Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: retropharyngeal abscess

32 Anaesthetic Management of Retropharyngeal Abscess in a Child

Authors: Sudha Puhal, Dr Rajmala Jaiswal


Retropharyngeal abscess occurs most commonly in children following acute upper respiratory tract and ear infection. Airway management in retropharyngeal abscess is an anesthetic challenge due to distortion of airway anatomy and the possibility of spontaneous rupture of abscess leading to aspiration or stridor due to laryngeal edema.. In this report we present a case of retropharyngeal abscess in a child, which was drained under general anaesthesia successfully without any complications.

Keywords: abscess, airway, difficult, retropharyngeal

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31 Deep Neck Infection Associated with Peritoneal Sepsis: A Rare Death Case

Authors: Sait Ozsoy, Asude Gokmen, Mehtap Yondem, Hanife A. Alkan, Gulnaz T. Javan


Deep neck infection often develops due to upper respiratory tract and odontogenic infections. Gastrointestinal System perforation can occur for many reasons and is in need of the early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment. In both cases late or incorrect diagnosis may lead to increase morbidity and high mortality. A patient with a diagnosis of deep neck abscess died while under treatment due to sepsis and multiple organ failure. Autopsy finding showed duodenal ulcer and this is reported in the literature.

Keywords: peptic ulcer perforation, peritonitis, retropharyngeal abscess, sepsis

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30 Case of A Huge Retroperitoneal Abscess Spanning from the Diaphragm to the Pelvic Brim

Authors: Christopher Leung, Tony Kim, Rebecca Lendzion, Scott Mackenzie


Retroperitoneal abscesses are a rare but serious condition with often delayed diagnosis, non-specific symptoms, multiple causes and high morbidity/mortality. With the advent of more readily available cross-sectional imaging, retroperitoneal abscesses are treated earlier and better outcomes are achieved. Occasionally, a retroperitoneal abscess is present as a huge retroperitoneal abscess, as evident in this 53-year-old male. With a background of chronic renal disease and left partial nephrectomy, this gentleman presented with a one-month history of left flank pain without any other symptoms, including fevers or abdominal pain. CT abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a huge retroperitoneal abscess spanning from the diaphragm, abutting the spleen, down to the iliopsoas muscle and abutting the iliac vessels at the pelvic brim. This large retroperitoneal abscess required open drainage as well as drainage by interventional radiology. A long course of intravenous antibiotics and multiple drainages was required to drain the abscess. His blood culture and fluid culture grew Proteus species suggesting a urinary source, likely from his non-functioning kidney, which had a partial nephrectomy. Such a huge retroperitoneal abscess has rarely been described in the literature. The learning point here is that the basic principle of source control and antibiotics is paramount in treating retroperitoneal abscesses regardless of the size of the abscess.

Keywords: retroperitoneal abscess, retroperitoneal mass, sepsis, genitourinary infection

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29 A Rare Case of Clinically Amyopathic Dermatomyositis in a Filipino Female

Authors: Rene A. Amadore Jr., Ramar John Bangayan, Therese Eileen L. Natividad


This is a case of a 59-year-old female who presented with a two-year history of heliotrope rash, Gottron's papules, shawl sign, V-neck sign, and muscle weakness. She was previously managed as a case of systemic lupus erythematosus, who initially responded to unrecalled corticosteroids. She was, however, admitted due to a one-month progressively enlarging sacral mass, which eventually turned out to be an abscess. While the abscess was being treated, her autoimmune condition was worked up, and she was then managed as a case of clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) with interstitial lung disease (ILD). She received corticosteroids and underwent the first cycle of cyclophosphamide infusion prior to discharge.

Keywords: clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis, interstitial lung disease, corticosteroids, sacral abscess

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28 Bacterial Causes of Cerebral Abscess and Impact on Long Term Patient Outcomes

Authors: Umar Rehman, Holly Roy, K. T. Tsang, D. S. Jeyaretna, W Singleton, B. Fisher, P. A. Glew, J. Greig, Peter C. Whitfield


Introduction: A brain abscess is a life-threatening condition, carrying significant mortality. It requires rapid identification and treatment. Management involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery. The aim of the current study was to identify common bacteria responsible for cerebral abscesses as well as the long term functional and neurological outcomes of patients following treatment in a retrospective series at a single UK neurosurgical centre. Methodology: We analysed patients that had received a diagnosis of 'cerebral abscess' or 'subdural empyema' between June 2002 and June 2018. This was done in the form of a retrospective review. The search resulted in a total of 180 patients; with 37 patients being excluded (spinal abscess, below 18 or non-abscess related admissions). Data were collected from medical case notes including information about demographics, comorbidities, immunosuppression, presentation, size/location of lesions, pathogens, treatment, and outcomes. Results: In total, we analysed 143 patients between the ages of 18-90. Focal neurological deficit and headaches were seen in 84% and 68% of patients respectively. 108 positive brain cultures were seen; with the largest proportion, 59.2% being gram-positive cocci, with strep intermedius being the most common pathogen identified in 13.9% of patients. Of the patients with positive blood cultures (n=11), 72.7% showed the same organism both in the blood and on the brain cultures. Long term outcomes (n=72) revealed that 48% of patients seizure-free without requiring anti-epileptics, 51.3% of patients had full recovery of their neurological symptoms. There was a mortality rate of 13.9% in the series. Conclusion: In conclusion, the largest bacterial cause of abscess within our population was due to gram-positive cocci. The majority of the patient demonstrated full neurological recovery with close to half of patients not requiring anti-epileptics following discharge.

Keywords: bacteria, cerebral abscess, long term outcome, neurological deficit

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27 Routine pus Swabs for Uncomplicated Abscesses – Do They Alter Our Management Plan?

Authors: Abdelrahman Abdelrahman, Lawrence Nip, Seun Ikotun, Iman Satar, Anur Miah


Introduction: Incision and drainage of an abscess is a common procedure performed by the general surgeon. Pus swabs are often obtained routinely for MC&S.Our study aimed to investigate whether swabs taken at our local institution had any impact on the overall management plan for uncomplicated abscesses. Methods: We retrospectively assessed all patients presenting to University Hospital Lewisham with an abscess between October 2020 – April 2021. Exclusion criteria were recurrent abscesses, patients admitted with sepsis, known inflammatory bowel disease, immunocompromised, and those managed non-operatively. Results: We identified 131 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Two thirds were performed in theatre under general anaesthetic and the other one third under local. 63% of patients had a pus swab collected. Of these, 96% were not followed up by the requesting doctor, and there was no further patient contact. In the other 4%, the organisms cultured were flagged as atypical such as MRSA. In these cases, microbiology advice was that if the patient was clinically well and adequate drainage was achieved, then no furtherantibiotics were required. All patients were discharged before any microbiology results had come back with no subsequent change in the management plan. Average cost of pus swab = £10.10 – potentially cost saving of £1656.4 annually. Conclusion: Our study reveals that the majority of pus swabs taken from uncomplicated abscessesare not followed up by requesting doctor with no impact on the overall management plan. We, therefore, do not recommend the routine use of pus swabs for uncomplicated abscesses.

Keywords: pus swabs, uncomplated abscess, Pus MCS, follow up of uncomplicated abscess

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26 Operating Characteristics of Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Identifying Skin and Soft Tissue Abscesses in the Emergency Department

Authors: Sathyaseelan Subramaniam, Jacqueline Bober, Jennifer Chao, Shahriar Zehtabchi


Background: Emergency physicians frequently evaluate skin and soft tissue infections in order to differentiate abscess from cellulitis. This helps determine which patients will benefit from incision and drainage. Our objective was to determine the operating characteristics of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) compared to clinical examination in identifying abscesses in emergency department (ED) patients with features of skin and soft tissue infections. Methods: We performed a comprehensive search in the following databases: Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. Trials were included if they compared the operating characteristics of POCUS with clinical examination in identifying skin and soft tissue abscesses. Trials that included patients with oropharyngeal abscesses or that requiring abscess drainage in the operating room were excluded. The presence of an abscess was determined by pus drainage. No pus seen on incision or resolution of symptoms without pus drainage at follow up, determined the absence of an abscess. Quality of included trials was assessed using GRADE criteria. Operating characteristics of POCUS are reported as sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood (LR+) and negative likelihood (LR-) ratios and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI). Summary measures were calculated by generating a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic model (HSROC). Results: Out of 3203 references identified, 5 observational studies with 615 patients in aggregate were included (2 adults and 3 pediatrics). We rated the quality of 3 trials as low and 2 as very low. The operating characteristics of POCUS and clinical examination in identifying soft tissue abscesses are presented in the table. The HSROC for POCUS revealed a sensitivity of 96% (95% CI = 89-98%), specificity of 79% (95% CI = 71-86), LR+ of 4.6 (95% CI = 3.2-6.8), and LR- of 0.06 (95% CI = 0.02-0.2). Conclusion: Existing evidence indicates that POCUS is useful in identifying abscesses in ED patients with skin or soft tissue infections.

Keywords: abscess, point-of-care ultrasound, pocus, skin and soft tissue infection

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25 An Abbattoir-Based Study on Relative Prevalence of Histopathologic Patterns of Hepatic Lesions in One-Humped Camels (Camelus deromedarius), Semnan, Iran

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi, Afshin Zahedi


An abattoir based study was carried out during spring 2011 to investigate pathological conditions of the liver in camels (Camelus deromedarius) slaughtered in the Semnan slaughter house, Northern East of Iran. In this study, 40 carcasses out of 150 randomly selected carcasses inspected at postmortem, found with liver lesions. Proper tissue samples obtained from the livers with macroscopic lesions, fixed in 10% neutral buffer formaldehyde, processed for routine histopathological techniques, and finally embedded in paraffin blocks. Sections of 5µm thickness then cut and stained by H&E staining techniques. In histopathological examination of hepatic tissues, following changes were observed: Hydatid cysts; 65%, Cirrhosis; 10%, Hepatic lipidosis (Mild to Severe fatty changes); 12.5%, Glycogen deposition; 2.5%, Cholangitis; 2.8%, Cholangiohepatitis; 5%, Calcified hydatid cyst; 2.5%, Hepatic abscess; 2.5%, lipofuscin pigments; 17.5%. It is concluded that the highest and lowest prevalent patterns of hepatic lesions were hydatid cysts and Hepatic abscess respectively.

Keywords: camel, liver, lesion, pathology, slaughterhouse

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24 Streptococcus anginosus Infections; Clinical and Bacteriologic Characteristics: A 6-Year Retrospective Study of Adult Patients in Qatar

Authors: Adila Shaukat, Hussam Al Soub, Muna Al Maslamani, Abdullatif Al Khal


Background: The aim of this study was to assess clinical presentation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus (S.) anginosus group infections in Hamad General Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in the state of Qatar, which is a multinational community. The S. anginosus group is a subgroup of viridans streptococci that consist of 3 different species: S. anginosus, S. constellatus, and S. intermedius. Although a part of the human bacteria flora, they have potential to cause suppurative infections. Method: We studied a total of 101 patients with S. anginosus group infections from January 2006 until March 2012 by reviewing medical records and identification of organisms by VITEK 2 and MALDI-TOF. Results: The most common sites of infection were skin and soft tissue, intra-abdominal, and bacteremia (28.7%, 24.8%, and 22.7%, respectively). Abscess formation was seen in approximately 30% of patients. Streptococcus constellatus was the most common isolated species (40%) followed by S. anginosus(30%) and S. intermedius(7%). In 23% of specimens, the species was unidentified. The most common type of specimen for organism isolation was blood followed by pus and tissue (50%, 22%, and 8%, respectively). Streptococcus constellatus was more frequently associated with abdominal and skin and soft tissue infections than the other 2 species, whereas S. anginosus was isolated more frequently from blood. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ceftriaxone, and vancomycin. Susceptibility to erythromycin and clindamycin was also good, reaching 91% and 95%, respectively. Forty percent of patients needed surgical drainage along with antibiotic therapy. Conclusions: Identification of S. anginosus group to species level is helpful in clinical practice because different species exhibit different pathogenic potentials.

Keywords: abscess, bacterial infection, bacteremia, Streptococcus anginosus

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23 Paralysis from an Ear Infection: A Severe Case of Otitis Externa Leading to Acute Complete Cervical Cord Syndrome

Authors: Rachael Collins, George Lafford


We report a case of a generally fit and a well 54-year-old gentleman who presented with a two-day history of worsening left-sided otorrhea, headache, neck stiffness, vomiting and pyrexia on the background of a seven-week history of OE. His condition progressed dramatically as he developed symptoms consistent with acute complete cervical cord syndrome with radiological evidence of skull base osteomyelitis, parapharyngeal, retropharyngeal and paravertebral abscesses and sigmoid sinus thrombus. Ultimately he made a significant, although not complete, recovery. This case is unique in demonstrating how OE can develop into a potentially life-threatening condition. It emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of OE, the recognition of ‘red flag’ symptoms and highlights the importance of a multi-disciplinary team (MDT) approach when managing complex complications of OE.

Keywords: ENT, neurology, otology, MDT

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22 Comparative Efficacy of Prolene and Polyester Mesh for the Repair of Abdominal Wall Defect in Pigeons (Columba livia)

Authors: Muhammad Naveed Ali, Hamad Bin Rashid, Muhammad Arif Khan, Abdul Basit, Hafiz Muhammad Arshad


Abdominal defects are very common in pigeons. A new technique is known as intraabdominal mesh transplant that give better protection for herniorrhaphy. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of hernia mesh. In this study, an efficacy of two synthetic hernia mesh implants viz. conventional Prolene and a lightweight mesh monofilament polyester were assessed for the abdominal wall repair in pigeons. Twenty four healthy pigeons were selected and randomly distributed into three groups, A, B and C (n=8). In all groups, experimental laparotomy was performed; thereafter, abdominal muscles and peritoneum were sutured together, while, a 2 x 2 cm defect was created in the abdominal muscles. For onlay hernioplasty, the hernia mesh (Prolene mesh: group A; Polyester mesh: group B) was implanted over the external oblique muscles of the abdomen. In group C (control), the mesh was not implanted; instead, the laparotomy incision was closed after a herniorrhaphy. Post-operative pain wound healing, adhesion formation, histopathological findings and formation of hematoma, abscess and seroma were assessed as short-term complications. Post-operatively, pain at surgical site was significantly less (P < 0.001) in group B (Polyester mesh); wound healing was also significantly better and rapid in group B (P < 0.05) than in group A (Prolene mesh). Group B (Polyester mesh) also depicted less than 25% adhesions when assessed on the basis of a Quantitative Modified Diamond scale; a Qualitative Adhesion Tenacity scale also depicted either no adhesions or flimsy adhesions (n=2) in group B (Polyester mesh), in contrast to group A (Prolene), which manifested greater adhesion formation and presence of dense adhesions requiring blunt dissection. There were observed hematoma, seroma and abscess formations in birds treated by Prolene mesh only. Conclusively, the polyester mesh proved superior to the Prolene mesh regarding lesser adhesion, better in wound healing, and no short-term follow-up complications.

Keywords: adhesion, mesh, polyester, prolene

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21 Case Report: Clinical Improvement of Forbrain Neurologic Signs in 3-Months Old Persian Mastiff Dog with Calvarial Hyperostosis Syndrome after Corticosteroid, Antiepileptic and Antibiotic Therapy

Authors: Hamidreza Jahani, Zahra Salehzadeh, Ehsan Amini, Mohsen Tohidifar


Calvarial Hyperostosis Syndrome( CHS) is a benign bone disease of the skull. It is a non-neoplastic and proliferative bone disease, and the main feature of the disease is progressive and asymmetrical bone involvement. CHS is mostly reported in young male and female bullmastiff dogs and less frequently in other breeds. The etiology of CHS is unknown. This is the first case report of CHS in Iran. A 3-month-old male Persian Mastiff was presented with chief complaints of multiple episodes of seizure, pacing, bizarre behavior, delayed growth, head pressing, and difficulty in opening the mouth. Central blindness and open fontanelles were observed in clinical examination. No abnormality was found in complete blood count and routine blood biochemical tests. CT scan findings include cortical thickening of frontal and parietal bones and enlargement of left retropharyngeal lymph node. For treatment, oral clindamycine for two weeks, prednisolone and phenobarbital for one month respectively, were administrated, and the case showed improvement after a week and was recovered after one month.

Keywords: calvarial hyperostosis, persian mastiff, frontal bone, seizure

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20 Imaging Spectrum of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Correlation with Clinical and Microbiological Results

Authors: Vasundhara Arora, Anupam Jhobta, Suresh Thakur, Sanjiv Sharma


Aims and Objectives: Intracranial tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most devastating manifestations of TB and a challenging public health issue of considerable importance and magnitude world over. This study elaborates on the imaging spectrum of neurotuberculosis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 29 clinically suspected cases from a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: The prospective hospital based evaluation of MR imaging features of neuro-tuberculosis in 29 clinically suspected cases was carried out in Department of Radio-diagnosis, Indira Gandhi Medical Hospital from July 2017 to August 2018. MR Images were obtained on a 1.5 T Magnetom Avanto machine and were analyzed to identify any abnormal meningeal enhancement or parenchymal lesions. Microbiological and Biochemical CSF analysis was performed in radio-logically suspected cases and the results were compared with the imaging data. Clinical follow up of the patients started on anti-tuberculous treatment was done to evaluate the response to treatment and clinical outcome. Results: Age range of patients in the study was between 1 year to 73 years. The mean age of presentation was 11.5 years. No significant difference in the distribution of cerebral tuberculosis was noted among the two genders. Imaging findings of neuro-tuberculosis obtained were varied and non specific ranging from lepto-meningeal enhancement, cerebritis to space occupying lesions such as tuberculomas and tubercular abscesses. Complications presenting as hydrocephalus (n= 7) and infarcts (n=9) was noted in few of these patients. 29 patients showed radiological suspicion of CNS tuberculosis with meningitis alone observed in 11 cases, tuberculomas alone were observed in 4 cases, meningitis with parenchymal tuberculomas in 11 cases. Tubercular abscess and cerebritis were observed in one case each. Tuberculous arachnoiditis was noted in one patient. Gene expert positivity was obtained in 11 out of 29 radiologically suspected patients; none of the patients showed culture positivity. Meningeal form of the disease alone showed higher positivity rate of gene Xpert (n=5) followed by combination of meningeal and parenchymal forms of disease (n=4). The parenchymal manifestation of disease alone showed least positivity rates (n= 3) with gene xpert testing. All 29 patients were started on anti tubercular treatment based on radiological suspicion of the disease with clinical improvement observed in 27 treated patients. Conclusions: In our study, higher incidence of neuro- tuberculosis was noted in paediatric population with predominance of the meningeal form of the disease. Gene Xpert positivity obtained was low due to paucibacillary nature of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with even lower positivity of CSF samples in parenchymal form of the manifestation. MRI showed high accuracy in detecting CNS lesions in neuro-tuberculosis. Hence, it can be concluded that MRI plays a crucial role in the diagnosis because of its inherent sensitivity and specificity and is an indispensible imaging modality. It caters to the need of early diagnosis owing to poor sensitivity of microbiological tests more so in the parenchymal manifestation of the disease.

Keywords: neurotuberculosis, tubercular abscess, tuberculoma, tuberculous meningitis

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19 Utility of Routine Colonoscopy in Acute Diverticulitis

Authors: Naya Masood, Russell Hodgson, Mark Tacey


Purpose: Patients with acute diverticulitis (AD) have an increased risk of underlying colorectal cancer (CRC); however, those with uncomplicated AD may have the same underlying population risk. This study informs on an Australian AD population who were not routinely offered colonoscopic follow-up. Methods: A 2-year (July 2016 – June 2018) retrospective study of patients admitted with CT-confirmed acute diverticulitis was conducted. CT findings were categorised as ‘complicated’ and ‘uncomplicated’ and were correlated with the detection of cancer in subsequent colonoscopy or follow-up. Results: 67.7% (n=292) of 431 patients were seen to have had complicated AD on an abdominopelvic CT scan. Patients were complicated most commonly due to bowel wall thickening reported on CT (90.4%), perforation (20.2%), or an abscess (12%). Follow-up colonoscopic evaluation was conducted in 52.9% (n=228) of total cases of AD, out of which 156 suffered complicated AD and the rest uncomplicated. None of the uncomplicated AD patients in our cohort were found to have CRC. Of those with complicated AD, six were found to have CRC. Conclusion: The only CRC diagnoses were made in patients with complicated AD. Despite available evidence, a significant proportion of uncomplicated AD patients were still undergoing colonoscopy. There is scope to further safely decrease the number of colonoscopies performed in AD patients.

Keywords: acute diverticulitis, colonoscopy, colorectal cancer, advanced adenoma, complicated diverticulitis

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18 The Involvement of Viruses and Fungi in the Pathogenesis of Dental Infections

Authors: Wael Khalil, Elias Rahal, Ghassan Matar


Tooth related infections or commonly named dental infections have been described as the most common causes of tooth loss in adults. These pathologies were mostly periodontitis, pericoronitis, and periapical infection. The involvement of various bacteria in the pathogenesis of these pathologies has been thoroughly mentioned and approved in the literature. However, the variability in the severity and prognosis of these lesions among patients suggests the association of other pathogens, like viruses and fungi, in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Several studies in the literature investigated the association of multiple viruses and fungi with the above-mentioned lesions, yet, a vast controversy was reached concerning this subject.Aim: Our study aims to fill the gap in the literature concerning the contribution of adenovirus, HPV-16, EBV, fungi, and candida in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, pericoronitis, and periapical infection. For this purpose, we utilized the quantitative PCR for pathogen detection in saliva, gingival, and lesions samples of involved subjects. Results: Some of these pathogens appeared to have an association with the investigated dental pathologies, while others showed no contribution to the pathogenesis of these lesions. Further investigation is required in order to identify the subtype of the involved pathogens in these tooth related oral pathology.

Keywords: periodontitis, pericoronitis, dental abscess, PCR, microbiology

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17 Evaluation of Complications after Colostomy Procedure and Related Factors in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital since 2012-2014

Authors: Alldila Hendy, Agi Satria


Background: A colostomy procedure is an important part in the management of surgical procedures in some diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract. So it is necessary to find the factors that influence the occurrence of complications. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional analytic study in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital noting medical records of patients after the colostomy from January 2012 to December 2014 at the Division of Digestive Surgery. Results: In 136 cases of post-colostomy, 66 cases have complications, 14 is early-onset, and 52 is late-onset. 70 is without complications. Most complications are dermatitis, which is 31 (22.8%), cases of infection/abscess/fistula and intestinal obstruction are 13 (9.6%) and 5 patients (4.4%). A rare complication is colostomy retraction by 2 patients (1.5%), colostomy prolapse and necrosis/gangrene, which is only 3 patients (2.2%). A colostomy procedure in emergency surgery is riskier than elective surgery for complications after colostomy (p < 0.007, OR 2.85), Based on the operator who performs a colostomy procedure, the consultant had a lower risk of complications than fellow or resident (p < 0.0001). Based on the age factor, where the age of about 50 years has a risk of complications after colostomy (p < 0.018). Conclusion: The timing of operation (emergency or elective), age, and operator who perform a colostomy procedure have a significant relationship with an increased prevalence of complications after colostomy in RSCM.

Keywords: colostomy, complications, factors, procedure

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16 The Great Mimicker: A Case of Disseminated Tuberculosis

Authors: W. Ling, Mohamed Saufi Bin Awang


Introduction: Mycobacterium tuberculosis post a major health problem worldwide. Central nervous system (CNS) infection by mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most devastating complications of tuberculosis. Although with advancement in medical fields, we are yet to understand the pathophysiology of how mycobacterium tuberculosis was able to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and infect the CNS. CNS TB may present with nonspecific clinical symptoms which can mimic other diseases/conditions; this is what makes the diagnosis relatively difficult and challenging. Public health has to be informed and educated about the spread of TB, and early identification of TB is important as it is a curable disease. Case Report: A young 21-year-old Malay gentleman was initially presented to us with symptoms of ear discharge, tinnitus, and right-sided headache for the past one year. Further history reveals that the symptoms have been mismanaged and neglected over the period of 1 year. Initial investigation reveals features of inflammation of the ear. Further imaging showed the feature of chronic inflammation of the otitis media and atypical right cerebral abscess, which has the same characteristic features and consistency. He further underwent a biopsy, and results reveal positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the otitis media. With the results and the available imaging, we were certain that this is likely a case of disseminated tuberculosis causing CNS TB. Conclusion: We aim to highlight the challenge and difficult face in our health care system and public health in early identification and treatment.

Keywords: central nervous system tuberculosis, intracranial tuberculosis, tuberculous encephalopathy, tuberculous meningitis

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15 Pathological and Molecular Diagnosis of Caseous Lymphadenitis in Chinkara Deer (Gazella Bennettii), in Pakistan

Authors: Mudassar Iqbal, Riaz Hussain, Khalid Mehmood, Farah Ali, Fazal Mahmood, Abdul Ghaffar


Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is an important cause of caseous lymphadenitis (CL), a complex, chronic devastating and destructive disease of small ruminants. In present study, postmortem examination of Chinkara deer (n=25) was conducted in year 2014. Pus samples suggestive of CL were collected from the superficial lymph nodes, liver, spleen and lungs during necropsy and subjected to standard microbiological procedures for isolation and molecular analysis of bacterial pathogens. Pus samples collected from carcasses (25) presenting clinical lesions of C. pseudotuberculosis infection was identified in 19 (76%) carcasses on the basis of culture characteristics. The frequency of C. pseudotuberculosis bacterium was higher in older animals as compared to young animals. Grossly, multiple tubercles of variable size having caseous material were observed in liver, lungs, spleen and lymph nodes. Histopathologically, tissue sections from all the visceral organs were extensively plugged with abscess. In present study specific prolineiminopeptidase (PIP) gene of the C. pseudotuberculosis was amplified by the Polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) in 17(25) cases. The efficient and reliable molecular analysis along with necropsy findings in present study can be used as valuable approach for diagnosis of caseous lymphadenitis in small ruminants.

Keywords: Chinkara deer, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Caseous lymphadenitis, PCR

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14 Laparoscopic Proximal Gastrectomy in Gastroesophageal Junction Tumours

Authors: Ihab Saad Ahmed


Background For Siewert type I and II gastroesophageal junction tumor (GEJ) laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy can be performed. It is associated with several perioperative benefits compared with open proximal gastrectomy. The use of laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG) has become an increasingly popular approach for select tumors Methods We describe our technique for LPG, including the preoperative work-up, illustrated images of the main principle steps of the surgery, and our postoperative course. Results Thirteen pts (nine males, four female) with type I, II (GEJ) adenocarcinoma had laparoscopic radical proximal gastrectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy. All of our patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, eleven patients had intrathoracic anastomosis through mini thoracotomy (two hand sewn end to end anastomoses and the other 9 patient end to side using circular stapler), two patients with intrathoracic anastomosis had flap and wrap technique, two patients had thoracoscopic esophageal and mediastinal lymph node dissection with cervical anastomosis The mean blood loss 80ml, no cases were converted to open. The mean operative time 250 minute Average LN retrieved 19-25, No sever complication such as leakage, stenosis, pancreatic fistula ,or intra-abdominal abscess were reported. Only One patient presented with empyema 1.5 month after discharge that was managed conservatively. Conclusion For carefully selected patients, LPG in GEJ tumour type I and II is a safe and reasonable alternative for open technique , which is associated with similar oncologic outcomes and low morbidity. It showed less blood loss, respiratory infections, with similar 1- and 3-year survival rates.

Keywords: LPG(laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy, GEJ( gastroesophageal junction tumour), d2 lymphadenectomy, neoadjuvant cth

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13 In Vitro Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities Against Human Oral Cancer and Human Laryngeal Cancer of Limonia acidissima L. Bark Extracts

Authors: Kriyapa lairungruang, Arunporn Itharat


Limonia acidissima L. (LA) (Common name: wood apple, Thai name: ma-khwit) is a medicinal plant which has long been used in Thai traditional medicine. Its bark is used for treatment of diarrhea, abscess, wound healing and inflammation and it is also used in oral cancer. Thus, this research aimed to investigate antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the LA bark extracts produced by various extraction methods. Different extraction procedures were used to extract LA bark for biological activity testing: boiling in water, maceration with 95% ethanol, maceration with 50% ethanol and water boiling of each the 95% and the 50% ethanolic residues. All extracts were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay, cytotoxic activity against human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells and human oral epidermoid carcinoma (KB) cells using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The results found that the 95% ethanolic extract of LA bark showed the highest antioxidant activity with EC50 values of 29.76±1.88 µg/ml. For cytotoxic activity, the 50% ethanolic extract showed the best cytotoxic activity against HEp-2 and KB cells with IC50 values of 9.55±1.68 and 18.90±0.86 µg/ml, respectively. This study demonstrated that the 95% ethanolic extract of LA bark showed moderate antioxidant activity and the 50% ethanolic extract provided potent cytotoxic activity against HEp-2 and KB cells. These results confirm the traditional use of LA for the treatment of oral cancer and laryngeal cancer, and also support its ongoing use.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, cytotoxic activity, Laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma, Limonia acidissima L., oral epidermoid carcinoma

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12 Manifestations of Tuberculosis in Otorhinolaryngology Practice: A Retrospective Study Conducted in a Coastal City of South India

Authors: Rithika Sriram, Kiran M. Bhojwani


Introduction : Tuberculosis of the head and neck has proved to be a diagnostic challenge for otorhinolarynologists around the world. These lesions are often misdiagnosed as cancer. So in order to contribute to a better understanding of these lesions, we have conducted our study among patients affected by TB in the head and neck region with the objective of assessing the various manifestations, presentations, diagnostic techniques, risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption, coexisting illnesses and treatment modalities. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted over a three year period (2012-2014) in 2 hospitals affliated to Kasturba Medical College in Mangalore, South India. A semi structured proforma was used to capture information from the medical records pertaining to the various objectives of the study such as clinical features and history of smoking. Data was analysed using SPSS version 16.0 and results obtained were depicted as percentages. Chi square test was used to find association between the variables and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: 104 patients were found to have TB of the head and neck and among them,the most common manifestation was found to be Tubercular Lymphadenitis (86.53%), followed by laryngeal TB (4.8%), submandibular gland TB (3.8%), deep neck space abscess(3.8%) and adenotonsillar TB. FNAC was found to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of TB disease of the lymph node.26% of the patients had coexisting HIV infection and 16.3% of the patients had associated pulmonary TB. More than 20% of the patients were smokers. Most patients were treated using ATT. Conclusion: Tuberculosis affecting regions of head and neck is no longer uncommon. Sufficient knowledge and appropriate diagnostic means is required while dealing with these lesions and must be included in the differential diagnosis of pathological lesions of head and neck.

Keywords: FNAC, Mangalore, smoking, tuberculosis

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11 Case Report: Mandibular Area Abscesses in Calves

Authors: Dovilė Bačėninaitė, Karina Džermeikaitė, Justinas Kirvela, Ramūnas Antanaitis


Bacteria are often present in the mouth of cattle. Some of them can cause abscesses. Starting with severe swelling of the mouth, muscle spasm, or locked jaw, it can lead to inability to open its mouth, move the neck, cause pain while eating. While the calf is unable to eat properly, it becomes more susceptible to infectious diseases, lower weight gain can be observed. Abscesses can be considered as a continuum of oral disease, whereby early stages of the lumpy jaw could proceed from gingivitis to periodontal disease. In the event of tissue damage, bacteria can enter the bloodstream, even cause sepsis. The most common lesions occur when animals eat sharp grass, coarse fodder, sharp, piercing foreign bodies (this is especially common for calves when they are trying to eat inedible objects). A crossbred Holstein calf presented with a history of proliferative outgrowth in the mandibular region. On clinical examination, needle aspiration, mandibular swelling revealed sticky, white curd-like fluid containing. Pus bacteriology revealed gram-negative cocci. They were sensitive to amoxicillin, cephalexin, enrofloxacin, ceftiofur. Blood morphology was in physiological ranges. The calf was treated surgically. The growth was excised, the puss drained and the wound was flushed with potassium permanganate solution (0,01%). A week after clinical surgery examination was performed. The swelling was decreased. Superficial bacterial infections are often associated with poor hygiene, which should be improved before treatment is commenced. Clipping away dirty hair and gently washing affected areas of skin daily with solutions such as povidone-iodine, potassium permanganate is effective. Appropriate antibiotic therapy, based on sensitivity testing, may be used where there is evidence of systemic illness.

Keywords: calf, abscess, lumpy jaw, pus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Actinobacillus, infection

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10 Clinical and Etiological Particularities of Infectious Uveitis in HIV+ and HIV- Patients in the Internal Medicine Department

Authors: N. Jait, M. Maamar, H. Khibri, H. Harmouche, N. Mouatssim, W. Ammouri, Z. Tazimezaelek, M. Adnaoui


Introduction: Uveitis presents with inflammation of the uvea, intraocular, of heterogeneous etiology and presentation. The objective of our study is to describe the clinical and therapeutic characteristics of infectious uveitis in HIV+ and HIV- patients. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at the internal medicine department of CHU Ibn Sina in Rabat over a period of 12 years (2010–2021), collecting 42 cases of infectious uveitis. Results: 42 patients were identified. 34% (14 cases) had acquired immunosuppression (9 cases: 22% had HIV infection and 12% were on chemotherapy), and 66% were immunocompetent. The M/F sex ratio was 1.1. The average age was 39 years old. Uveitis revealed HIV in a single case; 8/9 patients have already been followed, their average viral load is 3.4 log and an average CD4 count is 356/mm³. The revealing functional signs were: ocular redness (27%), decreased visual acuity (63%), visual blurring (40%), ocular pain (18%), scotoma (13%), and headaches (4%). The uveitis was site: anterior (30%), intermediate (6%), posterior (32%), and pan-uveitis (32%); unilateral in 80% of patients and bilateral in 20%. The etiologies of uveitis in HIV+ were: 3 cases of CMV, 2 cases of toxoplasmosis, 1 case of tuberculosis, 1 case of HSV, 1 case of VZV, and 1 case of syphilis. Etiologies of immunocompetent patients: tuberculosis (41%), toxoplasmosis (18%), syphilis (15%), CMV infection (4 cases: 10%), HSV infection (4 cases: 10%) , lepromatous uveitis (1 case: 2%), VZV infection (1 case: 2%), a locoregional infectious cause such as dental abscess (1 case: 2%), and one case of borreliosis (3% ). 50% of tuberculous uveitis was of the pan-uveitis type, 75% of the uveitis by toxoplasmosis was of the posterior type. Uveitis was associated with other pathologies in 2 seropositive cases (cerebral vasculitis, multifocal tuberculosis). A specific treatment was prescribed in all patients. The initial evolution was favorable in 67%, including 12% HIV+. 11% presented relapses of the same seat during uveitis of the toxoplasmic, tuberculous and herpetic type. 47% presented complications, of which 4 patients were HIV+: 3 retinal detachments; 7 Retinal hemorrhages. 6 unilateral blindness (including 2 HIV+ patients). Conclusion: In our series, the etiologies of infectious uveitis differ between HIV+ and HIV- patients. In HIV+ patients most often had toxoplasmosis and CMV, while HIV - patients mainly presented with tuberculosis and toxoplasmosis. The association between HIV and uveitis is undetermined, but HIV infection was an independent risk factor for uveitis.

Keywords: uveitis, HIV, immunosuppression, infection

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9 Sensitivity and Specificity of Some Serological Tests Used for Diagnosis of Bovine Brucellosis in Egypt on Bacteriological and Molecular Basis

Authors: Hosein I. Hosein, Ragab Azzam, Ahmed M. S. Menshawy, Sherin Rouby, Khaled Hendy, Ayman Mahrous, Hany Hussien


Brucellosis is a highly contagious bacterial zoonotic disease of a worldwide spread and has different names; Infectious or enzootic abortion and Bang's disease in animals; and Mediterranean or Malta fever, Undulant Fever and Rock fever in humans. It is caused by the different species of genus Brucella which is a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore forming, facultative intracellular bacterium. Brucella affects a wide range of mammals including bovines, small ruminants, pigs, equines, rodents, marine mammals as well as human resulting in serious economic losses in animal populations. In human, Brucella causes a severe illness representing a great public health problem. The disease was reported in Egypt for the first time in 1939; since then the disease remained endemic at high levels among cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat and is still representing a public health hazard. The annual economic losses due to brucellosis were estimated to be about 60 million Egyptian pounds yearly, but actual estimates are still missing despite almost 30 years of implementation of the Egyptian control programme. Despite being the gold standard, bacterial isolation has been reported to show poor sensitivity for samples with low-level of Brucella and is impractical for regular screening of large populations. Thus, serological tests still remain the corner stone for routine diagnosis of brucellosis, especially in developing countries. In the present study, a total of 1533 cows (256 from Beni-Suef Governorate, 445 from Al-Fayoum Governorate and 832 from Damietta Governorate), were employed for estimation of relative sensitivity, relative specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of buffered acidified plate antigen test (BPAT), rose bengal test (RBT) and complement fixation test (CFT). The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis revealed (19.63%). Relative sensitivity, relative specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of BPAT,RBT and CFT were estimated as, (96.27 %, 96.76 %, 87.65 % and 99.10 %), (93.42 %, 96.27 %, 90.16 % and 98.35%) and (89.30 %, 98.60 %, 94.35 %and 97.24 %) respectively. BPAT showed the highest sensitivity among the three employed serological tests. RBT was less specific than BPAT. CFT showed the least sensitivity 89.30 % among the three employed serological tests but showed the highest specificity. Different tissues specimens of 22 seropositive cows (spleen, retropharyngeal udder, and supra-mammary lymph nodes) were subjected for bacteriological studies for isolation and identification of Brucella organisms. Brucella melitensis biovar 3 could be recovered from 12 (54.55%) cows. Bacteriological examinations failed to classify 10 cases (45.45%) and were culture negative. Bruce-ladder PCR was carried out for molecular identification of the 12 Brucella isolates at the species level. Three fragments of 587 bp, 1071 bp and 1682 bp sizes were amplified indicating Brucella melitensis. The results indicated the importance of using several procedures to overcome the problem of escaping of some infected animals from diagnosis.Bruce-ladder PCR is an important tool for diagnosis and epidemiologic studies, providing relevant information for identification of Brucella spp.

Keywords: brucellosis, relative sensitivity, relative specificity, Bruce-ladder, Egypt

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8 Identification and Management of Septic Arthritis of the Untouched Glenohumeral Joint

Authors: Sumit Kanwar, Manisha Chand, Gregory Gilot


Background: Septic arthritis of the shoulder has infrequently been discussed. Focus on infection of the untouched shoulder has not heretofore been described. We present four patients with glenohumeral septic arthritis. Methods: Case 1: A 59 year old male with left shoulder pain in the anterior, posterior and superior aspects. Case 2: A 60 year old male with fever, chills, and generalized muscle aches. Case 3: A 70 year old male with right shoulder pain about the anterior and posterior aspects. Case 4: A 55 year old male with global right shoulder pain, swelling, and limited ROM. Results: In case 1, the left shoulder was affected. Physical examination, swelling was notable, there was global tenderness with a painful range of motion (ROM). The lab values indicated an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of 96, and a C-reactive protein (CRP) of 304.30. Imaging studies were performed and MRI indicated a high suspicion for an abscess with osteomyelitis of the humeral head. Our second case’s left arm was affected. He had swelling, global tenderness and painful ROM. His ESR was 38, CRP was 14.9. X-ray showed severe arthritis. Case 3 differed with the right arm being affected. Again, global tenderness and painful ROM was observed. His ESR was 94, and CRP was 10.6. X-ray displayed an eroded glenoid space. Our fourth case’s right shoulder was affected. He had global tenderness and painful, limited ROM. ESR was 108 and CRP was 2.4. X-ray was non-significant. Discussion: Monoarticular septic arthritis of the virgin glenohumeral joint is seldom diagnosed in clinical practice. Common denominators include elevated ESR, painful, limited ROM, and involvement of the dominant arm. The male population is more frequently affected with an average age of 57. Septic arthritis is managed with incision and drainage or needle aspiration of synovial fluid supplemented with 3-6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. Due to better irrigation and joint visualization, arthroscopy is preferred. Open surgical drainage may be indicated if the above methods fail. Conclusion: If a middle-aged male presents with vague anterior or posterior shoulder pain, elevated inflammatory markers and a low grade fever, an x-ray should be performed. If this displays degenerative joint disease, the complete further workup with advanced imaging, such as an MRI, CT scan, or an ultrasound. If these imaging modalities display anterior space joint effusion with soft tissue involvement, we can suspect septic arthritis of the untouched glenohumeral joint and surgery is indicated.

Keywords: glenohumeral joint, identification, infection, septic arthritis, shoulder

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7 A 10 Year Review of the Complications of Ingested and Aspirated Dentures

Authors: Rory Brown, Jessica Daniels, Babatunde Oremule, William Tsang, Sadie Khwaja


Introduction: Dentures are common and are an intervention for both physical and psychological symptoms associated with tooth loss. However, the humble denture can cause morbidity and mortality if swallowed or aspirated. Numerous case reports document complications including hollow viscus perforation, fistula formation and airway compromise. The purpose of this review was to examine the literature documenting cases of swallowed or aspirated dentures over the past ten years to investigate factors that contribute to developing complications. Methods: A Medline literature search was performed to identify cases of denture ingestion or aspiration for over ten years. Data was collected to include patient, appliance and temporal factors that may contribute to developing complications including hollow viscus perforation, fistula formation, abscess, bowel obstruction, necrosis, hemorrhage and airway obstruction. The data was analyzed using observational and inferential statistics in the form of Chi-Squared and Pearson correlation tests. Results: Eighty-five cases of ingested or aspirated dentures were identified from 77 articles published between 1/10/2009 and 31/10/2019. Fourteen articles were excluded because they did not provide sufficient information on individual cases. Complications were documented in 37.6% of patients, and 2 cases resulted in death. There was no significant difference in complication risk based on patient age, hooked appliance, level of impaction, or radiolucency. However, symptoms of greater than 1-day duration are associated with an increased risk of complication (p=0.005). Increased time from ingestion or aspiration to removal is associated with an increased risk of complications, and the p-value remains significant up to and including day 4 (p=0.017). Conclusions: With denture use predicted to rise complications from the denture, ingestion and aspiration may become more frequent. We have demonstrated that increased symptom duration significantly increases the risk of developing complications. Additionally, we established the risk of developing complications is significantly reduced if the denture is removed with four days of aspiration or ingestion. By actively intervening early when presented with a case of swallowed or aspirated dentures, we may be able to reduce the morbidity associated with this unassuming device.

Keywords: aspiration, denture, ingestion, endoscopic foreign, body removal, foreign body impaction

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6 Time-Interval between Rectal Cancer Surgery and Reintervention for Anastomotic Leakage and the Effects of a Defunctioning Stoma: A Dutch Population-Based Study

Authors: Anne-Loes K. Warps, Rob A. E. M. Tollenaar, Pieter J. Tanis, Jan Willem T. Dekker


Anastomotic leakage after colorectal cancer surgery remains a severe complication. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent further adverse outcomes. In the literature, it has been suggested that earlier reintervention is associated with better survival, but anastomotic leakage can occur with a highly variable time interval to index surgery. This study aims to evaluate the time-interval between rectal cancer resection with primary anastomosis creation and reoperation, in relation to short-term outcomes, stratified for the use of a defunctioning stoma. Methods: Data of all primary rectal cancer patients that underwent elective resection with primary anastomosis during 2013-2019 were extracted from the Dutch ColoRectal Audit. Analyses were stratified for defunctioning stoma. Anastomotic leakage was defined as a defect of the intestinal wall or abscess at the site of the colorectal anastomosis for which a reintervention was required within 30 days. Primary outcomes were new stoma construction, mortality, ICU admission, prolonged hospital stay and readmission. The association between time to reoperation and outcome was evaluated in three ways: Per 2 days, before versus on or after postoperative day 5 and during primary versus readmission. Results: In total 10,772 rectal cancer patients underwent resection with primary anastomosis. A defunctioning stoma was made in 46.6% of patients. These patients had a lower anastomotic leakage rate (8.2% vs. 11.6%, p < 0.001) and less often underwent a reoperation (45.3% vs. 88.7%, p < 0.001). Early reoperations (< 5 days) had the highest complication and mortality rate. Thereafter the distribution of adverse outcomes was more spread over the 30-day postoperative period for patients with a defunctioning stoma. Median time-interval from primary resection to reoperation for defunctioning stoma patients was 7 days (IQR 4-14) versus 5 days (IQR 3-13 days) for no-defunctioning stoma patients. The mortality rate after primary resection and reoperation were comparable (resp. for defunctioning vs. no-defunctioning stoma 1.0% vs. 0.7%, P=0.106 and 5.0% vs. 2.3%, P=0.107). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that early reinterventions after anastomotic leakage are associated with worse outcomes (i.e. mortality). Maybe the combination of a physiological dip in the cellular immune response and release of cytokines following surgery, as well as a release of endotoxins caused by the bacteremia originating from the leakage, leads to a more profound sepsis. Another explanation might be that early leaks are not contained to the pelvis, leading to a more profound sepsis requiring early reoperations. Leakage with or without defunctioning stoma resulted in a different type of reinterventions and time-interval between surgery and reoperation.

Keywords: rectal cancer surgery, defunctioning stoma, anastomotic leakage, time-interval to reoperation

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5 Phage Therapy as a Potential Solution in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance

Authors: Sanjay Shukla


Excessive use of antibiotics is a main problem in the treatment of wounds and other chronic infections and antibiotic treatment is frequently non-curative, thus alternative treatment is necessary. Phage therapy is considered one of the most effective approaches to treat multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens. Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are very efficiently controlled with phage cocktails, containing a different individual phages lysate infecting a majority of known pathogenic S. aureus strains. The aim of current study was to investigate the efficiency of a purified phage cocktail for prophylactic as well as therapeutic application in mouse model and in large animals with chronic septic infection of wounds. A total of 150 sewage samples were collected from various livestock farms. These samples were subjected for the isolation of bacteriophage by double agar layer method. A total of 27 sewage samples showed plaque formation by producing lytic activity against S. aureus in double agar overlay method out of 150 sewage samples. In TEM recovered isolates of bacteriophages showed hexagonal structure with tail fiber. In the bacteriophage (ØVS) had an icosahedral symmetry with the head size 52.20 nm in diameter and long tail of 109 nm. Head and tail were held together by connector and can be classified as a member of the Myoviridae family under the order of Caudovirale. Recovered bacteriophage had shown the antibacterial activity against the S. aureus in vitro. Cocktail (ØVS1, ØVS5, ØVS9 and ØVS 27) of phage lysate were tested to know in vivo antibacterial activity as well as the safety profile. Result of mice experiment indicated that the bacteriophage lysate was very safe, did not show any appearance of abscess formation which indicates its safety in living system. The mice were also prophylactically protected against S. aureus when administered with cocktail of bacteriophage lysate just before the administration of S. aureus which indicates that they are good prophylactic agent. The S. aureus inoculated mice were completely recovered by bacteriophage administration with 100% recovery which was very good as compere to conventional therapy. In present study ten chronic cases of wound were treated with phage lysate and follow up of these cases was done regularly up to ten days (at 0, 5 and 10 d). Result indicated that the six cases out of ten showed complete recovery of wounds within 10 d. The efficacy of bacteriophage therapy was found to be 60% which was very good as compared to the conventional antibiotic therapy in chronic septic wounds infections. Thus, the application of lytic phage in single dose proved to be innovative and effective therapy for treatment of septic chronic wounds.

Keywords: phage therapy, phage lysate, antimicrobial resistance, S. aureus

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4 A Prospective Study of Fiftynine Coronectomies Performed over a Seven Year Period

Authors: Craig Miller, Tee Goh, Omar Hussain


Background: Coronectomy is an alternative treatment for the management of mandibular third molars when the roots of the tooth are in close approximation to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). The documented risks of coronectomy include infection, pain, and the need for removal of roots. There are currently two documented randomised control trials which suggest a coronectomy can reduce the risk of IAN injury. It is a recommendation to offer this as a treatment when the IAN is at risk of injury. Persistent IAN nerve injury post mandibular third molars varies from 0.0% to 0.9%, in comparison to coronectomy, which is reported as 0.625% of time. The importance of this prospective study is to identify complications after coronectomy has occurred over a 7 year study period. Method: This prospective study included 56 patients who consented for 59 coronectomies (3 patients had bilateral coronectomies) from the year 2016 to 2022 in the South Yorkshire region of England. Patients were invited for 2 years follow up. Any postoperative complications were recorded at each follow up appointment (6 weeks, 12 and 24 months postop). Root migration from ID canal by serial OPG measurement (12 and 24 months post op) were also recorded. Findings: 56 patients consented to 59 coronectomies over a 7 year period, 88% (n= 52/59) were performed by the same surgeon. 4 patients were lost to follow-up. Patients were subsequently followed up for 2 years prior to discharge. 87% (n=48/55) coronectomies had no complications by the six month follow up. There were 13% (n= 7 /55) of the coronectomies had an associated complication which included pain (n=3/55), 1 had an abscess associated with the retained roots which resolved on antibiotics, n= 2 /55 patients had lingual nerve paraesthesia and n= 1 /55 patients had IAN paraesthesia. One of the patients with lingual nerve paraesthesia resolved by 1 year. The patient with persistent discomfort and IAD paresthesia had evidence of root migration superiorly. The root was subsequently removed. The second patient who had the root removed for persistent pain was incidentally diagnosed poorly differentiated SCC on biopsy of the site of the coronectomy which was quiet shocking for both the patient and the surgeon. So out 56 patients only 2 patients subsequently required the removal of the retained roots. Conclusion: A coronectomy can reduce the risk of IAN injury and as such should form part of the consenting process for when a patient potentially requires management of mandibular third molars which are intimately related to the IAN. This prospective study has shown that complication rates, including nerve damage, is much lower than in conventional surgical removal of wisdom teeth. Therefore, coronectomy should stay part of the armamentarium in the management of mandibular third molars. However, a level 1 multicentered trial comprising trained surgeons at various levels of experience is needed to get accurate rates of complications.

Keywords: coronectomy, root migration, prospective study, complications

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3 Bacteriophage Is a Novel Solution of Therapy Against S. aureus Having Multiple Drug Resistance

Authors: Sanjay Shukla, A. Nayak, R. K. Sharma, A. P. Singh, S. P. Tiwari


Excessive use of antibiotics is a major problem in the treatment of wounds and other chronic infections, and antibiotic treatment is frequently non-curative, thus alternative treatment is necessary. Phage therapy is considered one of the most promising approaches to treat multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens. Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are very efficiently controlled with phage cocktails, containing a different individual phages lysate infecting a majority of known pathogenic S. aureus strains. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a purified phage cocktail for prophylactic as well as therapeutic application in mouse model and in large animals with chronic septic infection of wounds. A total of 150 sewage samples were collected from various livestock farms. These samples were subjected for the isolation of bacteriophage by the double agar layer method. A total of 27 sewage samples showed plaque formation by producing lytic activity against S. aureus in the double agar overlay method out of 150 sewage samples. In TEM, recovered isolates of bacteriophages showed hexagonal structure with tail fiber. In the bacteriophage (ØVS) had an icosahedral symmetry with the head size 52.20 nm in diameter and long tail of 109 nm. Head and tail were held together by connector and can be classified as a member of the Myoviridae family under the order of Caudovirale. Recovered bacteriophage had shown the antibacterial activity against the S. aureus in vitro. Cocktail (ØVS1, ØVS5, ØVS9, and ØVS 27) of phage lysate were tested to know in vivo antibacterial activity as well as the safety profile. Result of mice experiment indicated that the bacteriophage lysate were very safe, did not show any appearance of abscess formation, which indicates its safety in living system. The mice were also prophylactically protected against S. aureus when administered with cocktail of bacteriophage lysate just before the administration of S. aureuswhich indicates that they are good prophylactic agent. The S. aureusinoculated mice were completely recovered by bacteriophage administration with 100% recovery, which was very good as compere to conventional therapy. In the present study, ten chronic cases of the wound were treated with phage lysate, and follow up of these cases was done regularly up to ten days (at 0, 5, and 10 d). The result indicated that the six cases out of ten showed complete recovery of wounds within 10 d. The efficacy of bacteriophage therapy was found to be 60% which was very good as compared to the conventional antibiotic therapy in chronic septic wounds infections. Thus, the application of lytic phage in single dose proved to be innovative and effective therapy for the treatment of septic chronic wounds.

Keywords: phage therapy, S aureus, antimicrobial resistance, lytic phage, and bacteriophage

Procedia PDF Downloads 53