Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 531

Search results for: HEMS utility

531 Feasibility Study on the Use of HEMS for Thermal Comfort and Energy Saving in Japanese Residential Buildings

Authors: K. C. Rajan, H. B. Rijal, Kazui Yoshida, Masanori Shukuya


The electricity consumption in the Japanese household sector has increased with higher rate than that of other sectors. This may be because of aging and information oriented society that requires more electrical appliances to make the life better and easier, under this circumstances, energy saving is one of the essential necessity in Japanese society. To understand the way of energy use and demand response of the residential occupants, it is important to understand the structure of energy used. Home Energy Management System (HEMS) may be used for understanding the pattern and the structure of energy used. HEMS is a visualization system of the energy usage by connecting the electrical equipment in the home and thereby automatically control the energy use in each device, so that the energy saving is achieved. Therefore, the HEMS can provide with the easiest way to understand the structure of energy use. The HEMS has entered the mainstream of the Japanese market. The objective of this study is to understand the pattern of energy saving and cost saving in different regions including Japan during HEMS use. To observe thermal comfort level of HEMS managed residential buildings in Japan, the field survey was made and altogether, 1534 votes from 37 occupants related to thermal comfort, occupants’ behaviors and clothing insulation were collected and analyzed. According to the result obtained, approximately 17.9% energy saving and 8.9% cost saving is possible if HEMS is applied effectively. We found the thermal sensation and overall comfort level of the occupants is high in the studied buildings. The occupants residing in those HEMS buildings are satisfied with the thermal environment and they have accepted it. Our study concluded that the significant reduction in Japanese residential energy use can be achieved by the proper utilization of the HEMS. Better thermal comfort is also possible with the use of HEMS if energy use is managed in a rationally effective manner.

Keywords: energy reduction, thermal comfort, HEMS utility, thermal environment

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530 Home Legacy Device Output Estimation Using Temperature and Humidity Information by Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System

Authors: Sung Hyun Yoo, In Hwan Choi, Jun Ho Jung, Choon Ki Ahn, Myo Taeg Lim


Home energy management system (HEMS) has been issued to reduce the power consumption. The HEMS performs electric power control for the indoor electric device. However, HEMS commonly treats the smart devices. In this paper, we suggest the output estimation of home legacy device using the artificial neural fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). This paper discusses the overview and the architecture of the system. In addition, accurate performance of the output estimation using the ANFIS inference system is shown via a numerical example.

Keywords: artificial neural fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), home energy management system (HEMS), smart device, legacy device

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529 Integrating Renewable Energy Forecasting Systems with HEMS and Developing It with a Bottom-Up Approach

Authors: Punit Gandhi, J. C. Brezet, Tim Gorter, Uchechi Obinna


This paper introduces how weather forecasting could help in more efficient energy management for smart homes with the use of Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS). The paper also focuses on educating consumers and helping them make more informed decisions while using the HEMS. A combined approach of technical and user perspective has been selected to develop a novel HEMS-product-service combination in a more comprehensive manner. The current HEMS switches on/off the energy intensive appliances based on the fluctuating electricity tariffs, but with weather forecasting, it is possible to shift the time of use of energy intensive appliances to maximum electricity production from the renewable energy system installed in the house. Also, it is possible to estimate the heating/cooling load of the house for the day ahead demand. Hence, relevant insight is gained in the expected energy production and consumption load for the next day, facilitating better (more efficient, peak shaved, cheaper, etc.) energy management practices for smart homes. In literature, on the user perspective, it has been observed that consumers lose interest in using HEMS after three to four months. Therefore, to further help in better energy management practices, the new system had to be designed in a way that consumers would sustain their interaction with the system on a structural basis. It is hypothesized that, if consumers feel more comfortable with using such system, it would lead to a prolonged usage, including more energy savings and hence financial savings. To test the hypothesis, a survey for the HEMS is conducted, to which 59 valid responses were recorded. Analysis of the survey helped in designing a system which imparts better information about the energy production and consumption to the consumers. It is also found from the survey that, consumers like a variety of options and they do not like a constant reminder of what they should do. Hence, the final system is designed to encourage consumers to make an informed decision about their energy usage with a wide variety of behavioral options available. It is envisaged that the new system will be tested in several pioneering smart energy grid projects in both the Netherlands and India, with a continued ‘design thinking’ approach, combining the technical and user perspective, as the basis for further improvements.

Keywords: weather forecasting, smart grid, renewable energy forecasting, user defined HEMS

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528 Scheduling Method for Electric Heater in HEMS considering User’s Comfort

Authors: Yong-Sung Kim, Je-Seok Shin, Ho-Jun Jo, Jin-O Kim


Home Energy Management System (HEMS) which makes the residential consumers contribute to the demand response is attracting attention in recent years. An aim of HEMS is to minimize their electricity cost by controlling the use of their appliances according to electricity price. The use of appliances in HEMS may be affected by some conditions such as external temperature and electricity price. Therefore, the user’s usage pattern of appliances should be modeled according to the external conditions, and the resultant usage pattern is related to the user’s comfortability on use of each appliances. This paper proposes a methodology to model the usage pattern based on the historical data with the copula function. Through copula function, the usage range of each appliance can be obtained and is able to satisfy the appropriate user’s comfort according to the external conditions for next day. Within the usage range, an optimal scheduling for appliances would be conducted so as to minimize an electricity cost with considering user’s comfort. Among the home appliance, electric heater (EH) is a representative appliance which is affected by the external temperature. In this paper, an optimal scheduling algorithm for an electric heater (EH) is addressed based on the method of branch and bound. As a result, scenarios for the EH usage are obtained according to user’s comfort levels and then the residential consumer would select the best scenario. The case study shows the effects of the proposed algorithm compared with the traditional operation of the EH, and it also represents impacts of the comfort level on the scheduling result.

Keywords: load scheduling, usage pattern, user’s comfort, copula function, branch and bound, electric heater

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527 Exploring the Issue of Occult Hypoperfusion in the Pre-Hospital Setting

Authors: A. Fordham, A. Hudson


Background: Studies have suggested 16-25% of normotensive trauma patients with no clinical signs of shock have abnormal lactate and BD readings evidencing shock; a phenomenon known as occult hypoperfusion (OH). In light of the scarce quantity of evidence currently documenting OH, this study aimed to identify the prevalence of OH in the pre-hospital setting and explore ways to improve its identification and management. Methods: A quantitative retrospective data analysis was carried out on 75 sets of patient records for trauma patients treated by Kent Surrey Sussex Air Ambulance Trust between November 2013 and October 2014. The KSS HEMS notes and subsequent ED notes were collected. Trends between patients’ SBP on the scene, whether or not they received PRBCs on the scene as well as lactate and BD readings in the ED were assessed. Patients’ KSS HEMS notes written by the HEMS crew were also reviewed and recorded. Results: -Suspected OH was identified in 7% of the patients who did not receive PRBCs in the pre-hospital phase. -SBP heavily influences the physicians’ decision of whether or not to transfuse PRBCs in the pre-hospital phase. Preliminary conclusions: OH is an under-studied and underestimated phenomenon. We suggest a prospective trial is carried out to evaluate whether detecting trauma patients’ tissue perfusion status in the pre-hospital phase using portable devices capable of measuring serum BD and/or lactate could aid more accurate detection and management of all haemorrhaging trauma patients, including patients with OH.

Keywords: occult hypoperfusion, PRBC transfusion, point of care testing, pre-hospital emergency medicine, trauma

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526 Efficient Recommendation System for Frequent and High Utility Itemsets over Incremental Datasets

Authors: J. K. Kavitha, D. Manjula, U. Kanimozhi


Mining frequent and high utility item sets have gained much significance in the recent years. When the data arrives sporadically, incremental and interactive rule mining and utility mining approaches can be adopted to handle user’s dynamic environmental needs and avoid redundancies, using previous data structures, and mining results. The dependence on recommendation systems has exponentially risen since the advent of search engines. This paper proposes a model for building a recommendation system that suggests frequent and high utility item sets over dynamic datasets for a cluster based location prediction strategy to predict user’s trajectories using the Efficient Incremental Rule Mining (EIRM) algorithm and the Fast Update Utility Pattern Tree (FUUP) algorithm. Through comprehensive evaluations by experiments, this scheme has shown to deliver excellent performance.

Keywords: data sets, recommendation system, utility item sets, frequent item sets mining

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525 Reducing System Delay to Definitive Care For STEMI Patients, a Simulation of Two Different Strategies in the Brugge Area, Belgium

Authors: E. Steen, B. Dewulf, N. Müller, C. Vandycke, Y. Vandekerckhove


Introduction: The care for a ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patient is time-critical. Reperfusion therapy within 90 minutes of initial medical contact is mandatory in the improvement of the outcome. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) without previous fibrinolytic treatment, is the preferred reperfusion strategy in patients with STEMI, provided it can be performed within guideline-mandated times. Aim of the study: During a one year period (January 2013 to December 2013) the files of all consecutive STEMI patients with urgent referral from non-PCI facilities for primary PCI were reviewed. Special attention was given to a subgroup of patients with prior out-of-hospital medical contact generated by the 112-system. In an effort to reduce out-of-hospital system delay to definitive care a change in pre-hospital 112 dispatch strategies is proposed for these time-critical patients. Actual time recordings were compared with travel time simulations for two suggested scenarios. A first scenario (SC1) involves the decision by the on scene ground EMS (GEMS) team to transport the out-of-hospital diagnosed STEMI patient straight forward to a PCI centre bypassing the nearest non-PCI hospital. Another strategy (SC2) explored the potential role of helicopter EMS (HEMS) where the on scene GEMS team requests a PCI-centre based HEMS team for immediate medical transfer to the PCI centre. Methods and Results: 49 (29,1% of all) STEMI patients were referred to our hospital for emergency PCI by a non-PCI facility. 1 file was excluded because of insufficient data collection. Within this analysed group of 48 secondary referrals 21 patients had an out-of-hospital medical contact generated by the 112-system. The other 27 patients presented at the referring emergency department without prior contact with the 112-system. The table below shows the actual time data from first medical contact to definitive care as well as the simulated possible gain of time for both suggested strategies. The PCI-team was always alarmed upon departure from the referring centre excluding further in-hospital delay. Time simulation tools were similar to those used by the 112-dispatch centre. Conclusion: Our data analysis confirms prolonged reperfusion times in case of secondary emergency referrals for STEMI patients even with the use of HEMS. In our setting there was no statistical difference in gain of time between the two suggested strategies, both reducing the secondary referral generated delay with about one hour and by this offering all patients PCI within the guidelines mandated time. However, immediate HEMS activation by the on scene ground EMS team for transport purposes is preferred. This ensures a faster availability of the local GEMS-team for its community. In case these options are not available and the guideline-mandated times for primary PCI are expected to be exceeded, primary fibrinolysis should be considered in a non-PCI centre.

Keywords: STEMI, system delay, HEMS, emergency medicine

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524 Utility Analysis of API Economy Based on Multi-Sided Platform Markets Model

Authors: Mami Sugiura, Shinichi Arakawa, Masayuki Murata, Satoshi Imai, Toru Katagiri, Motoyoshi Sekiya


API (Application Programming Interface) economy, where many participants join/interact and form the economy, is expected to increase collaboration between information services through API, and thereby, it is expected to increase market value from the service collaborations. In this paper, we introduce API evaluators, which are the activator of API economy by reviewing and/or evaluating APIs, and develop a multi-sided API economy model that formulates interactions among platform provider, API developers, consumers, and API evaluators. By obtaining the equilibrium that maximizes utility of all participants, the impact of API evaluators on the utility of participants in the API economy is revealed. Numerical results show that, with the existence of API evaluators, the number of developers and consumers increase by 1.5% and the utility of platformer increases by 2.3%. We also discuss the strategies of platform provider to maximize its utility under the existence of API evaluators.

Keywords: API economy, multi-sided markets, API evaluator, platform, platform provider

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523 Research on Morning Commuting Behavior under Autonomous Vehicle Environment Based on Activity Method

Authors: Qing Dai, Zhengkui Lin, Jiajia Zhang, Yi Qu


Based on activity method, this paper focuses on morning commuting behavior when commuters travel with autonomous vehicles (AVs). Firstly, a net utility function of commuters is constructed by the activity utility of commuters at home, in car and at workplace, and the disutility of travel time cost and that of schedule delay cost. Then, this net utility function is applied to build an equilibrium model. Finally, under the assumption of constant marginal activity utility, the properties of equilibrium are analyzed. The results show that, in autonomous driving, the starting and ending time of morning peak and the number of commuters who arrive early and late at workplace are the same as those in manual driving. In automatic driving, however, the departure rate of arriving early at workplace is higher than that of manual driving, while the departure rate of arriving late is just the opposite. In addition, compared with manual driving, the departure time of arriving at workplace on time is earlier and the number of people queuing at the bottleneck is larger in automatic driving. However, the net utility of commuters and the total net utility of system in automatic driving are greater than those in manual driving.

Keywords: autonomous cars, bottleneck model, activity utility, user equilibrium

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522 Suboptimal Retiree Allocations with Housing

Authors: Asiye Aydilek, Harun Aydilek


We investigate the costs of various suboptimal allocations in housing, consumption, bond and stock holdings of a retiree in a setting with recursive utility, considering the extensive empirical evidence that investors make suboptimal decisions in different ways. We find that suboptimal stock holdings impose only modest costs on the retiree. This may have a merit in explaining the limited stock investment in the data. The cost of suboptimal bond holdings is higher than that of stocks, but still small. This may partially explain why many more people hold bonds compared to stocks. We find that positive deviations from the optimal level are less costly relative to the negative ones in suboptimal housing allocations. This may help us to clarify why the elderly are over consuming housing, as seen in the housing data. The cost of suboptimal consumption is quite high and the highest of all. Our paper suggests that, in terms of welfare, the decisions of how much of liquid wealth to use for consumption and for saving are more important than the decision about the composition of liquid savings. Suboptimal stock holdings are twice more costly in power utility and suboptimal bond holdings are twenty times more costly in recursive utility. Recursive utility is superior to power utility in terms of rationalizing many people's preference for bonds instead of stocks in investment.

Keywords: housing, recursive utility, retirement, suboptimal decisions, welfare cost

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521 Intellectual Property and SMEs in the Baltic Sea Region: A Comparative Study on the Use of the Utility Model Protection

Authors: Christina Wainikka, Besrat Tesfaye


Several of the countries in the Baltic Sea region are ranked high in international innovations rankings, such as the Global Innovation Index and European Innovation Scoreboard. There are however some concerns in the performance of different countries. For example, there is a widely spread notion about “The Swedish Paradox”. Sweden is ranked high due to investments in R&D and patent activity, but the outcome is not as high as could be expected. SMEs in Sweden are also below EU average when it comes to registering intellectual property rights such as patents and trademarks. This study is concentrating on the protection of utility model. This intellectual property right does not exist in Sweden, but in for example Finland and Germany. The utility model protection is sometimes referred to as a “patent light” since it is easier to obtain than the patent protection but at the same time does cover technical solutions. In examining statistics on patent activities and activities in registering utility models it is clear that utility model protection is scarcely used in the countries that have the protection. In Germany 10 577 applications were made in 2021. In Finland there were 259 applications made in 2021. This can be compared with patent applications that were 58 568 in Germany in 2021 and 1 662 in Finland in 2021. In Sweden there has never been a protection for utility models. The only protection for technical solutions is patents and business secrets. The threshold for obtaining a patent is high, due to the legal requirements and the costs. The patent protection is there for often not chosen by SMEs in Sweden. This study examines whether the protection of utility models in other countries in the Baltic region provide SMEs in these countries with better options to protect their innovations. The legal methodology is comparative law. In order to study the effects of the legal differences statistics are examined and interviews done with SMEs from different industries.

Keywords: baltic sea region, comparative law, SME, utility model

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520 Framework for Implementation of National Electrical Safety Grounding Standards for Communication Infrastructure

Authors: Atif Mahmood, Mohammad Inayatullah Khan Babar


Communication infrastructure has been installed, operated, and maintained all over the world according to defined electrical safety standards for separate or joint structures. These safety standards have been set for the safeguard of public, utility workers (employees and contractors), utility facilities, electrical communication equipment’s connected to the utility facilities and other facilities or premise adjacent to utility facilities. Different communication utilities in Pakistan use standards of different countries due to the absence of Common National Electrical Safety Standards of Pakistan. It is really important to devise a framework for implementation of a uniform standard for strict compliance. In this context, it is important to explore the compliance of safety standards for communication conductors and equipment for separate or joint structures for which NESC standards are taken as reference. Specific reference to grounding techniques including grounding AC/DC systems and its frames, leaving Fences, Messenger wires and special circuits used for the protection for lightning etc, ungrounded so recommendations are also given after in-depth analysis of current technical practices for the installation and maintenance of communication infrastructure.

Keywords: utility facilities, grounding electrodes, special circuits, grounding conductor

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519 Technology of Gyro Orientation Measurement Unit (Gyro Omu) for Underground Utility Mapping Practice

Authors: Mohd Ruzlin Mohd Mokhtar


At present, most operators who are working on projects for utilities such as power, water, oil, gas, telecommunication and sewerage are using technologies e.g. Total station, Global Positioning System (GPS), Electromagnetic Locator (EML) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to perform underground utility mapping. With the increase in popularity of Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) method among the local authorities and asset owners, most of newly installed underground utilities need to use the HDD method. HDD method is seen as simple and create not much disturbance to the public and traffic. Thus, it was the preferred utilities installation method in most of areas especially in urban areas. HDDs were installed much deeper than exiting utilities (some reports saying that HDD is averaging 5 meter in depth). However, this impacts the accuracy or ability of existing underground utility mapping technologies. In most of Malaysia underground soil condition, those technologies were limited to maximum of 3 meter depth. Thus, those utilities which were installed much deeper than 3 meter depth could not be detected by using existing detection tools. The accuracy and reliability of existing underground utility mapping technologies or work procedure were in doubt. Thus, a mitigation action plan is required. While installing new utility using Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) method, a more accurate underground utility mapping can be achieved by using Gyro OMU compared to existing practice using e.g. EML and GPR. Gyro OMU is a method to accurately identify the location of HDD thus this mapping can be used or referred to avoid those cost of breakdown due to future HDD works which can be caused by inaccurate underground utility mapping.

Keywords: Gyro Orientation Measurement Unit (Gyro OMU), Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electromagnetic Locator (EML)

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518 An Evidence Map of Cost-Utility Studies in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Authors: Cassandra Springate, Alexandra Furber, Jack E. Hines


Objectives: To create an evidence map of the cost-utility studies available with non-small cell lung cancer patients, and identify the geographical settings and interventions used. Methods: Using the Disease, Study Type, and Model Type filters in we identified all cost-utility studies published between 1960 and 2017 with patients with non-small cell lung cancer. These papers were then indexed according to pre-specified categories. Results: identified 89 independent publications, published between 1995 and 2017. Of the 89 papers, 74 were published since 2010, 28 were from the USA, and 35 were from Europe, 16 of which were from the UK. Other publications were from China and Japan (13), Canada (9), Australia and New Zealand (4), and other countries (8). Fifty-nine studies included a chemotherapy intervention, of which 23 included erlotinib or gefitinib, 21 included pemetrexed or docetaxel, others included nivolumab (3), pembrolizumab (2), crizotinib (2), denosumab (2), necitumumab (1), and bevacizumab (1). Also, 19 studies modeled screening, staging, or surveillance strategies. Conclusions: The cost-utility studies found for NSCLC most commonly looked at the effectiveness of different chemotherapy treatments, with some also evaluating the addition of screening strategies. Most were also conducted with patient data from the USA and Europe.

Keywords: cancer, cost-utility, economic model, non-small cell lung cancer

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517 Development and Adaptation of a LGBM Machine Learning Model, with a Suitable Concept Drift Detection and Adaptation Technique, for Barcelona Household Electric Load Forecasting During Covid-19 Pandemic Periods (Pre-Pandemic and Strict Lockdown)

Authors: Eric Pla Erra, Mariana Jimenez Martinez


While aggregated loads at a community level tend to be easier to predict, individual household load forecasting present more challenges with higher volatility and uncertainty. Furthermore, the drastic changes that our behavior patterns have suffered due to the COVID-19 pandemic have modified our daily electrical consumption curves and, therefore, further complicated the forecasting methods used to predict short-term electric load. Load forecasting is vital for the smooth and optimized planning and operation of our electric grids, but it also plays a crucial role for individual domestic consumers that rely on a HEMS (Home Energy Management Systems) to optimize their energy usage through self-generation, storage, or smart appliances management. An accurate forecasting leads to higher energy savings and overall energy efficiency of the household when paired with a proper HEMS. In order to study how COVID-19 has affected the accuracy of forecasting methods, an evaluation of the performance of a state-of-the-art LGBM (Light Gradient Boosting Model) will be conducted during the transition between pre-pandemic and lockdowns periods, considering day-ahead electric load forecasting. LGBM improves the capabilities of standard Decision Tree models in both speed and reduction of memory consumption, but it still offers a high accuracy. Even though LGBM has complex non-linear modelling capabilities, it has proven to be a competitive method under challenging forecasting scenarios such as short series, heterogeneous series, or data patterns with minimal prior knowledge. An adaptation of the LGBM model – called “resilient LGBM” – will be also tested, incorporating a concept drift detection technique for time series analysis, with the purpose to evaluate its capabilities to improve the model’s accuracy during extreme events such as COVID-19 lockdowns. The results for the LGBM and resilient LGBM will be compared using standard RMSE (Root Mean Squared Error) as the main performance metric. The models’ performance will be evaluated over a set of real households’ hourly electricity consumption data measured before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. All households are located in the city of Barcelona, Spain, and present different consumption profiles. This study is carried out under the ComMit-20 project, financed by AGAUR (Agència de Gestiód’AjutsUniversitaris), which aims to determine the short and long-term impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on building energy consumption, incrementing the resilience of electrical systems through the use of tools such as HEMS and artificial intelligence.

Keywords: concept drift, forecasting, home energy management system (HEMS), light gradient boosting model (LGBM)

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516 Utility Assessment Model for Wireless Technology in Construction

Authors: Yassir AbdelRazig, Amine Ghanem


Construction projects are information intensive in nature and involve many activities that are related to each other. Wireless technologies can be used to improve the accuracy and timeliness of data collected from construction sites and shares it with appropriate parties. Nonetheless, the construction industry tends to be conservative and shows hesitation to adopt new technologies. A main concern for owners, contractors or any person in charge on a job site is the cost of the technology in question. Wireless technologies are not cheap. There are a lot of expenses to be taken into consideration, and a study should be completed to make sure that the importance and savings resulting from the usage of this technology is worth the expenses. This research attempts to assess the effectiveness of using the appropriate wireless technologies based on criteria such as performance, reliability, and risk. The assessment is based on a utility function model that breaks down the selection issue into alternatives attribute. Then the attributes are assigned weights and single attributes are measured. Finally, single attribute are combined to develop one single aggregate utility index for each alternative.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, decision theory, utility function, wireless technologies

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515 Transforming Water-Energy-Gas Industry through Smart Metering and Blockchain Technology

Authors: Khoi A. Nguyen, Rodney A. Stewart, Hong Zhang


Advanced metering technologies coupled with informatics creates an opportunity to form digital multi-utility service providers. These providers will be able to concurrently collect a customers’ medium-high resolution water, electricity and gas demand data and provide user-friendly platforms to feed this information back to customers and supply/distribution utility organisations. With the emergence of blockchain technology, a new research area has been explored which helps bring this multi-utility service provider concept to a much higher level. This study aims at introducing a breakthrough system architecture where smart metering technology in water, energy, and gas (WEG) are combined with blockchain technology to provide customer a novel real-time consumption report and decentralized resource trading platform. A pilot study on 4 properties in Australia has been undertaken to demonstrate this system, where benefits for customers and utilities are undeniable.

Keywords: blockchain, digital multi-utility, end use, demand forecasting

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514 Simulation of Utility Accrual Scheduling and Recovery Algorithm in Multiprocessor Environment

Authors: A. Idawaty, O. Mohamed, A. Z. Zuriati


This paper presents the development of an event based Discrete Event Simulation (DES) for a recovery algorithm known Backward Recovery Global Preemptive Utility Accrual Scheduling (BR_GPUAS). This algorithm implements the Backward Recovery (BR) mechanism as a fault recovery solution under the existing Time/Utility Function/ Utility Accrual (TUF/UA) scheduling domain for multiprocessor environment. The BR mechanism attempts to take the faulty tasks back to its initial safe state and then proceeds to re-execute the affected section of the faulty tasks to enable recovery. Considering that faults may occur in the components of any system; a fault tolerance system that can nullify the erroneous effect is necessary to be developed. Current TUF/UA scheduling algorithm uses the abortion recovery mechanism and it simply aborts the erroneous task as their fault recovery solution. None of the existing algorithm in TUF/UA scheduling domain in multiprocessor scheduling environment have considered the transient fault and implement the BR mechanism as a fault recovery mechanism to nullify the erroneous effect and solve the recovery problem in this domain. The developed BR_GPUAS simulator has derived the set of parameter, events and performance metrics according to a detailed analysis of the base model. Simulation results revealed that BR_GPUAS algorithm can saved almost 20-30% of the accumulated utilities making it reliable and efficient for the real-time application in the multiprocessor scheduling environment.

Keywords: real-time system (RTS), time utility function/ utility accrual (TUF/UA) scheduling, backward recovery mechanism, multiprocessor, discrete event simulation (DES)

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513 A Multi-Attribute Utility Model for Performance Evaluation of Sustainable Banking

Authors: Sonia Rebai, Mohamed Naceur Azaiez, Dhafer Saidane


In this study, we develop a performance evaluation model based on a multi-attribute utility approach aiming at reaching the sustainable banking (SB) status. This model is built accounting for various banks’ stakeholders in a win-win paradigm. In addition, it offers the opportunity for adopting a global measure of performance as an indication of a bank’s sustainability degree. This measure is referred to as banking sustainability performance index (BSPI). This index may constitute a basis for ranking banks. Moreover, it may constitute a bridge between the assessment types of financial and extra-financial rating agencies. A real application is performed on three French banks.

Keywords: multi-attribute utility theory, performance, sustainable banking, financial rating

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512 Utilities as Creditors: The Effect of Enforcement of Water Bill Payment in Zambia

Authors: Elizabeth Spink


Providing safe and affordable drinking water to low-income households in developing countries remains a challenge. Policy goals of increasing household piped-water access and cost recovery for utility providers are often at odds. Nonpayment of utility bills is frequently cited as a constraint to improving the quality of utility service. However, nonpayment is widely tolerated, and households often accumulate significant debt to the utility provider. This study examines the effect of enforcement of water bill payment through supply disconnections in Livingstone, Zambia. This research uses a dynamic model of household monthly payments and accumulation of arrears, which determine the probability of disconnection, and simulates the effect of exogenous changes in enforcement levels. This model is empirically tested using an event-study framework of exogenous increases in enforcement capacity that occur during administrative rezoning events, which reduce the number of households that one enforcement agent is responsible for. The results show that households are five percentage points more likely to make a payment in the months following a rezoning event, but disconnections for low-income households increase as well, resulting in little change in revenue collected by the water utility. The results suggest that high enforcement of water bill payments toward credit-constrained households may be ineffective and lead to reduced piped-water access.

Keywords: enforcement, nonpayment, piped-water access, water utilities

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511 Construction Contractor Pre-Qualification Using Multi-Attribute Utility Theory: A Multiplicative Approach

Authors: B. Vikram, Y. Anu Leena, Y. Anu Neena, M. V. Krishna Rao, V. S. S. Kumar


The industry is often criticized for inefficiencies in outcomes such as time and cost overruns, low productivity, poor quality and inadequate customer satisfaction. To enhance the chances for construction projects to be successful, selecting an able contractor is one of the fundamental decisions to be made by clients. The selection of the most appropriate contractor is a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) process. In this paper, multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) is employed utilizing the multiplicative form of utility function for ranking the prequalified contractors. Performance assessment criteria covering contracting company attributes, experience record, past performance, performance potential, financial stability and project specific criteria are considered for contractor evaluation. A case study of multistoried building for which four contractors submitted bids is considered to illustrate the applicability of multiplicative approach of MAUT to rank the prequalified contractors. The proposed MAUT decision making methodology can also be employed to other decision making situations.

Keywords: multi-attribute utility theory, construction industry, prequalification, contractor

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510 Optimal Investment and Consumption Decision for an Investor with Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Stochastic Interest Rate Model through Utility Maximization

Authors: Silas A. Ihedioha


In this work; it is considered that an investor’s portfolio is comprised of two assets; a risky stock which price process is driven by the geometric Brownian motion and a risk-free asset with Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Stochastic interest rate of return, where consumption, taxes, transaction costs and dividends are involved. This paper aimed at the optimization of the investor’s expected utility of consumption and terminal return on his investment at the terminal time having power utility preference. Using dynamic optimization procedure of maximum principle, a second order nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) (the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation HJB) was obtained from which an ordinary differential equation (ODE) obtained via elimination of variables. The solution to the ODE gave the closed form solution of the investor’s problem. It was found the optimal investment in the risky asset is horizon dependent and a ratio of the total amount available for investment and the relative risk aversion coefficient.

Keywords: optimal, investment, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck, utility maximization, stochastic interest rate, maximum principle

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509 Exploiting Non-Uniform Utility of Computing: A Case Study

Authors: Arnab Sarkar, Michael Huang, Chuang Ren, Jun Li


The increasing importance of computing in modern society has brought substantial growth in the demand for more computational power. In some problem domains such as scientific simulations, available computational power still sets a limit on what can be practically explored in computation. For many types of code, there is non-uniformity in the utility of computation. That is not every piece of computation contributes equally to the quality of the result. If this non-uniformity is understood well and exploited effectively, we can much more effectively utilize available computing power. In this paper, we discuss a case study of exploring such non-uniformity in a particle-in-cell simulation platform. We find both the existence of significant non-uniformity and that it is generally straightforward to exploit it. We show the potential of order-of-magnitude effective performance gain while keeping the comparable quality of output. We also discuss some challenges in both the practical application of the idea and evaluation of its impact.

Keywords: approximate computing, landau damping, non uniform utility computing, particle-in-cell

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508 Measuring Banking Risk

Authors: Mike Tsionas


The paper develops new indices of financial stability based on an explicit model of expected utility maximization by financial institutions subject to the classical technology restrictions of neoclassical production theory. The model can be estimated using standard econometric techniques, like GMM for dynamic panel data and latent factor analysis for the estimation of co-variance matrices. An explicit functional form for the utility function is not needed and we show how measures of risk aversion and prudence (downside risk aversion) can be derived and estimated from the model. The model is estimated using data for Eurozone countries and we focus particularly on (i) the use of the modeling approach as an “early warning mechanism”, (ii) the bank- and country-specific estimates of risk aversion and prudence (downside risk aversion), and (iii) the derivation of a generalized measure of risk that relies on loan-price uncertainty.

Keywords: financial stability, banking, expected utility maximization, sub-prime crisis, financial crisis, eurozone, PIIGS

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507 Solution of Insurance Pricing Model Giving Optimum Premium Level for Both Insured and Insurer by Game Theory

Authors: Betul Zehra Karagul


A game consists of strategies that each actor has in his/her own choice strategies, and a game regulates the certain rules in the strategies that the actors choose, express how they evaluate their knowledge and the utility of output results. Game theory examines the human behaviors (preferences) of strategic situations in which each actor of a game regards the action that others will make in spite of his own moves. There is a balance between each player playing a game with the final number of players and the player with a certain probability of choosing the players, and this is called Nash equilibrium. The insurance is a two-person game where the insurer and insured are the actors. Both sides have the right to act in favor of utility functions. The insured has to pay a premium to buy the insurance cover. The insured will want to pay a low premium while the insurer is willing to get a high premium. In this study, the state of equilibrium for insurance pricing was examined in terms of the insurer and insured with game theory.

Keywords: game theory, insurance pricing, Nash equilibrium, utility function

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506 Tolerance of Colonoscopy: Questioning Its Utility in the Elderly

Authors: Faizan Rathore, Naveed Sultan, Humphrey O. Connor


This study was carried out from Jan '12-Dec'12 to assess current practice in Kerry General Hospital against the age-related indicators for colonoscopies. A total of 1474 colonoscopies were performed,1177(79.9%) were diagnostic and 297 (20.1%) were therapeutic, patients were divided into 4 age groups under 75, 75-80, 81-85, 86+. The trend analysis revealed an increase in diagnostic colonoscopies and decrease in therapeutic colonoscopies with age. 664(45.04%) of colonoscopies were reported normal which made up the majority of the total diagnoses, 1330 (90.2%) of colonoscopies occurred without any complications. Main complications were patient discomfort being the highest, present in 112(7.6%) of patients, and lowest being urticaria around the IV site present in 1 (0.1%) of the cases. Patient discomfort was higher in younger patients as evidenced by 98 cases aged <75 , followed by 11 cases aged 75-80, 2 cases aged 81-85 and 1 case aged >86. Highest percentage of poor tolerance was found in 14 (1.1%) of total patients <75, 1 (0.8%) of total patients aged 75-80, 1(1.7%) of total patients in age group 81-85 and none (0%) in age group >86. We have established the safety of colonoscopy, low rate of complications and a better tolerance in the elderly from this study, however, its utility, especially in the presence of other comorbidities in elderly is questionable.

Keywords: colonoscopy, elderly patients, utility, tolerance

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505 Evaluation And New Modeling Improvement Of Water Quality

Authors: Sebahat Seker


Since there is a parallel connection between drinking water quality and public health, studies on drinking and domestic water are of vital importance. Ardahan Province is one of the provinces located in the Northeast Anatolian Region, where animal husbandry and agriculture are carried out economically. City mains water uses underground spring water as a source and is chlorinated and given to the city center by gravity. However, mains water cannot be used outside the central district of the city, and the majority of the people meet their drinking and utility water needs from the wells they have opened individually. The water element, which is vital for all living things, is the most important substance that sustains life for humans. Under normal conditions, a healthy person consumes approximately 1.8-2 liters of water. The quality and use of potable water is one of the most important issues in terms of health. The quality parameters of drinking and utility water have been revealed by the scientific world. Scientific studies on drinking water quality in the world and its impact on public health are among the most popular topics. Although our country is surrounded by water on three sides, potable water resources are very few. In the Eastern Anatolia Region, it is difficult for the public to access drinking and utility water due to the difficult conditions both climatically and geographically. In this study, samples taken from drinking and utility water at certain intervals from the stations determined, and water quality parameters will be determined. The fact that such a study has not been carried out in the region before and the knowledge of the local people about water quality is very important in terms of its original and widespread effect.

Keywords: water quality, modelling, evaluation, northeastern anatolia

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504 JENOSYS: Application of a Web-Based Online Energy Performance Reporting Tool for Government Buildings in Malaysia

Authors: Norhayati Mat Wajid, Abdul Murad Zainal Abidin, Faiz Fadzil, Mohd Yusof Aizad Mukhtar


One of the areas that present an opportunity to reduce the national carbon emission is the energy management of public buildings. To our present knowledge, there is no easy-to-use and centralized mechanism that enables the government to monitor the overall energy performance, as well as the carbon footprint, of Malaysia’s public buildings. Therefore, the Public Works Department Malaysia, or PWD, has developed a web-based energy performance reporting tool called JENOSYS (JKR Energy Online System), which incorporates a database of utility account numbers acquired from the utility service provider for analysis and reporting. For test case purposes, 23 buildings under PWD were selected and monitored for their monthly energy performance (in kWh), carbon emission reduction (in tCO₂eq) and utility cost (in MYR), against the baseline. This paper demonstrates the simplicity with which buildings without energy metering can be monitored centrally and the benefits that can be accrued by the government in terms of building energy disclosure and concludes with the recommendation of expanding the system to all the public buildings in Malaysia.

Keywords: energy-efficient buildings, energy management systems, government buildings, JENOSYS

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503 Applying Energy Consumption Schedule and Comparing It with Load Shifting Technique in Residential Load

Authors: Amira M. Attia, Karim H. Youssef, Nabil H. Abbasy


Energy consumption schedule (ECS) technique shifts usage of loads from on peak hours and redistributes them throughout the day according to residents’ operating time preferences. This technique is used as form of indirect control from utility to improve the load curve and hence its load factor and reduce customer’s total electric bill as well. Similarly, load shifting technique achieves ECS purposes but as direct control form applied from utility. In this paper, ECS is simulated twice as optimal constrained mathematical formula, solved by using CVX program in MATLAB® R2013b. First, it is utilized for single residential building with ten apartments to determine max allowable energy consumption per hour for each residential apartment. Then, it is used for single apartment with number of shiftable domestic devices, where operating schedule is deduced using previous simulation output results as constraints. The paper ends by giving differences between ECS technique and load shifting technique via literature and simulation. Based on results assessment, it will be shown whether using ECS or load shifting is more beneficial to both customer and utility.

Keywords: energy consumption schedule, load shifting, comparison, demand side mangement

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502 Modelling a Distribution Network with a Hybrid Solar-Hydro Power Plant in Rural Cameroon

Authors: Contimi Kenfack Mouafo, Sebastian Klick


In the rural and remote areas of Cameroon, access to electricity is very limited since most of the population is not connected to the main utility grid. Throughout the country, efforts are underway to not only expand the utility grid to these regions but also to provide reliable off-grid access to electricity. The Cameroonian company Solahydrowatt is currently working on the design and planning of one of the first hybrid solar-hydropower plants of Cameroon in Fotetsa, in the western region of the country, to provide the population with reliable access to electricity. This paper models and proposes a design for the low-voltage network with a hybrid solar-hydropower plant in Fotetsa. The modelling takes into consideration the voltage compliance of the distribution network, the maximum load of operating equipment, and most importantly, the ability for the network to operate as an off-grid system. The resulting modelled distribution network does not only comply with the Cameroonian voltage deviation standard, but it is also capable of being operated as a stand-alone network independent of the main utility grid.

Keywords: Cameroon, rural electrification, hybrid solar-hydro, off-grid electricity supply, network simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 36