Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2077

Search results for: textile reinforced composites

2077 Multiscale Modeling of Damage in Textile Composites

Authors: Jaan-Willem Simon, Bertram Stier, Brett Bednarcyk, Evan Pineda, Stefanie Reese


Textile composites, in which the reinforcing fibers are woven or braided, have become very popular in numerous applications in aerospace, automotive, and maritime industry. These textile composites are advantageous due to their ease of manufacture, damage tolerance, and relatively low cost. However, physics-based modeling of the mechanical behavior of textile composites is challenging. Compared to their unidirectional counterparts, textile composites introduce additional geometric complexities, which cause significant local stress and strain concentrations. Since these internal concentrations are primary drivers of nonlinearity, damage, and failure within textile composites, they must be taken into account in order for the models to be predictive. The macro-scale approach to modeling textile-reinforced composites treats the whole composite as an effective, homogenized material. This approach is very computationally efficient, but it cannot be considered predictive beyond the elastic regime because the complex microstructural geometry is not considered. Further, this approach can, at best, offer a phenomenological treatment of nonlinear deformation and failure. In contrast, the mesoscale approach to modeling textile composites explicitly considers the internal geometry of the reinforcing tows, and thus, their interaction, and the effects of their curved paths can be modeled. The tows are treated as effective (homogenized) materials, requiring the use of anisotropic material models to capture their behavior. Finally, the micro-scale approach goes one level lower, modeling the individual filaments that constitute the tows. This paper will compare meso- and micro-scale approaches to modeling the deformation, damage, and failure of textile-reinforced polymer matrix composites. For the mesoscale approach, the woven composite architecture will be modeled using the finite element method, and an anisotropic damage model for the tows will be employed to capture the local nonlinear behavior. For the micro-scale, two different models will be used, the one being based on the finite element method, whereas the other one makes use of an embedded semi-analytical approach. The goal will be the comparison and evaluation of these approaches to modeling textile-reinforced composites in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and utility.

Keywords: multiscale modeling, continuum damage model, damage interaction, textile composites

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2076 Effect of the Accelerated Carbonation in Fibercement Composites Reinforced with Eucalyptus Pulp and Nanofibrillated Cellulose

Authors: Viviane da Costa Correia, Sergio Francisco Santos, Holmer Savastano Junior


The main purpose of this work was verify the influence of the accelerated carbonation in the physical and mechanical properties of the hybrid composites, reinforced with micro and nanofibers and composites with microfibers. The composites were produced by the slurry vacuum dewatering method, followed by pressing. It was produced using two formulations: 8% of eucalyptus pulp + 1% of the nanofibrillated cellulose and 9% of eucalyptus pulp, both were subjected to accelerated carbonation. The results showed that the accelerated carbonation contributed to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the hybrid composites and of the composites reinforced with microfibers (eucalyptus pulp).

Keywords: carbonation, cement composites, nanofibrillated cellulose, eucalyptus pulp

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2075 Wear Damage of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyimide Composites with the Addition of Graphite

Authors: Mahmoudi Noureddine


The glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyimide (PL) composites filled with graphite powders were fabricated by means of hot press molding technique. The friction and wear properties of the resulting composites sliding against GCr15 steel were investigated on a model ring-on-block test rig at dry sliding condition. The wear mechanisms were also discussed, based on scanning electron microscopic examination of the worn surface of the PL composites and the transfer film formed on the counterpart. With the increasing normal loads, the friction coefficient of the composites increased under the dry sliding, owing to inconsistent influences of shear strength and real contact areas. Experimental results revealed that the incorporation of graphite significantly improve the wear resistance of the glass fibers reinforced polyimide composites. For best combination of friction coefficient and wear rate, the optimal volume content of graphite in the composites appears to be 45 %. It was also found that the tribological properties of the glass fiber reinforced PL composites filled with graphite powders were closely related with the sliding condition such as sliding rate and applied load.

Keywords: composites, fiber, friction, wear

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2074 Influence of Modified and Unmodified Cow Bone on the Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Polyester Composites for Biomedical Applications

Authors: I. O. Oladele, J. A. Omotoyinbo, A. M. Okoro, A. G. Okikiola, J. L. Olajide


This work was carried out to investigate comparatively the effects of modified and unmodified cow bone particles on the mechanical properties of polyester matrix composites in order to investigate the suitability of the materials as biomaterial. Cow bones were procured from an abattoir, sun dried for 4 weeks and crushed. The crushed bones were divided into two, where one part was turned to ash while the other part was pulverized with laboratory ball mill before the two grades were sieved using 75 µm sieve size. Bone ash and bone particle reinforced tensile and flexural composite samples were developed from pre-determined proportions of 2, 4, 6, and 8 %. The samples after curing were stripped from the moulds and were allowed to further cure for 3 weeks before tensile and flexural tests were performed on them. The tensile test result showed that, 8 wt % bone particle reinforced polyester composites has higher tensile properties except for modulus of elasticity where 8 wt % bone ash particle reinforced composites has higher value while for flexural test, bone ash particle reinforced composites demonstrate the best flexural properties. The results show that these materials are structurally compatible.

Keywords: biomedical, composites, cow bone, mechanical properties, polyester, reinforcement

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2073 Flexural Strength of Alkali Resistant Glass Textile Reinforced Concrete Beam with Prestressing

Authors: Jongho Park, Taekyun Kim, Jungbhin You, Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park


Due to the aging of bridges, increasing of maintenance costs and decreasing of structural safety is occurred. The steel corrosion of reinforced concrete bridge is the most common problem and this phenomenon is accelerating due to abnormal weather and increasing CO2 concentration due to climate change. To solve these problems, composite members using textile have been studied. A textile reinforced concrete can reduce carbon emissions by reduced concrete and without steel bars, so a lot of structural behavior studies are needed. Therefore, in this study, textile reinforced concrete beam was made and flexural test was performed. Also, the change of flexural strength according to the prestressing was conducted. As a result, flexural strength of TRC with prestressing was increased compared and flexural behavior was shown as reinforced concrete.

Keywords: AR-glass, flexural strength, prestressing, textile reinforced concrete

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2072 Advances in Natural Fiber Surface Treatment Methodologies for Upgradation in Properties of Their Reinforced Composites

Authors: G. L. Devnani, Shishir Sinha


Natural fiber reinforced polymer composite is a very attractive area among the scientific community because of their low cost, eco-friendly and sustainable in nature. Among all advantages there are few issues which need to be addressed, those issues are the poor adhesion and compatibility between two opposite nature materials that is fiber and matrix and their relatively high water absorption. Therefore, natural fiber modifications are necessary to improve their adhesion with different matrices. Excellent properties could be achieved with the surface treatment of these natural fibers ultimately leads to property up-gradation of their reinforced composites with different polymer matrices. Lot of work is going on to improve the adhesion between reinforced fiber phase and polymer matrix phase to improve the properties of composites. Researchers have suggested various methods for natural fiber treatment like silane treatment, treatment with alkali, acetylation, acrylation, maleate coupling, etc. In this study a review is done on the different methods used for the surface treatment of natural fibers and what are the advance treatment methodologies for natural fiber surface treatment for property improvement of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites.

Keywords: composites, acetylation, natural fiber, surface treatment

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2071 Wear Behaviors of B4C and SiC Particle Reinforced AZ91 Magnesium Matrix Metal Composites

Authors: M. E. Turan, H. Zengin, E. Cevik, Y. Sun, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci


In this study, the effects of B4C and SiC particle reinforcements on wear properties of magnesium matrix metal composites produced by pressure infiltration method were investigated. AZ91 (9%Al-1%Zn) magnesium alloy was used as a matrix. AZ91 magnesium alloy was melted under an argon atmosphere. The melt was infiltrated to the particles with an appropriate pressure. Wear tests, hardness tests were performed respectively. Microstructure characterizations were examined by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that uniform particle distributions were achieved in both B4C and SiC reinforced composites. Wear behaviors of magnesium matrix metal composites changed as a function of type of particles. SiC reinforced composite has better wear performance and higher hardness than B4C reinforced composite.

Keywords: magnesium matrix composite, pressure infiltration, SEM, wear

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2070 Preparation and Analysis of Enhanced Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics with Al Base Alloy

Authors: M. R. Ashok, S. Srivatsan, S. Vignesh


Common replacement for glass in composites is the Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP). The GFRP has its own advantages for being a good alternative. The purpose of this research is to find a suitable enhancement for the commonly used composite Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP). The goal is to enhance the material properties of the composite by providing a suitable matrix with Al base. The various mechanical tests are performed to analyze and compare the improvement in the mechanical properties of the composite. As a result, this material can be used as an alternative for the commonly used GFRP in various fields with increased effectiveness in its functioning.

Keywords: alloy based composites, composite materials, glass fiber reinforced plastics, sSuper composites

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2069 A Multi-Scale Approach for the Analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Composites

Authors: Azeez Shaik, Amit Salvi, B. P. Gautham


Fiber reinforced polymer resin composite materials are finding wide variety of applications in automotive and aerospace industry because of their high specific stiffness and specific strengths when compared to metals. New class of 2D and 3D textile and woven fabric composites offer excellent fracture toughens as they bridge the cracks formed during fracture. Due to complexity of their fiber architectures and its resulting composite microstructures, optimized design and analysis of these structures is very complicated. A traditional homogenization approach is typically used to analyze structures made up of these materials. This approach usually fails to predict damage initiation as well as damage propagation and ultimate failure of structure made up of woven and textile composites. This study demonstrates a methodology to analyze woven and textile composites by using the multi-level multi-scale modelling approach. In this approach, a geometric repetitive unit cell (RUC) is developed with all its constituents to develop a representative volume element (RVE) with all its constituents and their interaction modeled correctly. The structure is modeled based on the RUC/RVE and analyzed at different length scales with desired levels of fidelity incorporating the damage and failure. The results are passed across (up and down) the scales qualitatively as well as quantitatively from the perspective of material, configuration and architecture.

Keywords: cohesive zone, multi-scale modeling, rate dependency, RUC, woven textiles

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2068 Water Absorption Studies on Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: G. L. Devnani, Shishir Sinha


In the recent years, researchers have drawn their focus on natural fibers reinforced composite materials because of their excellent properties like low cost, lower weight, better tensile and flexural strengths, biodegradability etc. There is little concern however that when these materials are put in moist conditions for long duration, their mechanical properties degrade. Therefore, in order to take maximum advantage of these novel materials, one should have a complete understanding of their moisture or water absorption phenomena. Various fiber surface treatment methods like alkaline treatment, acetylation etc. have also been suggested for reduction in water absorption of these composites. In the present study, a detailed review is done for water absorption behavior of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites, and experiments also have been performed on these composites with varying the parameters like fiber loading etc. for understanding the water absorption kinetics. Various surface treatment methods also performed to reduce the water absorption behavior of these materials and effort is made to develop a proper understanding of water absorption mechanism mathematically and experimentally for full potential utilization of natural fiber reinforced polymer composite materials.

Keywords: alkaline treatment, composites, natural fiber, water absorption

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2067 Investigation of Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Jute/Carbon Reinforced Composites

Authors: H. Sezgin, O. B. Berkalp, R. Mishra, J. Militky


In the last few decades, due to their advanced properties, there has been an increasing interest in hybrid composite materials. In this study, the effect of different stacking sequences of jute and carbon fabric plies on dynamic mechanical properties of composite laminates were investigated. Vacuum bagging system was used to fabricate the composite samples. Each composite laminate was reinforced with two plies of jute fabric and two plies of carbon fabric by varying the position of layers. Dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to examine the dynamic mechanical properties of composite laminates with increasing temperature. Results showed that the composite sample, which has carbon fabric at the outer layers, has the highest storage and loss modulus. Besides, it was observed that glass transition temperature (Tg) of samples are close to each other and at about 75 °C.

Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry dynamic mechanical analysis, textile reinforced composites, thermogravimetric analysis

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2066 SiC Particulate-Reinforced SiC Composites Fabricated by PIP Method Using Highly Concentrated SiC Slurry

Authors: Jian Gu, Sea-Hoon Lee, Jun-Seop Kim


SiC particulate-reinforced SiC ceramic composites (SiCp/SiC) were successfully fabricated using polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) method. The effects of green density, infiltrated method, pyrolytic temperature, and heating rate on the densification behavior of the composites were investigated. SiCp/SiC particulate reinforced composites with high relative density up to 88.06% were fabricated after 4 PIP cycles using SiC pellets with high green density. The pellets were prepared by drying 62-70 vol.% aqueous SiC slurries, and the maximum relative density of the pellets was 75.5%. The hardness of the as-fabricated SiCp/SiCs was 21.05 GPa after 4 PIP cycles, which value increased to 23.99 GPa after a heat treatment at 2000℃. Excellent mechanical properties, thermal stability, and short processing time render the SiCp/SiC composite as a challenging candidate for the high-temperature application.

Keywords: high green density, mechanical property, polymer impregnation and pyrolysis, structural application

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2065 Mechanical Properties of the Sugarcane Bagasse Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

Authors: R. L. M. Paiva, M. R. Capri, D. R. Mulinari, C. F. Bandeira, S. R. Montoro


Natural fibers are used in polymer composites to improve mechanical properties, substituting inorganic reinforcing agents produced by non renewable resources. The present study investigates the tensile, flexural and impact behaviors of sugarcane bagasse fibers-polypropylene composite as a function of volume fraction. The surface of the fibers was modified by mercerization treatments to improve the wetting behavior of the apolar polypropylene. The treatment characterization was obtained by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results evidence that a good adhesion interfacial between fibers-matrix causing an increase strength and modulus flexural as well as impact strength in the modified fibers/PP composites when compared to the pure PP and unmodified fibers reinforced composites.

Keywords: sugarcane bagasse, polymer composites, mechanical properties, fibers

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2064 Production of Hard Nickel Particle Reinforced Ti6Al4V Matrix Composites by Hot Pressing

Authors: Ridvan Yamanoglu


In the current study, titanium based composites reinforced by hard nickel alloy particles were produced. Powder metallurgical hot pressing technique was used for the fabrication of composite materials. The composites containing different ratio of hard nickel particles were sintered at 900 oC for 15 and 30 minutes under 50 MPa pressure. All titanium based composites were obtained under a vacuum atmosphere of 10-4 mbar to prevent of oxidation of titanium due to its high reactivity to oxygen. The microstructural characterization of the composite samples was carried out by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the samples were determined by means of hardness and wear tests. The results showed that when the nickel particle content increased the mechanical properties of the composites enhanced. The results are discussed in detail and optimum nickel particle content were determined.

Keywords: titanium, composite, nickel, hot pressing

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2063 Pullout Strength of Textile Reinforcement in Concrete by Embedded Length and Concrete Strength

Authors: Jongho Park, Taekyun Kim, Jungbhin You, Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park


The deterioration of the reinforced concrete is continuously accelerated due to aging of the reinforced concrete, enlargement of the structure, increase if the self-weight due to the manhattanization and cracking due to external force. Also, due to the abnormal climate phenomenon, cracking of reinforced concrete structures is accelerated. Therefore, research on the Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC) which replaced reinforcement with textile is under study. However, in previous studies, adhesion performance to single yarn was examined without parameters, which does not reflect the effect of fiber twisting and concrete strength. In the present paper, the effect of concrete strength and embedded length on 2400tex (gram per 1000 meters) and 640tex textile were investigated. The result confirm that the increasing compressive strength of the concrete did not affect the pullout strength. However, as the embedded length increased, the pullout strength tended to increase gradually, especially at 2400tex with more twists.

Keywords: textile, TRC, pullout, strength, embedded length, concrete

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2062 Manufacturing and Characterization of Ni-Matrix Composite Reinforced with Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC; and Al-Matrix with Ti2SiC

Authors: M. Hadji, N. Chiker, Y. Hadji, A. Haddad


In this paper, we report for the first time on the synthesis and characterization of novel MAX phases (Ti3SiC2, Ti2AlC) reinforced Ni-matrix and Ti2AlC reinforced Al-matrix. The stability of MAX phases in Al-matrix and Ni-matrix at a temperature of 985°C has been investigated. All the composites were cold pressed and sintered at a temperature of 985°C for 20min in H2 environment, except (Ni/Ti3SiC2) who was sintered at 1100°C for 1h.Microstructure analysis by scanning electron microscopy and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction confirmed that there was minimal interfacial reaction between MAX particles and Ni, thus Al/MAX samples shown that MAX phases was totally decomposed at 985°C.The Addition of MAX enhanced the Al-matrix and Ni-matrix.

Keywords: MAX phase, microstructures, composites, hardness, SEM

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2061 A Thermographic and Energy Based Approach to Define High Cycle Fatigue Strength of Flax Fiber Reinforced Thermoset Composites

Authors: Md. Zahirul Islam, Chad A. Ulven


Fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites have a wide range of applications in the sectors of automotive, aerospace, sports utilities, among others, due to their high specific strength, stiffness as well as reduced weight. In addition to those favorable properties, composites composed of natural fibers and bio-based resins (i.e., biocomposites) have eco-friendliness and biodegradability. However, the applications of biocomposites are limited due to the lack of knowledge about their long-term reliability under fluctuating loads. In order to explore the long-term reliability of flax fiber reinforced composites under fluctuating loads through high cycle fatigue strength (HCFS), fatigue test were conducted on unidirectional flax fiber reinforced thermoset composites at different percentage loads of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) with a loading frequency of 5 Hz. Change of temperature of the sample during cyclic loading was captured using an IR camera. Initially, the temperature increased rapidly, but after a certain time, it stabilized. A mathematical model was developed to predict the fatigue life from the data of stabilized temperature. Stabilized temperature and dissipated energy per cycle were compared with applied stress. Both showed bilinear behavior and the intersection of those curves were used to determine HCFS. HCFS for unidirectional flax fiber reinforced composites is around 45% of UTS for a loading frequency of 5Hz. Unlike fatigue life, stabilized temperature and dissipated energy-based models are convenient to define HCFS as they have little variation from sample to sample.

Keywords: energy method, fatigue, flax fiber reinforced composite, HCFS, thermographic approach

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2060 Behavioural Studies on Multidirectional Reinforced 4-D Orthogonal Composites on Various Preform Configurations

Authors: Sriram Venkatesh, V. Murali Mohan, T. V. Karthikeyan


The main advantage of multi-directionally reinforced composites is the freedom to orient selected fibre types and hence derives the benefits of varying fibre volume fractions and there by accommodate the design loads of the final structure of composites. This technology provides the means to produce tailored composites with desired properties. Due to the high level of fibre integrity with through thickness reinforcement those composites are expected to exhibit superior load bearing characteristics with capability to carry load even after noticeable and apparent fracture. However a survey of published literature indicates inadequacy in the design and test data base for the complete characterization of the multidirectional composites. In this paper the research objective is focused on the development and testing of 4-D orthogonal composites with different preform configurations and resin systems. A preform is the skeleton 4D reinforced composite other than the matrix. In 4-D preforms fibre bundles are oriented in three directions at 1200 with respect to each other and they are on orthogonal plane with the fibre in 4th direction. This paper addresses the various types of 4-D composite manufacturing processes and the mechanical test methods followed for the material characterization. A composite analysis is also made, experiments on course and fine woven preforms are conducted and the findings of test results are discussed in this paper. The interpretations of the test results reveal several useful and interesting features. This should pave the way for more widespread use of the perform configurations for allied applications.

Keywords: multi-directionally reinforced composites, 4-D orthogonal preform, course weave, fine weave, fibre bundle spools, unit cell, fibre architecture, fibre volume fraction, fibre distribution

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2059 A Numerical Study on Micromechanical Aspects in Short Fiber Composites

Authors: I. Ioannou, I. M. Gitman


This study focused on the contribution of micro-mechanical parameters on the macro-mechanical response of short fiber composites, namely polypropylene matrix reinforced by glass fibers. In the framework of this paper, an attention has been given to the glass fibers length, as micromechanical parameter influences the overall macroscopic material’s behavior. Three dimensional numerical models were developed and analyzed through the concept of a Representative Volume Element (RVE). Results of the RVE-based approach were compared with analytical Halpin-Tsai’s model.

Keywords: effective properties, homogenization, representative volume element, short fiber reinforced composites

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2058 Mechanical Properties of the Palm Fibers Reinforced HDPE Composites

Authors: Daniella R. Mulinari, Araujo J. F. Marina, Gabriella S. Lopes


Natural fibers are used in polymer composites to improve mechanical properties, substituting inorganic reinforcing agents produced by non-renewable resources. The present study investigates the tensile, flexural and impact behaviors of palm fibers-high density polyethylene (HDPE) composite as a function of volume fraction. The surface of the fibers was modified by mercerization treatments to improve the wetting behavior of the apolar HDPE. The treatment characterization was obtained by scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Results evidence that a good adhesion interfacial between fibers-matrix causing an increase strength and modulus flexural as well as impact strength in the modified fibers/HDPE composites when compared to the pure HDPE and unmodified fibers reinforced composites.

Keywords: palm fibers, polymer composites, mechanical properties, high density polyethylene (HDPE)

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2057 Effect of Fiber Content and Chemical Treatment on Hardness of Bagasse Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Varun Mittal, Shishir Sinha


The present experimental study focused on the hardness behavior of bagasse fiber-epoxy composites. The relationship between bagasse fiber content and effect of chemical treatment on bagasse fiber as a function of Brinell hardness of bagasse fiber epoxy was investigated. Bagasse fiber was treated with sodium hydroxide followed by acrylic acid before they were reinforced with epoxy resin. Compared hardness properties with the untreated bagasse filled epoxy composites. It was observed that Brinell hardness increased up to 15 wt% fiber content and further decreases, however, chemical treatment also improved the hardness properties of composites.

Keywords: bagasse fiber, composite, hardness, sodium hydroxide

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2056 Mechanical Behaviour of Sisal Fibre Reinforced Cement Composites

Authors: M. Aruna


Emphasis on the advancement of new materials and technology has been there for the past few decades. The global development towards using cheap and durable materials from renewable resources contributes to sustainable development. An experimental investigation of mechanical behaviour of sisal fiber-reinforced concrete is reported for making a suitable building material in terms of reinforcement. Fibre reinforced composite is one such material, which has reformed the concept of high strength. Sisal fibres are abundantly available in the hot areas. The sisal fiber has emerged as a reinforcing material for concretes, used in civil structures. In this work, properties such as hardness and tensile strength of sisal fibre reinforced cement composites with 6, 12, 18, and 24% by weight of sisal fibres were assessed. Sisal fiber reinforced cement composite slabs with long sisal fibers were manufactured using a cast hand layup technique. Mechanical response was measured under tension. The high energy absorption capacity of the developed composite system was reflected in high toughness values under tension respectively.

Keywords: sisal fibre, fiber-reinforced concrete, mechanical behaviour, composite materials

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2055 Study on the Mechanical Properties of Bamboo Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Based Composites: Effect of Gamma Radiation

Authors: Kamrun N. Keya, Nasrin A. Kona, Ruhul A. Khan


Bamboo fiber (BF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) based composites were fabricated by a conventional compression molding technique. In this investigation, bamboo composites were manufactured using different percentages of fiber, which were varying from 25-65% on the total weight of the composites. To fabricate the BF/PP composites untreated and treated fibers were selected. A systematic study was done to observe the physical, mechanical, and interfacial behavior of the composites. In this study, mechanical properties of the composites such as tensile, impact, and bending properties were observed precisely. Maximum tensile strength (TS) and bending strength (BS) were found for 50 wt% fiber composites, 65 MPa, and 85.5 MPa respectively, whereas the highest tensile modulus (TM) and bending modulus (BM) was examined, 5.73 GPa and 7.85 GPa respectively. The BF/PP based composites were treated with irradiated under gamma radiation (the source strength 50 kCi Cobalt-60) of various doses (i.e. 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy doses). The effect of gamma radiation on the composites was also investigated, and it found that the effect of 30.0 kGy (i.e. units for radiation measurement is 'gray', kGy=kilogray) gamma dose showed better mechanical properties than other doses. After flexural testing, fracture sides of the untreated and treated both composites were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM results of the treated BF/PP based composites showed better fiber-matrix adhesion and interfacial bonding than untreated BF/PP based composites. Water uptake and soil degradation tests of untreated and treated composites were also investigated.

Keywords: bamboo fiber, polypropylene, compression molding technique, gamma radiation, mechanical properties, scanning electron microscope

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2054 Mechanical Behavior of Banana Peel Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: A. Lakshumu Naidu, K. Krishna Kishor


This paper examines the results of an experimental study based on the engineering properties of banana peel reinforced epoxy composites. Experiments are carried out to study the effect of weight fraction on mechanical behavior of epoxy based polymer composites. The composites were made by varying the weight fraction of banana peel from 0 to 30% and banana peel were made using hand layup method. The fabricated composite samples were cut according to the ASTM standards for different experiments. Hardness test and density test were carried out at the samples. The maximum hardness, density, tensile strength, flexural strength and ILSS are getting for the material prepared with the 20 % reinforced banana peel epoxy composite. The detailed test results and observations are discussed sequentially in the paper.

Keywords: engineering properties, polymer, composite, mechanical behavior of banana peel

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2053 Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Rice Husk Filled Jute Reinforced Composites

Authors: Priyankar P. Deka, Sutanu Samanta


This paper describes the development of new class of epoxy based hybrid composites reinforced with jute and filled with rice husk flour. Rice husk flour is added in 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% by weight. Epoxy resin and triethylene tetramine (T.E.T.A) is used as matrix and hardener respectively. It investigates the mechanical properties of the composites and a comparison is done for monolithic jute composite and the filled ones. The specimens are prepared according to the ASTM standards and experimentation is carried out using INSTRON 8801. The result shows that with the increase of filler percentage the tensile properties increases but compressive and flexural properties decreases.

Keywords: jute, mechanical characterization, natural fiber, rice husk

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2052 A Novel Geometrical Approach toward the Mechanical Properties of Particle Reinforced Composites

Authors: Hamed Khezrzadeh


Many investigations on the micromechanical structure of materials indicate that there exist fractal patterns at the micro scale in some of the main construction and industrial materials. A recently presented micro-fractal theory brings together the well-known periodic homogenization and the fractal geometry to construct an appropriate model for determination of the mechanical properties of particle reinforced composite materials. The proposed multi-step homogenization scheme considers the mechanical properties of different constituent phases in the composite together with the interaction between these phases throughout a step-by-step homogenization technique. In the proposed model the interaction of different phases is also investigated. By using this method the effect of fibers grading on the mechanical properties also could be studied. The theory outcomes are compared to the experimental data for different types of particle-reinforced composites which very good agreement with the experimental data is observed.

Keywords: fractal geometry, homogenization, micromehcanics, particulate composites

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2051 Effect of Hollow and Solid Recycled-Poly Fibers on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Short-Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

Authors: S. Kerakra, S. Bouhelal, M. Poncot


The aim of this study is to give a comprehensive overview of the effect of short hollow and solid recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers in different breaking tenacities reinforced isotactic polypropylene (iPP) composites on the mechanical and morphological properties. Composites of iPP/3, 7and 10 wt% of solid and hollow recycled PET fibers were prepared by batched melt mixing in a Brabender. The incorporation of solid recycled-PET fibers in isotactic polypropylene increase Young’s modulus of iPP relatively, meanwhile it increased proportionally with hollow fibers content. An improvement of the storage modulus, and a shift up in glass transition temperatures of hollow fibers/iPP composites was determined by DMA results. The morphology of composites was determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical polarized microscopy (OM) showing a good dispersion of the hollow fibers. Also, their flexible aspect (folding, bending) was observed. But, one weak interaction between the polymer/fibers phases was shown. Polymers can be effectively reinforced with short hollow recycled PET fibers due to their characteristics like recyclability, lightweight and the flexible aspect, which allows the absorbance of the energy of a striker with a minimum damage of the matrix. Aiming to improve the affinity matrix–recycled hollow PET fibers, it is suggested the addition of compatibilizers, as maleic anhydride.

Keywords: isotactic polypropylene, hollow recycled PET fibers, solid recycled-PET fibers, composites, short fiber, scanning electron microscope

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2050 Study on the Fabrication and Mechanical Characterization of Pineapple Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Resin Based Composites: Effect of Gamma Irradiation

Authors: Kamrun N. Keya, Nasrin A. Kona, Ruhul A. Khan


Pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) based composites were fabricated by a conventional compression molding technique. In this investigation, PALF composites were manufactured using different percentages of fiber, which were varying from 25-50% on the total weight of the composites. To fabricate the PALF/PP composites, untreated and treated fibers were selected. A systematic study was done to observe the physical, mechanical and interfacial behavior of the composites. In this study, mechanical properties of the composites such as tensile, impact and bending properties were observed precisely. It was found that 45wt% of fiber composites showed better mechanical properties than others. Maximum tensile strength (TS) and bending strength (BS) was observed, 65 MPa and 50 MPa respectively, whereas the highest tensile modulus (TM) and bending modulus (BM) was examined, 1.7 GPa and 0.85 GPa respectively. The PALF/PP based composites were treated with irradiated under gamma radiation (the source strength 50 kCi Cobalt-60) of various doses (2.5 kGy to 10 kGy). The effect of gamma radiation on the composites was also investigated, and it found that the effect of 5.0 kGy (i.e. units for radiation measurement is 'gray', kGy=kilogray ) gamma dose showed better mechanical properties than other doses. The values of TS, BS, TM, and BM of the irradiated (5.0 kGy) composites were found to improve by 19%, 23%, 17% and 25 % over non-irradiated composites. After flexural testing, fracture sides of the untreated and treated both composites were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM results of the treated PALF/PP based composites showed better fiber-matrix adhesion and interfacial bonding than untreated PALF/PP based composites. Water uptake and soil degradation tests of untreated and treated composites were also investigated.

Keywords: PALF, polypropylene, compression molding technique, gamma radiation, mechanical properties, scanning electron microscope

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2049 Analytical Model to Predict the Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams Externally Strengthened with CFRP Composites Conditions

Authors: Rajai Al-Rousan


This paper presents a proposed analytical model for predicting the shear strength of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with CFRP composites as external reinforcement. The proposed analytical model can predict the shear contribution of CFRP composites of RC beams with an acceptable coefficient of correlation with the tested results. Based on the comparison of the proposed model with the published well-known models (ACI model, Triantafillou model, and Colotti model), the ACI model had a wider range of 0.16 to 10.08 for the ratio between tested and predicted ultimate shears at failure. Also, an acceptable range of 0.27 to 2.78 for the ratio between tested and predicted ultimate shears by the Triantafillou model. Finally, the best prediction (the ratio between the tested and predicted ones) of the ultimate shear capacity is observed by using Colotti model with a range of 0.20 to 1.78. Thus, the contribution of the CFRP composites as external reinforcement can be predicted with high accuracy by using the proposed analytical model.

Keywords: predicting, shear capacity, reinforced concrete, beams, strengthened, externally, CFRP composites

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2048 Fatigue of Multiscale Nanoreinforced Composites: 3D Modelling

Authors: Leon Mishnaevsky Jr., Gaoming Dai


3D numerical simulations of fatigue damage of multiscale fiber reinforced polymer composites with secondary nanoclay reinforcement are carried out. Macro-micro FE models of the multiscale composites are generated automatically using Python based software. The effect of the nanoclay reinforcement (localized in the fiber/matrix interface (fiber sizing) and distributed throughout the matrix) on the crack path, damage mechanisms and fatigue behavior is investigated in numerical experiments.

Keywords: computational mechanics, fatigue, nanocomposites, composites

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