphone noted those records. There are four issues related to that approach, namely, (1) emotions are not natural, and it means that machines are learning to recognize fake emotions. (2) Emotions are very limited by quantity and poor in their variety of speaking. (3) There is language dependency on SER. (4) Consequently, each time when researchers want to start work with SER, they need to find a good emotional database on their language. In this paper, we propose the approach to create an automatic tool for speech emotion extraction based on facial emotion recognition and describe the sequence of actions of the proposed approach. One of the first objectives of the sequence of actions is a speech detection issue. The paper gives a detailed description of the speech detection model based on a fully connected deep neural network for Kazakh and Russian languages. Despite the high results in speech detection for Kazakh and Russian, the described process is suitable for any language. To illustrate the working capacity of the developed model, we have performed an analysis of speech detection and extraction from real tasks.

Keywords: deep neural networks, speech detection, speech emotion recognition, Mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients, collecting speech emotion corpus, collecting speech emotion dataset, Kazakh speech dataset

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2417 Advances in Artificial intelligence Using Speech Recognition

Authors: Khaled M. Alhawiti

Abstract:

This research study aims to present a retrospective study about speech recognition systems and artificial intelligence. Speech recognition has become one of the widely used technologies, as it offers great opportunity to interact and communicate with automated machines. Precisely, it can be affirmed that speech recognition facilitates its users and helps them to perform their daily routine tasks, in a more convenient and effective manner. This research intends to present the illustration of recent technological advancements, which are associated with artificial intelligence. Recent researches have revealed the fact that speech recognition is found to be the utmost issue, which affects the decoding of speech. In order to overcome these issues, different statistical models were developed by the researchers. Some of the most prominent statistical models include acoustic model (AM), language model (LM), lexicon model, and hidden Markov models (HMM). The research will help in understanding all of these statistical models of speech recognition. Researchers have also formulated different decoding methods, which are being utilized for realistic decoding tasks and constrained artificial languages. These decoding methods include pattern recognition, acoustic phonetic, and artificial intelligence. It has been recognized that artificial intelligence is the most efficient and reliable methods, which are being used in speech recognition.

Keywords: speech recognition, acoustic phonetic, artificial intelligence, hidden markov models (HMM), statistical models of speech recognition, human machine performance

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2416 An Automatic Speech Recognition of Conversational Telephone Speech in Malay Language

Authors: M. Draman, S. Z. Muhamad Yassin, M. S. Alias, Z. Lambak, M. I. Zulkifli, S. N. Padhi, K. N. Baharim, F. Maskuriy, A. I. A. Rahim

Abstract:

The performance of Malay automatic speech recognition (ASR) system for the call centre environment is presented. The system utilizes Kaldi toolkit as the platform to the entire library and algorithm used in performing the ASR task. The acoustic model implemented in this system uses a deep neural network (DNN) method to model the acoustic signal and the standard (n-gram) model for language modelling. With 80 hours of training data from the call centre recordings, the ASR system can achieve 72% of accuracy that corresponds to 28% of word error rate (WER). The testing was done using 20 hours of audio data. Despite the implementation of DNN, the system shows a low accuracy owing to the varieties of noises, accent and dialect that typically occurs in Malaysian call centre environment. This significant variation of speakers is reflected by the large standard deviation of the average word error rate (WERav) (i.e., ~ 10%). It is observed that the lowest WER (13.8%) was obtained from recording sample with a standard Malay dialect (central Malaysia) of native speaker as compared to 49% of the sample with the highest WER that contains conversation of the speaker that uses non-standard Malay dialect.

Keywords: conversational speech recognition, deep neural network, Malay language, speech recognition

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2415 Exploratory Analysis of A Review of Nonexistence Polarity in Native Speech

Authors: Deawan Rakin Ahamed Remal, Sinthia Chowdhury, Sharun Akter Khushbu, Sheak Rashed Haider Noori

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Native Speech to text synthesis has its own leverage for the purpose of mankind. The extensive nature of art to speaking different accents is common but the purpose of communication between two different accent types of people is quite difficult. This problem will be motivated by the extraction of the wrong perception of language meaning. Thus, many existing automatic speech recognition has been placed to detect text. Overall study of this paper mentions a review of NSTTR (Native Speech Text to Text Recognition) synthesis compared with Text to Text recognition. Review has exposed many text to text recognition systems that are at a very early stage to comply with the system by native speech recognition. Many discussions started about the progression of chatbots, linguistic theory another is rule based approach. In the Recent years Deep learning is an overwhelming chapter for text to text learning to detect language nature. To the best of our knowledge, In the sub continent a huge number of people speak in Bangla language but they have different accents in different regions therefore study has been elaborate contradictory discussion achievement of existing works and findings of future needs in Bangla language acoustic accent.

Keywords: TTR, NSTTR, text to text recognition, deep learning, natural language processing

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2414 Lip Localization Technique for Myanmar Consonants Recognition Based on Lip Movements

Authors: Thein Thein, Kalyar Myo San

Abstract:

Lip reading system is one of the different supportive technologies for hearing impaired, or elderly people or non-native speakers. For normal hearing persons in noisy environments or in conditions where the audio signal is not available, lip reading techniques can be used to increase their understanding of spoken language. Hearing impaired persons have used lip reading techniques as important tools to find out what was said by other people without hearing voice. Thus, visual speech information is important and become active research area. Using visual information from lip movements can improve the accuracy and robustness of a speech recognition system and the need for lip reading system is ever increasing for every language. However, the recognition of lip movement is a difficult task because of the region of interest (ROI) is nonlinear and noisy. Therefore, this paper proposes method to detect the accurate lips shape and to localize lip movement towards automatic lip tracking by using the combination of Otsu global thresholding technique and Moore Neighborhood Tracing Algorithm. Proposed method shows how accurate lip localization and tracking which is useful for speech recognition. In this work of study and experiments will be carried out the automatic lip localizing the lip shape for Myanmar consonants using the only visual information from lip movements which is useful for visual speech of Myanmar languages.

Keywords: lip reading, lip localization, lip tracking, Moore neighborhood tracing algorithm

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2413 Wolof Voice Response Recognition System: A Deep Learning Model for Wolof Audio Classification

Authors: Krishna Mohan Bathula, Fatou Bintou Loucoubar, FNU Kaleemunnisa, Christelle Scharff, Mark Anthony De Castro

Abstract:

Voice recognition algorithms such as automatic speech recognition and text-to-speech systems with African languages can play an important role in bridging the digital divide of Artificial Intelligence in Africa, contributing to the establishment of a fully inclusive information society. This paper proposes a Deep Learning model that can classify the user responses as inputs for an interactive voice response system. A dataset with Wolof language words ‘yes’ and ‘no’ is collected as audio recordings. A two stage Data Augmentation approach is adopted for enhancing the dataset size required by the deep neural network. Data preprocessing and feature engineering with Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients are implemented. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have proven to be very powerful in image classification and are promising for audio processing when sounds are transformed into spectra. For performing voice response classification, the recordings are transformed into sound frequency feature spectra and then applied image classification methodology using a deep CNN model. The inference model of this trained and reusable Wolof voice response recognition system can be integrated with many applications associated with both web and mobile platforms.

Keywords: automatic speech recognition, interactive voice response, voice response recognition, wolof word classification

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2412 Reed: An Approach Towards Quickly Bootstrapping Multilingual Acoustic Models

Authors: Bipasha Sen, Aditya Agarwal

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Multilingual automatic speech recognition (ASR) system is a single entity capable of transcribing multiple languages sharing a common phone space. Performance of such a system is highly dependent on the compatibility of the languages. State of the art speech recognition systems are built using sequential architectures based on recurrent neural networks (RNN) limiting the computational parallelization in training. This poses a significant challenge in terms of time taken to bootstrap and validate the compatibility of multiple languages for building a robust multilingual system. Complex architectural choices based on self-attention networks are made to improve the parallelization thereby reducing the training time. In this work, we propose Reed, a simple system based on 1D convolutions which uses very short context to improve the training time. To improve the performance of our system, we use raw time-domain speech signals directly as input. This enables the convolutional layers to learn feature representations rather than relying on handcrafted features such as MFCC. We report improvement on training and inference times by atleast a factor of 4x and 7.4x respectively with comparable WERs against standard RNN based baseline systems on SpeechOcean's multilingual low resource dataset.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, language compatibility, low resource languages, multilingual automatic speech recognition

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2411 Voice Commands Recognition of Mentor Robot in Noisy Environment Using HTK

Authors: Khenfer-Koummich Fatma, Hendel Fatiha, Mesbahi Larbi

Abstract:

this paper presents an approach based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM: Hidden Markov Model) using HTK tools. The goal is to create a man-machine interface with a voice recognition system that allows the operator to tele-operate a mentor robot to execute specific tasks as rotate, raise, close, etc. This system should take into account different levels of environmental noise. This approach has been applied to isolated words representing the robot commands spoken in two languages: French and Arabic. The recognition rate obtained is the same in both speeches, Arabic and French in the neutral words. However, there is a slight difference in favor of the Arabic speech when Gaussian white noise is added with a Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) equal to 30 db, the Arabic speech recognition rate is 69% and 80% for French speech recognition rate. This can be explained by the ability of phonetic context of each speech when the noise is added.

Keywords: voice command, HMM, TIMIT, noise, HTK, Arabic, speech recognition

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2410 Recognition of Voice Commands of Mentor Robot in Noisy Environment Using Hidden Markov Model

Authors: Khenfer Koummich Fatma, Hendel Fatiha, Mesbahi Larbi

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM: Hidden Markov Model) using HTK tools. The goal is to create a human-machine interface with a voice recognition system that allows the operator to teleoperate a mentor robot to execute specific tasks as rotate, raise, close, etc. This system should take into account different levels of environmental noise. This approach has been applied to isolated words representing the robot commands pronounced in two languages: French and Arabic. The obtained recognition rate is the same in both speeches, Arabic and French in the neutral words. However, there is a slight difference in favor of the Arabic speech when Gaussian white noise is added with a Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) equals 30 dB, in this case; the Arabic speech recognition rate is 69%, and the French speech recognition rate is 80%. This can be explained by the ability of phonetic context of each speech when the noise is added.

Keywords: Arabic speech recognition, Hidden Markov Model (HMM), HTK, noise, TIMIT, voice command

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2409 Bidirectional Dynamic Time Warping Algorithm for the Recognition of Isolated Words Impacted by Transient Noise Pulses

Authors: G. Tamulevičius, A. Serackis, T. Sledevič, D. Navakauskas

Abstract:

We consider the biggest challenge in speech recognition – noise reduction. Traditionally detected transient noise pulses are removed with the corrupted speech using pulse models. In this paper we propose to cope with the problem directly in Dynamic Time Warping domain. Bidirectional Dynamic Time Warping algorithm for the recognition of isolated words impacted by transient noise pulses is proposed. It uses simple transient noise pulse detector, employs bidirectional computation of dynamic time warping and directly manipulates with warping results. Experimental investigation with several alternative solutions confirms effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in the reduction of impact of noise on recognition process – 3.9% increase of the noisy speech recognition is achieved.

Keywords: transient noise pulses, noise reduction, dynamic time warping, speech recognition

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2408 Video Based Automatic License Plate Recognition System

Authors: Ali Ganoun, Wesam Algablawi, Wasim BenAnaif

Abstract:

Video based traffic surveillance based on License Plate Recognition (LPR) system is an essential part for any intelligent traffic management system. The LPR system utilizes computer vision and pattern recognition technologies to obtain traffic and road information by detecting and recognizing vehicles based on their license plates. Generally, the video based LPR system is a challenging area of research due to the variety of environmental conditions. The LPR systems used in a wide range of commercial applications such as collision warning systems, finding stolen cars, controlling access to car parks and automatic congestion charge systems. This paper presents an automatic LPR system of Libyan license plate. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated with three video sequences.

Keywords: license plate recognition, localization, segmentation, recognition

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2407 Exploring Pre-trained ASR Model HuBERT for Early Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment Detection in Speech

Authors: Monica Gonzalez Machorro, Rafael Martinez Tomas

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Dementia disease is difficult to diagnose because of the lack of early physical symptoms. Early dementia recognition is key to improving the living condition of patients. Due to speech impairment being a common characteristic of early types of dementia, speech technology is considered a valuable biomarker for this challenge. Recent works have utilized conventional acoustic features and machine learning methods to detect dementia in speech. BERT-like classifiers have reported the most promising performance. One constraint, nonetheless, is that these studies are either based on human transcripts or on transcripts produced by automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems. Regarding the first case, transcripts have high quality but require time-consuming processing. In the case of the ASR systems, transcription quality is poor because patients with dementia usually present agrammatical speech, which leads to a high word error rate. This research contribution is to explore a method that does not require transcriptions nor feature extraction but is able to detect early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) based on raw speech files. This is achieved by fine-tuning a pre-trained ASR model for the early downstream AD and MCI tasks. To do so, a subset of the thoroughly studied Pitt Corpus is customized to provide a dataset containing early AD and MCI speech samples. The subset is balanced for class, age and, gender. Data processing also involves cropping the samples to 10-second segments. For comparison purposes, a baseline model is defined by training and testing a Random Forest with 20 extracted acoustic features using librosa library implemented in Python. These are: zero-crossing rate, MFCCs, spectral bandwidth, spectral centroid, root mean square, and short-time Fourier transform. The baseline model achieved a 58% accuracy. To fine-tune HuBERT as a classifier, an average pooling strategy is employed to merge the 3D representations from audio into 2D representations, and a linear layer is added. The pre-trained model used is ‘hubert-large-ls960-ft’ downloaded from the HuggingFace Transformers library. Empirically, the number of epochs selected is 5 and the batch size defined is 1. Experiments show that our proposed method reaches a 74% accuracy. This suggests that the linguistic and speech information encoded in the self-supervised ASR-based model is able to learn acoustic cues of AD and MCI speech. The proposed method not only outperforms the baseline model but also provides a potential clinical application as it is content-independent, automatic, and transcription-free.

Keywords: automatic speech recognition, early Alzheimer’s recognition, mild cognitive impairment, speech impairment

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2406 Environmentally Adaptive Acoustic Echo Suppression for Barge-in Speech Recognition

Authors: Jong Han Joo, Jung Hoon Lee, Young Sun Kim, Jae Young Kang, Seung Ho Choi

Abstract:

In this study, we propose a novel technique for acoustic echo suppression (AES) during speech recognition under barge-in conditions. Conventional AES methods based on spectral subtraction apply fixed weights to the estimated echo path transfer function (EPTF) at the current signal segment and to the EPTF estimated until the previous time interval. We propose a new approach that adaptively updates weight parameters in response to abrupt changes in the acoustic environment due to background noises or double-talk. Furthermore, we devised a voice activity detector and an initial time-delay estimator for barge-in speech recognition in communication networks. The initial time delay is estimated using log-spectral distance measure, as well as cross-correlation coefficients. The experimental results show that the developed techniques can be successfully applied in barge-in speech recognition systems.

Keywords: acoustic echo suppression, barge-in, speech recognition, echo path transfer function, initial delay estimator, voice activity detector

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2405 Myanmar Consonants Recognition System Based on Lip Movements Using Active Contour Model

Authors: T. Thein, S. Kalyar Myo

Abstract:

Human uses visual information for understanding the speech contents in noisy conditions or in situations where the audio signal is not available. The primary advantage of visual information is that it is not affected by the acoustic noise and cross talk among speakers. Using visual information from the lip movements can improve the accuracy and robustness of automatic speech recognition. However, a major challenge with most automatic lip reading system is to find a robust and efficient method for extracting the linguistically relevant speech information from a lip image sequence. This is a difficult task due to variation caused by different speakers, illumination, camera setting and the inherent low luminance and chrominance contrast between lip and non-lip region. Several researchers have been developing methods to overcome these problems; the one is lip reading. Moreover, it is well known that visual information about speech through lip reading is very useful for human speech recognition system. Lip reading is the technique of a comprehensive understanding of underlying speech by processing on the movement of lips. Therefore, lip reading system is one of the different supportive technologies for hearing impaired or elderly people, and it is an active research area. The need for lip reading system is ever increasing for every language. This research aims to develop a visual teaching method system for the hearing impaired persons in Myanmar, how to pronounce words precisely by identifying the features of lip movement. The proposed research will work a lip reading system for Myanmar Consonants, one syllable consonants (င (Nga)၊ ည (Nya)၊ မ (Ma)၊ လ (La)၊ ၀ (Wa)၊ သ (Tha)၊ ဟ (Ha)၊ အ (Ah) ) and two syllable consonants ( က(Ka Gyi)၊ ခ (Kha Gway)၊ ဂ (Ga Nge)၊ ဃ (Ga Gyi)၊ စ (Sa Lone)၊ ဆ (Sa Lain)၊ ဇ (Za Gwe) ၊ ဒ (Da Dway)၊ ဏ (Na Gyi)၊ န (Na Nge)၊ ပ (Pa Saug)၊ ဘ (Ba Gone)၊ ရ (Ya Gaug)၊ ဠ (La Gyi) ). In the proposed system, there are three subsystems, the first one is the lip localization system, which localizes the lips in the digital inputs. The next one is the feature extraction system, which extracts features of lip movement suitable for visual speech recognition. And the final one is the classification system. In the proposed research, Two Dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform (2D-DCT) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) with Active Contour Model (ACM) will be used for lip movement features extraction. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is used for finding class parameter and class number in training set and testing set. Then, experiments will be carried out for the recognition accuracy of Myanmar consonants using the only visual information on lip movements which are useful for visual speech of Myanmar languages. The result will show the effectiveness of the lip movement recognition for Myanmar Consonants. This system will help the hearing impaired persons to use as the language learning application. This system can also be useful for normal hearing persons in noisy environments or conditions where they can find out what was said by other people without hearing voice.

Keywords: feature extraction, lip reading, lip localization, Active Contour Model (ACM), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Two Dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform (2D-DCT)

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2404 Development of a Sequential Multimodal Biometric System for Web-Based Physical Access Control into a Security Safe

Authors: Babatunde Olumide Olawale, Oyebode Olumide Oyediran

Abstract:

The security safe is a place or building where classified document and precious items are kept. To prevent unauthorised persons from gaining access to this safe a lot of technologies had been used. But frequent reports of an unauthorised person gaining access into security safes with the aim of removing document and items from the safes are pointers to the fact that there is still security gap in the recent technologies used as access control for the security safe. In this paper we try to solve this problem by developing a multimodal biometric system for physical access control into a security safe using face and voice recognition. The safe is accessed by the combination of face and speech pattern recognition and also in that sequential order. User authentication is achieved through the use of camera/sensor unit and a microphone unit both attached to the door of the safe. The user face was captured by the camera/sensor while the speech was captured by the use of the microphone unit. The Scale Invariance Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm was used to train images to form templates for the face recognition system while the Mel-Frequency Cepitral Coefficients (MFCC) algorithm was used to train the speech recognition system to recognise authorise user’s speech. Both algorithms were hosted in two separate web based servers and for automatic analysis of our work; our developed system was simulated in a MATLAB environment. The results obtained shows that the developed system was able to give access to authorise users while declining unauthorised person access to the security safe.

Keywords: access control, multimodal biometrics, pattern recognition, security safe

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2403 Recognizing an Individual, Their Topic of Conversation and Cultural Background from 3D Body Movement

Authors: Gheida J. Shahrour, Martin J. Russell

Abstract:

The 3D body movement signals captured during human-human conversation include clues not only to the content of people’s communication but also to their culture and personality. This paper is concerned with automatic extraction of this information from body movement signals. For the purpose of this research, we collected a novel corpus from 27 subjects, arranged them into groups according to their culture. We arranged each group into pairs and each pair communicated with each other about different topics. A state-of-art recognition system is applied to the problems of person, culture, and topic recognition. We borrowed modeling, classification, and normalization techniques from speech recognition. We used Gaussian Mixture Modeling (GMM) as the main technique for building our three systems, obtaining 77.78%, 55.47%, and 39.06% from the person, culture, and topic recognition systems respectively. In addition, we combined the above GMM systems with Support Vector Machines (SVM) to obtain 85.42%, 62.50%, and 40.63% accuracy for person, culture, and topic recognition respectively. Although direct comparison among these three recognition systems is difficult, it seems that our person recognition system performs best for both GMM and GMM-SVM, suggesting that inter-subject differences (i.e. subject’s personality traits) are a major source of variation. When removing these traits from culture and topic recognition systems using the Nuisance Attribute Projection (NAP) and the Intersession Variability Compensation (ISVC) techniques, we obtained 73.44% and 46.09% accuracy from culture and topic recognition systems respectively.

Keywords: person recognition, topic recognition, culture recognition, 3D body movement signals, variability compensation

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2402 Theory and Practice of Wavelets in Signal Processing

Authors: Jalal Karam

Abstract:

The methods of Fourier, Laplace, and Wavelet Transforms provide transfer functions and relationships between the input and the output signals in linear time invariant systems. This paper shows the equivalence among these three methods and in each case presenting an application of the appropriate (Fourier, Laplace or Wavelet) to the convolution theorem. In addition, it is shown that the same holds for a direct integration method. The Biorthogonal wavelets Bior3.5 and Bior3.9 are examined and the zeros distribution of their polynomials associated filters are located. This paper also presents the significance of utilizing wavelets as effective tools in processing speech signals for common multimedia applications in general, and for recognition and compression in particular. Theoretically and practically, wavelets have proved to be effective and competitive. The practical use of the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) in processing and analysis of speech is then presented along with explanations of how the human ear can be thought of as a natural wavelet transformer of speech. This generates a variety of approaches for applying the (CWT) to many paradigms analysing speech, sound and music. For perception, the flexibility of implementation of this transform allows the construction of numerous scales and we include two of them. Results for speech recognition and speech compression are then included.

Keywords: continuous wavelet transform, biorthogonal wavelets, speech perception, recognition and compression

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2401 Speech Emotion Recognition with Bi-GRU and Self-Attention based Feature Representation

Authors: Bubai Maji, Monorama Swain

Abstract:

Speech is considered an essential and most natural medium for the interaction between machines and humans. However, extracting effective features for speech emotion recognition (SER) is remains challenging. The present studies show that the temporal information captured but high-level temporal-feature learning is yet to be investigated. In this paper, we present an efficient novel method using the Self-attention (SA) mechanism in a combination of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Bi-directional Gated Recurrent Unit (Bi-GRU) network to learn high-level temporal-feature. In order to further enhance the representation of the high-level temporal-feature, we integrate a Bi-GRU output with learnable weights features by SA, and improve the performance. We evaluate our proposed method on our created SITB-OSED and IEMOCAP databases. We report that the experimental results of our proposed method achieve state-of-the-art performance on both databases.

Keywords: Bi-GRU, 1D-CNNs, self-attention, speech emotion recognition

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2400 Speech Recognition Performance by Adults: A Proposal for a Battery for Marathi

Authors: S. B. Rathna Kumar, Pranjali A Ujwane, Panchanan Mohanty

Abstract:

The present study aimed to develop a battery for assessing speech recognition performance by adults in Marathi. A total of four word lists were developed by considering word frequency, word familiarity, words in common use, and phonemic balance. Each word list consists of 25 words (15 monosyllabic words in CVC structure and 10 monosyllabic words in CVCV structure). Equivalence analysis and performance-intensity function testing was carried using the four word lists on a total of 150 native speakers of Marathi belonging to different regions of Maharashtra (Vidarbha, Marathwada, Khandesh and Northern Maharashtra, Pune, and Konkan). The subjects were further equally divided into five groups based on above mentioned regions. It was found that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the speech recognition performance between groups for each word list and between word lists for each group. Hence, the four word lists developed were equally difficult for all the groups and can be used interchangeably. The performance-intensity (PI) function curve showed semi-linear function, and the groups’ mean slope of the linear portions of the curve indicated an average linear slope of 4.64%, 4.73%, 4.68%, and 4.85% increase in word recognition score per dB for list 1, list 2, list 3 and list 4 respectively. Although, there is no data available on speech recognition tests for adults in Marathi, most of the findings of the study are in line with the findings of research reports on other languages. The four word lists, thus developed, were found to have sufficient reliability and validity in assessing speech recognition performance by adults in Marathi.

Keywords: speech recognition performance, phonemic balance, equivalence analysis, performance-intensity function testing, reliability, validity

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2399 OCR/ICR Text Recognition Using ABBYY FineReader as an Example Text

Authors: A. R. Bagirzade, A. Sh. Najafova, S. M. Yessirkepova, E. S. Albert

Abstract:

This article describes a text recognition method based on Optical Character Recognition (OCR). The features of the OCR method were examined using the ABBYY FineReader program. It describes automatic text recognition in images. OCR is necessary because optical input devices can only transmit raster graphics as a result. Text recognition describes the task of recognizing letters shown as such, to identify and assign them an assigned numerical value in accordance with the usual text encoding (ASCII, Unicode). The peculiarity of this study conducted by the authors using the example of the ABBYY FineReader, was confirmed and shown in practice, the improvement of digital text recognition platforms developed by Electronic Publication.

Keywords: ABBYY FineReader system, algorithm symbol recognition, OCR/ICR techniques, recognition technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 76