Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7157

Search results for: thermal resistance of special garments

7157 Thermal Resistance of Special Garments Exposed to a Radiant Heat

Authors: Jana Pichova, Lubos Hes, Vladimir Bajzik

Abstract:

Protective clothing is designed to keep a wearer save in hazardous conditions or enable perform short time working operation without being injured or feeling discomfort. Firefighters or other related workers are exposed to abnormal heat which can be conductive, convective or radiant type. Their garment is proposed to resist this conditions and prevent burn injuries or dead of human. However thermal comfort of firefighter exposed to high heat source have not been studied yet. Thermal resistance is the best representative parameter of thermal comfort. In this study a new method of testing of thermal resistance of special clothing exposed to high radiation heat source was designed. This method simulates human body wearing single or multi-layered garment which is exposed to radiative heat. Setup of this method enables measuring of radiative heat flow in time without effect of convection. The new testing method is verified on chosen group of textiles for firefighters.

Keywords: protective clothing, radiative heat, thermal comfort of firefighters, thermal resistance of special garments

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7156 Total Thermal Resistance of Graphene-Oxide-Substrate Stack: Role of Interfacial Thermal Resistance in Heat Flow of 2D Material Based Devices

Authors: Roisul H. Galib, Prabhakar R. Bandaru

Abstract:

In 2D material based device, an interface between 2D materials and substrates often limits the heat flow through the device. In this paper, we quantify the total thermal resistance of a graphene-based device by series resistance model and show that the thermal resistance at the interface of graphene and substrate contributes to more than 50% of the total resistance. Weak Van der Waals interactions at the interface and dissimilar phonon vibrational modes create this thermal resistance, allowing less heat to flow across the interface. We compare our results with commonly used materials and interfaces, demonstrating the role of the interface as a potential application for heat guide or block in a 2D material-based device.

Keywords: 2D material, graphene, thermal conductivity, thermal conductance, thermal resistance

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7155 An Approach for Thermal Resistance Prediction of Plain Socks in Wet State

Authors: Tariq Mansoor, Lubos Hes, Vladimir Bajzik

Abstract:

Socks comfort has great significance in our daily life. This significance even increased when we have undergone a work of low or high activity. It causes the sweating of our body with different rates. In this study, plain socks with differential fibre composition were wetted to saturated level. Then after successive intervals of conditioning, these socks are characterized by thermal resistance in dry and wet states. Theoretical thermal resistance is predicted by using combined filling coefficients and thermal conductivity of wet polymers instead of dry polymer (fibre) in different models. By this modification, different mathematical models could predict thermal resistance at different moisture levels. Furthermore, predicted thermal resistance by different models has reasonable correlation range between (0.84 -0.98) with experimental results in both dry (lab conditions moisture) and wet states. "This work is supported by Technical University of Liberec under SGC-2019. Project number is 21314".

Keywords: thermal resistance, mathematical model, plain socks, moisture loss rate

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7154 Thermal Contact Resistance of Nanoscale Rough Surfaces

Authors: Ravi Prasher

Abstract:

In nanostructured material thermal transport is dominated by contact resistance. Theoretical models describing thermal transport at interfaces assume perfectly flat surface whereas in reality surfaces can be rough with roughness ranging from sub-nanoscale dimension to micron scale. Here we introduce a model which includes both nanoscale contact mechanics and nanoscale heat transfer for rough nanoscale surfaces. This comprehensive model accounts for the effect of phonon acoustic mismatch, mechanical properties, chemical properties and randomness of the rough surface.

Keywords: adhesion and contact resistance, Kaptiza resistance of rough surfaces, nanoscale thermal transport

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
7153 Understanding the Thermal Resistance of Active Dry Yeast by Differential Scanning Calorimetry Approach

Authors: Pauline Ribert, Gaelle Roudaut, Sebastien Dupont, Laurent Beney

Abstract:

Yeasts, anhydrobiotic organisms, can survive extreme water disturbances, thanks to the prolonged and reversible suspension of their cellular activity as well as the establishment of a defense arsenal. This property is exploited by many industrialists. One of the protection systems implemented by yeast is the vitrification of its cytoplasm by trehalose. The thermal resistance of dry yeasts is a crucial parameter for their use. However, studies on the thermal resistance of dry yeasts are often based on yeasts produced in laboratory conditions with non-optimal drying processes. We, therefore, propose a study on the thermal resistance of industrial dry yeasts in relation to their thermophysical properties. Heat stress was applied at three temperatures (50, 75, and 100°C) for 10, 30, or 60-minute treatments. The survival of yeasts to these treatments was estimated, and their thermophysical properties were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The industrial dry yeasts resisted 60 minutes at 50°C and 75°C and 10 minutes at a temperature close to 100°C. At 100°C, yeast was above their glass transition temperature. Industrial dry yeasts are therefore capable of withstanding high thermal stress if maintained in a specific thermophysical state.

Keywords: dry yeast, glass transition, thermal resistance, vitrification

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
7152 Investigation of Heating Behaviour of E-Textile Structures

Authors: Hande Sezgin, Senem Kursun Bahadır, Yakup Erhan Boke, Fatma Kalaoğlu

Abstract:

Electronic textiles (e-textiles) are fabrics that contain electronics and interconnections with them. In this study, two types of base yarns (cotton and acrylic) and three conductive steel yarns with different linear resistance values (14Ω/m, 30Ω/m, 70Ω/m) were used to investigate the effect of base yarn type and linear resistance of conductive yarns on thermal behavior of e-textile structures. Thermal behavior of samples were examined by thermal camera.

Keywords: conductive yarn, e-textiles, smart textiles, thermal analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
7151 Energy Efficient Construction and the Seismic Resistance of Passive Houses

Authors: Vojko Kilar, Boris Azinović, David Koren

Abstract:

Recently, an increasing trend of passive and low-energy buildings transferring form non earthquake-prone to earthquake-prone regions has thrown out the question about the seismic safety of such buildings. The paper describes the most commonly used thermal insulating materials and the special details, which could be critical from the point of view of earthquake resistance. The most critical appeared to be the cases of buildings founded on the RC foundation slab lying on a thermal insulation (TI) layer made of extruded polystyrene (XPS). It was pointed out that in such cases the seismic response of such buildings might differ to response of their fixed based counterparts. The main parameters that need special designers’ attention are: the building’s lateral top displacement, the ductility demand of the superstructure, the foundation friction coefficient demand, the maximum compressive stress in the TI layer and the percentage of the uplifted foundation. The analyses have shown that the potentially negative influences of inserting the TI under the foundation slab could be expected only for slender high-rise buildings subjected to severe earthquakes. Oppositely it was demonstrated for the foundation friction coefficient demand which could exceed the capacity value yet in the case of low-rise buildings subjected to moderate earthquakes. Some suggestions to prevent the horizontal shifts are also given.

Keywords: earthquake response, extruded polystyrene (XPS), low-energy buildings, foundations on thermal insulation layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
7150 Two Major Methods to Control Thermal Resistance of Focus Ring for Process Uniformity Enhance

Authors: Jin-Uk Park

Abstract:

Recently, the semiconductor industry is rapidly demanding complicated structures and mass production. From the point of view of mass production, the ETCH industry is concentrating on maintaining the ER (Etch rate) of the wafer edge constant regardless of changes over time. In this study, two major thermal factors affecting process were identified and controlled. First, the filler of the thermal pad was studied. Second, the significant difference of handling the thermal pad during PM was studied.

Keywords: etcher, thermal pad, wet cleaning, thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
7149 Contemplation of Thermal Characteristics by Filling Ratio of Aluminium Oxide Nano Fluid in Wire Mesh Heat Pipe

Authors: D. Mala, S. Sendhilnathan, D. Ratchagaraja

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance of heat pipe in terms of overall heat transfer coefficient and thermal resistance is quantified by varying the volume of working fluid and the performance parameters are contemplated. For this purpose Al2O3 nano particles with a density of 9.8 gm/cm3 and a volume concentration of 1% is used as the working fluid in experimental heat pipe. The performance of heat pipe was evaluated by conducting experiments with different thermal loads and different angle of inclinations. Thermocouples are used to record the temperature distribution across the experiment. The results provide evidence that the suspension of Al2O3 nano particles in the base fluid increases the thermal efficiency of heat pipe and can be used in practical heat exchange applications.

Keywords: heat pipe, angle of inclination, thermal resistance, thermal efficiency

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7148 Thermal Resistance Analysis of Flexible Composites Based on Al2O3 Aerogels

Authors: Jianzheng Wei, Duo Zhen, Zhihan Yang, Huifeng Tan

Abstract:

The deployable descent technology is a lightweight entry method using an inflatable heat shield. The heatshield consists of a pressurized core which is covered by different layers of thermal insulation and flexible ablative materials in order to protect against the thermal loads. In this paper, both aluminum and silicon-aluminum aerogels were prepared by freeze-drying method. The latter material has bigger specific surface area and nano-scale pores. Mullite fibers are used as the reinforcing fibers to prepare the aerogel matrix to improve composite flexibility. The flexible composite materials were performed as an insulation layer to an underlying aramid fabric by a thermal shock test at a heat flux density of 120 kW/m2 and uniaxial tensile test. These results show that the aramid fabric with untreated mullite fibers as the thermal protective layer is completely carbonized at the heat of about 60 s. The aramid fabric as a thermal resistance layer of the composite material still has good mechanical properties at the same heat condition.

Keywords: aerogel, aramid fabric, flexibility, thermal resistance

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7147 Optimization of Double-Layered Microchannel Heat Sinks

Authors: Tu-Chieh Hung, Wei-Mon Yan, Xiao-Dong Wang, Yu-Xian Huang

Abstract:

This work employs a combined optimization procedure including a simplified conjugate-gradient method and a three-dimensional fluid flow and heat transfer model to study the optimal geometric parameter design of double-layered microchannel heat sinks. The overall thermal resistance RT is the objective function to be minimized with number of channels, N, the channel width ratio, β, the bottom channel aspect ratio, αb, and upper channel aspect ratio, αu, as the search variables. It is shown that, for the given bottom area (10 mm×10 mm) and heat flux (100 W cm-2), the optimal (minimum) thermal resistance of double-layered microchannel heat sinks is about RT=0.12 ℃/m2W with the corresponding optimal geometric parameters N=73, β=0.50, αb=3.52, and, αu= 7.21 under a constant pumping power of 0.05 W. The optimization process produces a maximum reduction by 52.8% in the overall thermal resistance compared with an initial guess (N=112, β=0.37, αb=10.32 and, αu=10.93). The results also show that the optimal thermal resistance decreases rapidly with the pumping power and tends to be a saturated value afterward. The corresponding optimal values of parameters N, αb, and αu increase while that of β decrease as the pumping power increases. However, further increasing pumping power is not always cost-effective for the application of heat sink designs.

Keywords: optimization, double-layered microchannel heat sink, simplified conjugate-gradient method, thermal resistance

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7146 Change of the Thermal Conductivity of Polystyrene Insulation in term of Temperature at the Mid Thickness of the Insulation Material: Impact on the Cooling Load

Authors: M. Khoukhi

Abstract:

Accurate prediction of the cooling/heating load and consequently, the sizing of the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning equipment require precise calculation of the heat transfer mainly by conduction through envelope components of a building. The thermal resistance of most thermal insulation materials depends on the operating temperature. The temperature to which the insulation materials are exposed varies, depending on the thermal resistance of the materials, the location of the insulation layer within the assembly system, and the effective temperature which depends on the amount of solar radiation received on the surface of the assembly. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the change of the thermal conductivity of polystyrene insulation material in terms of the temperature at the mid-thickness of the material and its effect on the cooling load required by the building.

Keywords: operating temperature, polystyrene insulation, thermal conductivity, cooling load

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
7145 Thermal Fatigue Behavior of 400 Series Ferritic Stainless Steels

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 400 series ferritic stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges of 200-800oC and 200-900oC. Systematic methods for control of temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were completely fixed. It has been revealed that load relaxation behavior at the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal fatigue property. Thermal fatigue resistance of 430J1L stainless steel is found to be superior to the other steels.

Keywords: ferritic stainless steel, automotive exhaust, thermal fatigue, microstructure, load relaxation

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7144 Effect of Post Treatment Temperature on Ni-20Cr Wire Arc Spray Coating to Thermal Resistance

Authors: Ken Ninez Nurpramesti Prinindya, Yuli Setiyorini

Abstract:

Crown enclosure high temperature flares damaged and reduced dimensions crown. Generally crown on EHTF could have a life time up to twenty years. Therefore, this study aims to increase the value of thermal resistance with the effect post treatment on NiCr coated arc spray method. The variation of post treatment temperature, was at 650°C, 750°C, and 850°C. Morphology on the surface and the adhesion strength was analyzed by SEM-EDX, Surface Roughness and Pull - off test. XRD testing was conducted to determine the contained in NiCr coated. Thermal stability of NiCr coated was tested by DSC-TGA. The most optimal results was owned by NiCr coating with post treated at 850°C. It has good thermal stability until 1000°C because of Cr2O3 formation in coated specimen. The higher temperature of post treatment coating was showed better result on porosity and roughness surface value.

Keywords: Arc spray process, NiCr wire, post-treatment coating, high temperature-corrosion resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
7143 Investigation of Cascade Loop Heat Pipes

Authors: Nandy Putra, Atrialdipa Duanovsah, Kristofer Haliansyah

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to design a LHP with low thermal resistance and low condenser temperature. A Self-designed cascade LHP was tested by using biomaterial, sintered copper powder, and aluminum screen mesh as the wick. Using pure water as the working fluid for the first level of the LHP and 96% alcohol as the working fluid for the second level of LHP, the experiments were run with 10W, 20W, and 30W heat input. Experimental result shows that the usage of biomaterial as wick could reduce more temperature at evaporator than by using sintered copper powder and screen mesh up to 22.63% and 37.41% respectively. The lowest thermal resistance occurred during the usage of biomaterial as wick of heat pipe, which is 2.06 oC/W. The usage of cascade system could be applied to LHP to reduce the temperature at condenser and reduced thermal resistance up to 17.6%.

Keywords: biomaterial, cascade loop heat pipe, screen mesh, sintered Cu

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
7142 Western and Eastern Ways of Special Warfare: The Strategic History of Special Operations from Western and Eastern Sources

Authors: Adam Kok Wey Leong

Abstract:

Special operations were supposedly a new way of irregular warfare that was officially formed during World War 2. For example, the famous British Special Operations Executive (SOE) and the Americans’ Office for Strategic Services (OSS) – the forerunners of modern day CIA were born in World War 2. These special operations units were tasked with the conduct of sabotage and subversion activities behind enemy lines, placing great importance in forming Fifth Column activities and supporting resistance movements. This pointed to a paradoxical argument that modern day special operations is a product of Western modern military innovation but utilizing Eastern ways of ‘ungentlemanly’ warfare. This thesis is superfluous as special operations had been well practised by both ancient Western empires such as the Greeks and Romans, and around the same time in the East, such as in China, and Japan. This paper will describe the practice of special operations, first from the Western military history of the Greeks during the Peloponnesian war. It will then highlight the similar practice of special operations by the Near Eastern Assassins and Eastern militaries by using examples from the Chinese and the Japanese. This paper propounds that special operations, or ways of warfare as a whole, has no cultural and geographical divide, but rather very similarly practiced by men from all over the world. Ideas of fighting, killing and ultimately winning a war have similar undertones – attempts to find ways to win economically and at the least time.

Keywords: special operations, strategic culture, ways of warfare, Sun Tzu, Frontinus

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7141 Comfort in Green: Thermal Performance and Comfort Analysis of Sky Garden, SM City, North EDSA, Philippines

Authors: Raul Chavez Jr.

Abstract:

Green roof's body of knowledge appears to be in its infancy stage in the Philippines. To contribute to its development, this study intends to answer the question: Does the existing green roof in Metro Manila perform well in providing thermal comfort and satisfaction to users? Relatively, this study focuses on thermal sensation and satisfaction of users, surface temperature comparison, weather data comparison of the site (Sky Garden) and local weather station (PAG-ASA), and its thermal resistance capacity. Initially, the researcher conducted a point-in-time survey in parallel with weather data gathering from PAG-ASA and Sky Garden. In line with these, ambient and surface temperature are conducted through the use of a digital anemometer, with humidity and temperature, and non-contact infrared thermometer respectively. Furthermore, to determine the Sky Garden's overall thermal resistance, materials found on site were identified and tabulated based on specified locations. It revealed that the Sky Garden can be considered comfortable based from PMV-PPD Model of ASHRAE Standard 55 having similar results from thermal comfort and thermal satisfaction survey, which is contrary to the actual condition of the Sky Garden by means of a psychrometric chart which falls beyond the contextualized comfort zone. In addition, ground floor benefited the most in terms of lower average ambient temperature and humidity compared to the Sky Garden. Lastly, surface temperature data indicates that the green roof portion obtained the highest average temperature yet performed well in terms of heat resistance compared to other locations. These results provided the researcher valuable baseline information of the actual performance of a certain green roof in Metro Manila that could be vital in locally enhancing the system even further and for future studies.

Keywords: Green Roof, Thermal Analysis, Thermal Comfort, Thermal Performance

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7140 Experimental Investigation and Optimization of Nanoparticle Mass Concentration and Heat Input of Loop Heat Pipe

Authors: P. Gunnasegaran, M. Z. Abdullah, M. Z. Yusoff, Nur Irmawati

Abstract:

This study presents experimental and optimization of nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input based on the total thermal resistance (Rth) of loop heat pipe (LHP), employed for PC-CPU cooling. In this study, silica nanoparticles (SiO2) in water with particle mass concentration ranged from 0% (pure water) to 1% is considered as the working fluid within the LHP. The experimental design and optimization is accomplished by the design of the experimental tool, Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results show that the nanoparticle mass concentration and the heat input have a significant effect on the Rth of LHP. For a given heat input, the Rth is found to decrease with the increase of the nanoparticle mass concentration up to 0.5% and increased thereafter. It is also found that the Rth is decreased when the heat input is increased from 20W to 60W. The results are optimized with the objective of minimizing the Rt, using Design-Expert software, and the optimized nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input are 0.48% and 59.97W, respectively, the minimum thermal resistance being 2.66(ºC/W).

Keywords: loop heat pipe, nanofluid, optimization, thermal resistance

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7139 Developing Structured Sizing Systems for Manufacturing Ready-Made Garments of Indian Females Using Decision Tree-Based Data Mining

Authors: Hina Kausher, Sangita Srivastava

Abstract:

In India, there is a lack of standard, systematic sizing approach for producing readymade garments. Garments manufacturing companies use their own created size tables by modifying international sizing charts of ready-made garments. The purpose of this study is to tabulate the anthropometric data which covers the variety of figure proportions in both height and girth. 3,000 data has been collected by an anthropometric survey undertaken over females between the ages of 16 to 80 years from some states of India to produce the sizing system suitable for clothing manufacture and retailing. This data is used for the statistical analysis of body measurements, the formulation of sizing systems and body measurements tables. Factor analysis technique is used to filter the control body dimensions from a large number of variables. Decision tree-based data mining is used to cluster the data. The standard and structured sizing system can facilitate pattern grading and garment production. Moreover, it can exceed buying ratios and upgrade size allocations to retail segments.

Keywords: anthropometric data, data mining, decision tree, garments manufacturing, sizing systems, ready-made garments

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
7138 Development of Water-Based Thermal Insulation Paints Using Silica Aerogel

Authors: Lu Yanru, Handojo Djati Utomo, Yin Xi Jiang, Li Xiaodong

Abstract:

Insulation plays a key role in the sustainable building due to the contribution of energy consumption reduction. Without sufficient insulation, a great amount of the energy used to heat or cool a building will be lost to the outdoors. In this study, we developed a highly efficient thermal insulation paint with the incorporation of silica aerogel. Silica aerogel, with a low thermal conductivity of 0.01 W/mK, has been successfully prepared from the solid waste from the incineration plants. It has been added into water-based paints to increase its thermal insulation properties. To investigate the thermal insulation performance of silica aerogel additive, the paint samples were mixed with silica aerogel at different sizes and with various portions. The thermal conductivity, water resistance, thermal stability and adhesion strength of the samples were tested and evaluated. The thermal diffusivity measurements proved that adding silica aerogel additive could improve the thermal insulation properties of the paint significantly. Up to 5 ˚C reductions were observed after applying paints with silica aerogel additive compare to the one without it. The results showed that the developed thermal insulation paints have great potential for an application in green and sustainable building.

Keywords: silica aerogel, thermal insulation, water-based paints, water resistant

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7137 Effect of Repellent Coatings, Aerosol Protective Liners, and Lamination on the Properties of Chemical/Biological Protective Textiles

Authors: Natalie Pomerantz, Nicholas Dugan, Molly Richards, Walter Zukas

Abstract:

The primary research question to be answered for Chemical/Biological (CB) protective clothing, is how to protect wearers from a range of chemical and biological threats in liquid, vapor, and aerosol form, while reducing the thermal burden. Currently, CB protective garments are hot, heavy, and wearers are limited by short work times in order to prevent heat injury. This study demonstrates how to incorporate different levels of protection on a material level and modify fabric composites such that the thermal burden is reduced to such an extent it approaches that of a standard duty uniform with no CB protection. CB protective materials are usually comprised of several fabric layers: a cover fabric with a liquid repellent coating, a protective layer which is comprised of a carbon-based sorptive material or semi-permeable membrane, and a comfort next-to-skin liner. In order to reduce thermal burden, all of these layers were laminated together to form one fabric composite which had no insulative air gap in between layers. However, the elimination of the air gap also reduced the CB protection of the fabric composite. In order to increase protection in the laminated composite, different nonwoven aerosol protective liners were added, and a super repellent coating was applied to the cover fabric, prior to lamination. Different adhesive patterns were investigated to determine the durability of the laminate with the super repellent coating, and the effect on air permeation. After evaluating the thermal properties, textile properties and protective properties of the iterations of these fabric composites, it was found that the thermal burden of these materials was greatly reduced by decreasing the thermal resistance with the elimination of the air gap between layers. While the level of protection was reduced in laminate composites, the addition of a super repellent coating increased protection towards low volatility agents without impacting thermal burden. Similarly, the addition of aerosol protective liner increased protection without reducing water vapor transport, depending on the nonwoven used, however, the air permeability was significantly decreased. The balance of all these properties and exploration of the trade space between thermal burden and protection will be discussed.

Keywords: aerosol protection, CBRNe protection, lamination, nonwovens, repellent coatings, thermal burden

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7136 Corrosion Resistance of Mild Steel Coated with Different Polyimides/h-Boron Nitride Composite Films

Authors: Tariku Nefo Duke

Abstract:

Herein, we synthesized three PIs/h-boron nitride composite films for corrosion resistance of mild steel material. The structures of these three polyimide/h-boron nitride composite films were confirmed using (FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and 2D NMR) spectroscopy techniques. The synthesized PIs composite films have high mechanical properties, thermal stability, high glass-transition temperature (Tg), and insulating properties. It has been shown that the presence of electroactive TiO2, SiO2, and h-BN, in polymer coatings effectively inhibits corrosion. The h-BN displays an admirable anti-corrosion barrier for the 6F-OD and BT-OD films. PI/ h-BN composite films of 6F-OD exhibited better resistance to water vapor, high corrosion resistance, and positive corrosion voltage. Only four wt. percentage of h-BN in the composite is adequate.

Keywords: polyimide, corrosion resistance, electroactive, Tg

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7135 Assessing the Risk of Condensation and Moisture Accumulation in Solid Walls: Comparing Different Internal Wall Insulation Options

Authors: David Glew, Felix Thomas, Matthew Brooke-Peat

Abstract:

Improving the thermal performance of homes is seen as an essential step in achieving climate change, fuel security, fuel poverty targets. One of the most effective thermal retrofits is to insulate solid walls. However, it has been observed that applying insulation to the internal face of solid walls reduces the surface temperature of the inner wall leaf, which may introduce condensation risk and may interrupt seasonal moisture accumulation and dissipation. This research quantifies the extent to which the risk of condensation and moisture accumulation in the wall increases (which can increase the risk of timber rot) following the installation of six different types of internal wall insulation. In so doing, it compares how risk is affected by both the thermal resistance, thickness, and breathability of the insulation. Thermal bridging, surface temperatures, condensation risk, and moisture accumulation are evaluated using hygrothermal simulation software before and after the thermal upgrades. The research finds that installing internal wall insulation will always introduce some risk of condensation and moisture. However, it identifies that risks were present prior to insulation and that breathable materials and insulation with lower resistance have lower risks than alternative insulation options. The implications of this may be that building standards that encourage the enhanced thermal performance of solid walls may be introducing moisture risks into homes.

Keywords: condensation risk, hygrothermal simulation, internal wall insulation, thermal bridging

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7134 Thermal Performance of Radial Heat Sinks for LED Applications

Authors: Jongchul Park, Chan Byon

Abstract:

In this study, the thermal performance of radial heat sinks for LED applications is investigated numerically and experimentally. The effect of geometrical parameters such as inner radius, fin height, fin length, and fin spacing, as well as the Elenbaas number, is considered. In addition, the effects of augmentation of concentric ring, perforation, and duct are extensively explored in order to enhance the thermal performance of conventional radial heat sink. The results indicate that the Elenbaas number and the fin radius have a significant effect on the thermal performance of the heat sink. The concentric ring affects the performance much, but the degree of affection is highly dependent on the orientation. The perforation always brings about higher thermal performance. The duct can effectively prevent the bypass of the natural convection flow, which in turn reduces the thermal resistance of the radial heat sink significantly.

Keywords: heat transfer, radial heat sink, LED, Elenbaas

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7133 Heat and Humidity Induced Plastic Changes in Body Lipids and Starvation Resistance in the Tropical Zaprionus indianus of Wet-Dry Seasons

Authors: T. N. Girish, B. E. Pradeep, Ravi Parkash

Abstract:

Insects from tropical wet or dry seasons are likely to cope starvation stress through seasonal phenotypic plasticity in energy metabolites. Accordingly, we analyzed such plastic changes in Zaprionus indianus flies reared under wet or dry season-specific conditions; and also after adult acclimation at 32℃ for 1 to 6 days; and to low (40% RH) or high (70% RH) humidity. Both thermal or humidity acclimation revealed significant accumulation of body lipids for wet season flies but low humidity acclimation did not change the level of body lipids in dry season flies. Developmental and adult acclimation showed sex specific differences i.e., starvation resistance and body lipids were higher in the males of dry season but in females of wet season. We found seasonal and sex specific differences in the relative level for body lipids at death; and in the rates of accumulation or utilization of energy metabolites (body lipids, carbohydrates and proteins). Body lipids constitute the preferred energy source under starvation for flies of both the seasons. However, utilization of carbohydrates (~20% to 30%) and proteins (~20% to 25%) was evident only in dry season flies. Higher starvation resistance after thermal or humidity acclimation is achieved by increased accumulation of lipids. Adult acclimation of wet or dry season flies revealed plastic changes in mean daily fecundity despite reduction in fecundity under starvation. Thus, thermal or humidity induced plastic responses in body lipids support starvation resistance under wet or dry seasons.

Keywords: heat or humidity acclimation, plastic changes in body lipids and starvation resistance, tropical drosophilid, Wet- or Dry seasons, Zaprionus indianus

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7132 Mineral Thermal Insulation Materials Based on Sodium Liquid Glass

Authors: Zin Min Htet, Tikhomirova Irina Nikolaevna, Karpenko Marina A.

Abstract:

In this paper, thermal insulation materials based on sodium liquid glass with light fillers as foam glass granules with different sizes and wollastonite - M325 (U.S.A production) were studied. Effective mineral thermal insulation materials are in demand in many industries because of their incombustibility and durability. A method for the preparation of such materials based on mechanically foamed sodium liquid glass and light mineral fillers is proposed. The thermal insulation properties depend on the type, amount of filler and on the foaming factor, which is determined by the concentration of the foaming agent. The water resistance of the material is provided by using an additive to neutralize the glass and transfer it to the silica gel.

Keywords: thermal insulation material, sodium liquid glass, foam glass granules, foaming agent, hardener, thermal conductivity, apparent density, compressive strength

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7131 Experimentally Validated Analytical Model for Thermal Analysis of Multi-Stage Depressed Collector

Authors: Vishant Gahlaut, A Mercy Latha, Sanjay Kumar Ghosh

Abstract:

Multi-stage depressed collectors (MDC) are used as an efficiency enhancement technique in traveling wave tubes the high-energy electron beam, after its interaction with the RF signal, gets velocity sorted and collected at various depressed electrodes of the MDC. The ultimate goal is to identify an optimum thermal management scheme (cooling mechanism) that could extract the heat efficiently from the electrodes. Careful thermal analysis, incorporating the cooling mechanism is required to ensure that the maximum temperature does not exceed the safe limits. A simple analytical model for quick prediction of the thermal has been developed. The model has been developed for the worst-case un-modulated DC condition, where all the thermal power is dissipated in the last electrode (typically, fourth electrode in the case of the four-stage depressed collector). It considers the thermal contact resistances at various braze joints accounting for the practical non-uniformities. Analytical results obtained from the model have been validated with simulated and experimental results.

Keywords: multi-stage depressed collector, TWTs, thermal contact resistance, thermal management

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7130 Comparison of Entropy Coefficient and Internal Resistance of Two (Used and Fresh) Cylindrical Commercial Lithium-Ion Battery (NCR18650) with Different Capacities

Authors: Sara Kamalisiahroudi, Zhang Jianbo, Bin Wu, Jun Huang, Laisuo Su

Abstract:

The temperature rising within a battery cell depends on the level of heat generation, the thermal properties and the heat transfer around the cell. The rising of temperature is a serious problem of Lithium-Ion batteries and the internal resistance of battery is the main reason for this heating up, so the heat generation rate of the batteries is an important investigating factor in battery pack design. The delivered power of a battery is directly related to its capacity, decreases in the battery capacity means the growth of the Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI) layer which is because of the deposits of lithium from the electrolyte to form SEI layer that increases the internal resistance of the battery. In this study two identical cylindrical Lithium-Ion (NCR18650)batteries from the same company with noticeable different in capacity (a fresh and a used battery) were compared for more focusing on their heat generation parameters (entropy coefficient and internal resistance) according to Brandi model, by utilizing potentiometric method for entropy coefficient and EIS method for internal resistance measurement. The results clarify the effect of capacity difference on cell electrical (R) and thermal (dU/dT) parameters. It can be very noticeable in battery pack design for its Safety.

Keywords: heat generation, Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI), potentiometric method, entropy coefficient

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7129 DIF-JACKET: a Thermal Protective Jacket for Firefighters

Authors: Gilda Santos, Rita Marques, Francisca Marques, João Ribeiro, André Fonseca, João M. Miranda, João B. L. M. Campos, Soraia F. Neves

Abstract:

Every year, an unacceptable number of firefighters are seriously burned during firefighting operations, with some of them eventually losing their life. Although thermal protective clothing research and development has been searching solutions to minimize firefighters heat load and skin burns, currently commercially available solutions focus in solving isolated problems, for example, radiant heat or water-vapor resistance. Therefore, episodes of severe burns and heat strokes are still frequent. Taking this into account, a consortium composed by Portuguese entities has joined synergies to develop an innovative protective clothing system by following a procedure based on the application of numerical models to optimize the design and using a combinationof protective clothing components disposed in different layers. Recently, it has been shown that Phase Change Materials (PCMs) can contribute to the reduction of potential heat hazards in fire extinguish operations, and consequently, their incorporation into firefighting protective clothing has advantages. The greatest challenge is to integrate these materials without compromising garments ergonomics and, at the same time, accomplishing the International Standard of protective clothing for firefighters – laboratory test methods and performance requirements for wildland firefighting clothing. The incorporation of PCMs into the firefighter's protective jacket will result in the absorption of heat from the fire and consequently increase the time that the firefighter can be exposed to it. According to the project studies and developments, to favor a higher use of the PCM storage capacityand to take advantage of its high thermal inertia more efficiently, the PCM layer should be closer to the external heat source. Therefore, in this stage, to integrate PCMs in firefighting clothing, a mock-up of a vest specially designed to protect the torso (back, chest and abdomen) and to be worn over a fire-resistant jacketwas envisaged. Different configurations of PCMs, as well as multilayer approaches, were studied using suitable joining technologies such as bonding, ultrasound, and radiofrequency. Concerning firefighter’s protective clothing, it is important to balance heat protection and flame resistance with comfort parameters, namely, thermaland water-vapor resistances. The impact of the most promising solutions regarding thermal comfort was evaluated to refine the performance of the global solutions. Results obtained with experimental bench scale model and numerical simulation regarding the integration of PCMs in a vest designed as protective clothing for firefighters will be presented.

Keywords: firefighters, multilayer system, phase change material, thermal protective clothing

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7128 Selection Effects on the Molecular and Abiotic Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

Authors: Abishek Rajkumar

Abstract:

Antibiotic resistance can occur naturally given the selective pressure placed on antibiotics. Within a large population of bacteria, there is a significant chance that some of those bacteria can develop resistance via mutations or genetic recombination. However, a growing public health concern has arisen over the fact that antibiotic resistance has increased significantly over the past few decades. This is because humans have been over-consuming and producing antibiotics, which has ultimately accelerated the antibiotic resistance seen in these bacteria. The product of all of this is an ongoing race between scientists and the bacteria as bacteria continue to develop resistance, which creates even more demand for an antibiotic that can still terminate the newly resistant strain of bacteria. This paper will focus on a myriad of aspects of antibiotic resistance in bacteria starting with how it occurs on a molecular level and then focusing on the antibiotic concentrations and how they affect the resistance and fitness seen in bacteria.

Keywords: antibiotic, molecular, mutation, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 243