Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27344

Search results for: differential scanning calorimetry dynamic mechanical analysis

27344 Investigation of Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Jute/Carbon Reinforced Composites

Authors: H. Sezgin, O. B. Berkalp, R. Mishra, J. Militky

Abstract:

In the last few decades, due to their advanced properties, there has been an increasing interest in hybrid composite materials. In this study, the effect of different stacking sequences of jute and carbon fabric plies on dynamic mechanical properties of composite laminates were investigated. Vacuum bagging system was used to fabricate the composite samples. Each composite laminate was reinforced with two plies of jute fabric and two plies of carbon fabric by varying the position of layers. Dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to examine the dynamic mechanical properties of composite laminates with increasing temperature. Results showed that the composite sample, which has carbon fabric at the outer layers, has the highest storage and loss modulus. Besides, it was observed that glass transition temperature (Tg) of samples are close to each other and at about 75 °C.

Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry dynamic mechanical analysis, textile reinforced composites, thermogravimetric analysis

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27343 Synthesis of Polystyrene Grafted Filler Nanoparticles: Effect of Grafting on Mechanical Reinforcement

Authors: M. Khlifa, A. Youssef, A. F. Zaed, A. Kraft, V. Arrighi

Abstract:

A series of PS-nanoparticles were prepared by grafting PS from both aggregated silica and colloidally silica using atom-transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP). The mechanical behaviour of the nanocomposites have been examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA).

Keywords: ATRP, nanocomposites, polystyrene, reinforcement

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27342 The Role of Nano Glass Flakes on Morphology, Dynamic-Mechanical Properties and Crystallization Behavior of Poly (Ethylene Terephthalate)

Authors: Fatemeh Alsadat Miri, Morteza Ehsani, Hossein Ali Khonakdar, Behjat Kavyani

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of nano glass flakes on morphology, dynamic-mechanical properties, and crystallization behavior of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The concentration of nano glass flakes was varied from 0.5, 1, 2, and 3% wt of the total formulation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed the poor distribution of nano-glass flake particles in PET, as well as low adhesion of particles to the polymer matrix. According to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the crystallization rate and crystallization temperature of PET were increased by the addition of nano glass flakes. The crystallization rate of PET was increased from 31.41% to 34.25% by the incorporation of 1%wt of nano glass flakes. Based on the results of the dynamic-mechanical analysis, the storage modulus of PET gets increased by adding nano glass flakes, especially below glass transition temperature (Tg). The glass transition of PET did not change remarkably with the addition of nano glass flakes. Moreover, the use of nano glass flakes reduced the impact strength of PET.

Keywords: PET, nano glass flakes, morphology, crystallization

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27341 Thermal Properties of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes/Polyimide Nanocomposite

Authors: Seyfullah Madakbas, Hatice Birtane, Memet Vezir Kahraman

Abstract:

In this study, we aimed to synthesize and characterize polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes containing polyimide nanocomposite. Polyimide nanocomposites widely have been used in membranes in fuel cell, solar cell, gas filtration, sensors, aerospace components, printed circuit boards. Firstly, polyamic acid was synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared. Then, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes containing polyimide nanocomposite was prepared with thermal imidization method. The obtained polyimide nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared, Scanning Electron Microscope, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Thermal stability of polyimide nanocomposite was evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Surface morphology of composite samples was investigated by scanning electron microscope. The obtained results prove that successfully prepared polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes are containing polyimide nanocomposite. The obtained nanocomposite can be used in many industries such as electronics, automotive, aerospace, etc.

Keywords: polyimide, nanocomposite, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes

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27340 Study of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Ethylene/1-Octene Copolymer Based Nanocomposites

Authors: Sharmila Pradhan, Ralf Lach, George Michler, Jean Mark Saiter, Rameshwar Adhikari

Abstract:

Ethylene/1-octene copolymer was modified incorporating three types of nanofillers differed in their dimensionality in order to investigate the effect of filler dimensionality on mechanical properties, for instance, tensile strength, microhardness etc. The samples were prepared by melt mixing followed by compression moldings. The microstructure of the novel material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Other important properties such as melting, crystallizing and thermal stability were also investigated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The FTIR and XRD results showed that the composites were formed by physical mixing. The TEM result supported the homogeneous dispersion of nanofillers in the matrix. The mechanical characterization performed by tensile testing showed that the composites with 1D nanofiller effectively reinforced the polymer. TGA results revealed that the thermal stability of pure EOC is marginally improved by the addition of nanofillers. Likewise, melting and crystallizing properties of the composites are not much different from that of pure.

Keywords: copolymer, differential scanning calorimetry, nanofiller, tensile strength

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27339 Precipitation Kinetics of Al-7%Mg Alloy Studied by DSC and XRD

Authors: M. Fatmi, T. Chihi, M. A. Ghebouli, B. Ghebouli

Abstract:

This work presents the experimental results of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hardness measurements (Hv) and XRD analysis, for order to investigate the kinetics of precipitation phenomena in Al-7%wt. Mg alloy. In the XRD and DSC curves indicates the formation of the intermediate precipitation of β-(Al3Mg2) phase respectively. The activation energies associated with the processes have been determined according to the three models proposed by Kissinger, Ozawa, and Boswell. Consequently, the nucleation mechanism of the precipitates can be explained. These phases are confirmed by XRD analysis.

Keywords: discontinuous precipitation, hardening, Al–Mg alloys, mechanical and mechatronics engineering

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27338 Synthesis of KCaVO4:Sm³⁺/PMMA Luminescent Nanocomposites and Their Optical Property Measurements

Authors: Sumara Khursheed, Jitendra Sharma

Abstract:

The present work reports synthesis of nanocomposites (NCs) of phosphor (KCaVO4:Sm3+) embedded poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) using solution casting method and their optical properties measurements for their possible application in making flexible luminescent films. X-ray diffraction analyses were employed to obtain the structural parameters as crystallinity, shape and size of the obtained NCs. The emission and excitation spectra were obtained using Photoluminescence spectroscopy to quantify the spectral properties of these fluorescent polymer/phosphor films. Optical energy gap has been estimated using UV-VIS spectroscopy while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was exploited to measure the thermal properties of the NC films in terms of their thermal stability, glass transition temperature and degree of crystallinity etc.

Keywords: nanocomposites, luminescence, XRD, differential scanning calorimetry, PMMA

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27337 Naturally Occurring Abietic Acid for Liquid Crystalline Epoxy Curing Agents

Authors: Rasha A.Ibrahim El-Ghazawy, Ashraf M. El-Saeed, Heusin El-Shafey, M. Abdel-Raheim, Maher A. El-Sockary

Abstract:

Two thermotropic liquid crystalline curing agents based on abietic acid with different mesogens (LCC1 and LCC2) were synthesized for producing thermally stable liquid crystal networks suitable for high performance epoxy coatings. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscope (POM) was used to identify the liquid crystal phase transformation temperatures and texture, respectively. POM micro graphs for both LCCs revealing cholesteric texture. A multifunctional epoxy resin with two abietic acid moieties was also synthesized. Dynamic mechanical (DMA) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses show that the fully bio-based cured epoxies by either LCCs possess high glass transition temperature (Tg), high modulus (G`) and improved thermal stability. The chemical structure of the synthesized LCCs and epoxy resin was investigated through FTIR and 1HNMR spectroscopic techniques.

Keywords: abietic acid, dynamic mechanical analysis, epoxy resin, liquid crystal, thermo gravimetric analysis

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27336 Influence of High Temperature and Humidity on Polymer Composites Used in Relining of Sewage

Authors: Parastou Kharazmi, Folke Björk

Abstract:

Some of the main causes for degradation of polymeric materials are thermal aging, hydrolysis, oxidation or chemical degradation by acids, alkalis or water. The first part of this paper provides a brief summary of advances in technology, methods and specification of composite materials for relining as a rehabilitation technique for sewage systems. The second part summarizes an investigation on frequently used composite materials for relining in Sweden, the rubber filled epoxy composite and reinforced polyester composite when they were immersed in deionized water or in dry conditions, and elevated temperatures up to 80°C in the laboratory. The tests were conducted by visual inspection, microscopy, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) as well as mechanical testing, three point bending and tensile testing.

Keywords: composite, epoxy, polyester, relining, sewage

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27335 Influence of Silica Fume on the Hydration of Cement Pastes Studied by Simultaneous TG-DSC Analysis

Authors: Anton Trník, Lenka Scheinherrová, Robert Černý

Abstract:

Silica fume is a by-product of the ferro-silicon and silicon metal industries. It is mainly in the form of amorphous silica. Silica fume belongs to pozzolanic active materials which can be used in concrete to improve its final properties. In this paper, the influence of silica fume on hydration of cement pastes is studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG) at various curing times (2, 7, 28, and 90 days) in the temperature range from 25 to 1000 °C in an argon atmosphere. Samples are prepared from Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R which is partially replaced with the silica fume of 4, 8, and 12 wt.%. The water/binder ratio is chosen as 0.5. It is identified and described the liberation of physically bound water, calcium–silicate–hydrates dehydration, portlandite and calcite decomposition in studied samples. Also, it is found out that an exothermic peak at 950 °C is observed without a significant mass change for samples with 12 wt.% of silica fume after two days of hydration. This peak is probably caused by the pozzolanic reaction between silica fume and Portland cement. Its size corresponds to the degree of crystallization between Ca and Si. The portlandite content is lower for the samples with a higher amount of silica fume.

Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry, hydration, silica fume, thermogravimetry

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27334 Producing of Amorphous-Nanocrystalline Composite Powders

Authors: K. Tomolya, D. Janovszky, A. Sycheva, M. Sveda, A. Roosz

Abstract:

CuZrAl amorphous alloys have attracted high interest due to unique physical and mechanical properties, which can be enhanced by adding of Ni and Ti elements. It is known that this properties can be enhanced by crystallization of amorphous alloys creating nanocrystallines in the matrix. The present work intends to produce nanosized crystalline parti-cle reinforced amorphous matrix composite powders by crystallization of amorphous powders. As the first step the amorphous powders were synthe-tized by ball-milling of crystalline powders. (Cu49Zr45Al6) 80Ni10Ti10 and (Cu49Zr44Al7) 80Ni10Ti10 (at%) alloys were ball-milled for 12 hours in order to reach the fully amorphous structure. The impact en-ergy of the balls during milling causes the change of the structure in the powders. Scanning electron microscopical (SEM) images shows that the phases mixed first and then changed into a fully amorphous matrix. Furthermore, nanosized particles in the amorphous matrix were crystallized by heat treatment of the amorphous powders that was confirmed by TEM measurement. It was of importance to define the tem-perature when the amorphous phase starts to crystal-lize. Amorphous alloys have a special heating curve and characteristic temperatures, which can be meas-ured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A typical DSC curve of an amorphous alloy exhibits an endothermic event characteristic of the equilibrium glass transition (Tg) and a distinct undercooled liquid region, followed by one or two exothermic events corresponding to crystallization processes (Tp). After measuring the DSC traces of the amorphous powders, the annealing temperatures should be determined between Tx and Tp. In our experiments several temperatures from the annealing temperature range were selected and de-pendency of crystallized nanoparticles fraction on their hardness was investigated.

Keywords: amorphous structure, composite, mechanical milling, powder, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electronmocroscopy (TEM)

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27333 Biodegradable Cellulose-Based Materials for the Use in Food Packaging

Authors: Azza A. Al-Ghamdi, Abir S. Abdel-Naby

Abstract:

Cellulose acetate (CA) is a natural biodegradable polymer. It forms transparent films by the casting technique. CA suffers from high degree of water permeability as well as the low thermal stability at high temperatures. To adjust the CA polymeric films to the manufacture of food packaging, its thermal and mechanical properties should be improved. The modification of CA by grafting it with N-Amino phenyl maleimide (N-APhM) led to the construction of hydrophobic branches throughout the polymeric matrix which reduced its wettability as compared to the parent CA. The branches built onto the polymeric chains had been characterized by UV/Vis, 13C-NMR and ESEM. The improvement of the thermal properties was investigated and compared to the parent CA using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), contact angle and mechanical testing measurements. The results revealed that the water-uptake was reduced by increasing the graft percentage. The thermal and mechanical properties were also improved.

Keywords: cellulose acetate, food packaging, graft copolymerization, thermal properties

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27332 Protein Derived Biodegradable Food Packaging Material from Poultry By-Product

Authors: Muhammad Zubair, Aman Ullah, Jianping Wu

Abstract:

During the last decades, petroleum derived synthetic polymers like polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinylchloride, polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene has extensively been used in the field of food packaging and mostly are non-degradable. Biopolymers are a good fit for single-use or short-lived products such as food packaging. Spent hens, a poultry by-product which is of little economic value and their disposal are environmentally harmful. Through current study, we have explored the possibility to transform proteins from spent fowl into green food packaging material. Proteins from spent fowl were extracted within 1 hour using pH shift method with recovery of about 74%. Different plasticizers were tried like glycerol, sorbitol, glutaraldehyde, 1,2 ethylene glycol and 1,2 butanediol. Glycerol was the best plasticizer among all these plasticizers. A naturally occurring and non-toxic cross-linking agent, chitosan, was used to form the chitosan/glycerol/protein blend by casting and compression molding techniques. The mechanical properties were characterized using tensile strength analyzer. The nano-reinforcements with homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles lead to improved physical properties suggesting that these materials have great potential for food packaging applications.

Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, spent hen

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27331 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Crystalline Structure of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride)

Authors: Adriana Souza M. Batista, Cláubia Pereira, Luiz O. Faria

Abstract:

The irradiation of polymeric materials has received much attention because it can produce diverse changes in chemical structure and physical properties. Thus, studying the chemical and structural changes of polymers is important in practice to achieve optimal conditions for the modification of polymers. The effect of gamma irradiation on the crystalline structure of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction techniques (XRD). Gamma irradiation was carried out in atmosphere air with doses between 100 kGy at 3,000 kGy with a Co-60 source. In the melting thermogram of the samples irradiated can be seen a bimodal melting endotherm is detected with two melting temperature. The lower melting temperature is attributed to melting of crystals originally present and the higher melting peak due to melting of crystals reorganized upon heat treatment. These results are consistent with those obtained by XRD technique showing increasing crystallinity with increasing irradiation dose, although the melting latent heat is decreasing.

Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry, gamma irradiation, PVDF, X-ray diffraction technique

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27330 Understanding the Thermal Resistance of Active Dry Yeast by Differential Scanning Calorimetry Approach

Authors: Pauline Ribert, Gaelle Roudaut, Sebastien Dupont, Laurent Beney

Abstract:

Yeasts, anhydrobiotic organisms, can survive extreme water disturbances, thanks to the prolonged and reversible suspension of their cellular activity as well as the establishment of a defense arsenal. This property is exploited by many industrialists. One of the protection systems implemented by yeast is the vitrification of its cytoplasm by trehalose. The thermal resistance of dry yeasts is a crucial parameter for their use. However, studies on the thermal resistance of dry yeasts are often based on yeasts produced in laboratory conditions with non-optimal drying processes. We, therefore, propose a study on the thermal resistance of industrial dry yeasts in relation to their thermophysical properties. Heat stress was applied at three temperatures (50, 75, and 100°C) for 10, 30, or 60-minute treatments. The survival of yeasts to these treatments was estimated, and their thermophysical properties were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The industrial dry yeasts resisted 60 minutes at 50°C and 75°C and 10 minutes at a temperature close to 100°C. At 100°C, yeast was above their glass transition temperature. Industrial dry yeasts are therefore capable of withstanding high thermal stress if maintained in a specific thermophysical state.

Keywords: dry yeast, glass transition, thermal resistance, vitrification

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27329 Recycling of Polymers in the Presence of Nanocatalysts: A Green Approach towards Sustainable Environment

Authors: Beena Sethi

Abstract:

This work involves the degradation of plastic waste in the presence of three different nanocatalysts. A thin film of LLDPE was formed with all three nanocatalysts separately in the solvent. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) analysis of polymers suggest that the presence of these catalysts lowers the degradation temperature and the change mechanism of degradation. Gas chromatographic analysis was carried out for two films. In gas chromatography (GC) analysis, it was found that degradation of pure polymer produces only 32% C3/C4 hydrocarbons and 67.6% C5/C9 hydrocarbons. In the presence of these catalysts, more than 80% of polymer by weight was converted into either liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons. Change in the mechanism of degradation of polymer was observed therefore more C3/C4 hydrocarbons along with valuable feedstock are produced. Adjustment of dose of nanocatalyst, use of nano-admixtures and recycling of catalyst can make this catalytic feedstock recycling method a good tool to get sustainable environment. The obtained products can be utilized as fuel or can be transformed into other useful products. In accordance with the principles of sustainable development, chemical recycling i.e. tertiary recycling of polymers along with the reuse (zero order recycling) of plastics can be the most appropriate and promising method in this direction. The tertiary recycling is attracting much attention from the viewpoint of the energy resource.

Keywords: degradation, differential scanning calorimetry, feedstock recycling, gas chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis

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27328 Dynamic Analysis of Differential Systems with Infinite Memory and Damping

Authors: Kun-Peng Jin, Jin Liang, Ti-Jun Xiao

Abstract:

In this work, we are concerned with the dynamic behaviors of solutions to some coupled systems with infinite memory, which consist of two partial differential equations where only one partial differential equation has damping. Such coupled systems are good mathematical models to describe the deformation and stress characteristics of some viscoelastic materials affected by temperature change, external forces, and other factors. By using the theory of operator semigroups, we give wellposedness results for the Cauchy problem for these coupled systems. Then, with the help of some auxiliary functions and lemmas, which are specially designed for overcoming difficulties in the proof, we show that the solutions of the coupled systems decay to zero in a strong way under a few basic conditions. The results in this dynamic analysis of coupled systems are generalizations of many existing results.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, coupled system, infinite memory, damping.

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27327 Mechanical Structural and Optical Properties of Lu₂SiO₅ Scintillator-Polymer Composite Films

Authors: M. S. E. Hamroun, K. Bachari, A. Berrayah, L. Mechernene, L. Guerbous

Abstract:

Composite films containing homogeneously dispersed scintillation nano-particles of Lu₂SiO₅:Ce³⁺, in optically transparent polymer matrix, have been prepared and characterized through X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (ATG), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), electron scanning microscopy morphology (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL). Lu₂SiO₅:Ce³⁺ scintillator powder was successfully synthesized via Sol-Gel method. This study is realized with different mass ratios of nano-particles embedded in polystyrene and polylactic acid polymer matrix (5, 10, 15, 20%) to see the influence of nano-particles on the mechanical, structural and optical properties of films. The composites have been prepared with 400 µm thickness. It has found that the structural proprieties change with mass ratio on each sample. PL photoluminescence shows the characteristic Lu₂SiO₅:Ce³⁺ emission in the blue region and intensity varied for each film.

Keywords: nano-particles, sol gel, photoluminescence, Ce³⁺, scintillator, polystyrene

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27326 Thermoplastic Polyurethane/Barium Titanate Composites

Authors: Seyfullah Madakbaş, Ferhat Şen, Memet Vezir Kahraman

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to improve thermal stability, mechanical and surface properties of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with the addition of BaTiO3. The TPU/ BaTiO3 composites having various ratios of TPU and BaTiO3 were prepared. The chemical structure of the prepared composites was investigated by FT-IR. FT-IR spectra of TPU/ barium titanate composites show that they successfully were prepared. Thermal stability of the samples was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The prepared composites showed high thermal stability, and the char yield increased as barium titanate content increased. The glass transition temperatures of the composites rise with the addition of barium titanate. Mechanical properties of the samples were characterized with stress-strain test. The mechanical properties of the TPU were increased with the contribution of the contribution of the barium titanate it increased. Hydrophobicity of the samples was determined by the contact angle measurements. The contact angles have the tendency to increase the hydrophobic behavior on the surface, when barium titanate was added into TPU. Moreover, the surface morphology of the samples was investigated by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM-EDS mapping images showed that barium titanate particles were dispersed homogeneously. Finally, the obtained results prove that the prepared composites have good thermal, mechanical and surface properties and that they can be used in many applications such as the electronic devices, materials engineering and other emergent.

Keywords: barium titanate, composites, thermoplastic polyurethane, scanning electron microscopy

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27325 Study of the Microstructural Evolution and Precipitation Kinetic in AZ91 Alloys

Authors: A. Azizi, M. Toubane, L. Chetibi

Abstract:

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a widely used technique for the study of phase transformations, particularly in the study of precipitation. The kinetic of the precipitation and dissolution is always related to the concept of activation energy Ea. The determination of the activation energy gives important information about the kinetic of the precipitation reaction. In this work, we were interested in the study of the isothermal and non-isothermal treatments on the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution in the alloy AZ91 (Mg-9 Al-Zn 1-0.2 Mn. mass fraction %), using Differential Calorimetric method. Through this method, the samples were heat treated up to 425° C, using different rates. To calculate the apparent activation energies associated with the formation of precipitated phases, we used different isoconversional methods. This study was supported by other analysis: X-ray diffraction and microhardness measurements.

Keywords: calorimetric, activation energy, AZ91 alloys, microstructural evolution

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27324 Developing Stability Monitoring Parameters for NIPRIMAL®: A Monoherbal Formulation for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria

Authors: Ekere E. Kokonne, Isimi C. Yetunde, Okoh E. Judith, Okafor E. Ijeoma, Ajeh J. Isaac, Olobayo O. Kunle, Emeje O. Martins

Abstract:

NIPRIMAL® is a mono herbal formulation of Nauclea latifolia used in the treatment of malaria. The stability of extracts made from plant material is essential to ensure the quality, safety and efficacy of the finished product. This study assessed the stability of the formulation under three different storage conditions; normal room temperature, infrared and under refrigeration. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) were used to monitor the formulations. The DSC analysis was done from 0oC to 350oC under the three storage conditions. Results obtained indicate that NIPRIMAL® was stable at all the storage conditions investigated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) after 6 months showed there was no significant difference between retention factor (RF) values for the various storage conditions. The reference sample had four spots with RF values of 0.47, 0.68, 0.76, 0.82 respectively and these spots were retained in the test formulations with corresponding RF values were after 6 months at room temperature and refrigerated temperature been 0.56, 0.73, 0.80, 0.92 and 0.47, 0.68, 0.76, 0.82 respectively. On the other hand, the RF values (0.55, 0.74, 0.77, 0.93) obtained under infrared after 1 month varied slightly from the reference. The sample exposed to infrared had a lower heat capacity compared to that stored under room temperature or refrigeration. A combination of TLC and DSC measurements has been applied for assessing the stability of NIPRIMAL®. Both methods were found to be rapid, sensitive and reliable in determining its stability. It is concluded that NIPRIMAL® can be stored under any of the tested conditions without degradation. This study is a major contribution towards developing appropriate stability monitoring parameters for herbal products.

Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry, formulation, NIPRIMAL®, stability, thin layer hromatography

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27323 Comparative Antibacterial Property of Matured Trunk and Stem Bark Extract of Tamarindus indica L., Preformulation, Development and Quality Control of Cream

Authors: A. M. T. Jacinto, M.O. Osi

Abstract:

Tamarind has various medicinal properties among which is its antibacterial property. Its bark contains saponins, alkaloids, sesquiterpenes and tannins. It is rich in phlobapenes which is responsible for antibacterial property. The objective of the study was to determine which bark will produce the highest antibacterial property, develop it into a topical cream and evaluate its quality and characteristics. Powdered barks of Tamarind were extracted by soxhlet method using 70% acetone. Stem bark produced a higher yield than trunk bark (5.85 g vs. 4.73 g). It was found that the trunk bark was more sensitive than stem bark to microorganisms namely Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium minutissimum, and Streptococcus spp. Sensitivity of trunk bark can be attributed to a more developed phytoconstituents. Dermal sensitization test on both sexes of rabbits using the following concentrations: 100%, 40% and 20% of extract showed that Tamarind has no irritating property and therefore safe for formulation into an antibacterial cream. Excipients used for formulation such as methyl paraben, propyl paraben, stearyl alcohol and white petrolatum were compatible with the Tamarind acetone extract through Differential Scanning Calorimetry except sodium lauryl sulfate that exhibited crystallization when subjected at 200˚C. The method of manufacture used in cream is fusion, therefore strict compliance of processing temperature should be observed to prevent polymorphism. Quality control tests of formulated cream based on USP 30 and Philippine Pharmacopeia were satisfactory.

Keywords: antibacterial, differential scanning calorimetry, tannins, dermal sensitization

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27322 Regenerated Cellulose Prepared by Using NaOH/Urea

Authors: Lee Chiau Yeng, Norhayani Othman

Abstract:

Regenerated cellulose fiber is fabricated in the NaOH/urea aqueous solution. In this work, cellulose is dissolved in 7 .wt% NaOH/12 .wt% urea in the temperature of -12 °C to prepare regenerated cellulose. Thermal and structure properties of cellulose and regenerated cellulose was compared and investigated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FeSEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Results of FeSEM revealed that the regenerated cellulose fibers showed a more circular shape with irregular size due to fiber agglomeration. FTIR showed the difference in between the structure of cellulose and the regenerated cellulose fibers. In this case, regenerated cellulose fibers have a cellulose II crystalline structure with lower degree of crystallinity. Regenerated cellulose exhibited better thermal stability than the cellulose.

Keywords: regenerated cellulose, cellulose, NaOH, urea

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27321 Effect of Fibres-Chemical Treatment on the Thermal Properties of Natural Composites

Authors: J. S. S. Neto, R. A. A. Lima, D. K. K. Cavalcanti, J. P. B. Souza, R. A. A. Aguiar, M. D. Banea

Abstract:

In the last decade, investments in sustainable processes and products have gained space in several segments, such as in the civil, automobile, textile and other industries. In addition to increasing concern about the development of environmentally friendly materials that reduce, energy costs and reduces environmental impact in the production of these products, as well as reducing CO2 emissions. Natural fibers offer a great alternative to replace synthetic fibers, totally or partially, because of their low cost and their renewable source. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of surface chemical treatment on the thermal properties of hybrid fiber reinforced natural fibers (NFRC), jute + ramie, jute + sisal, jute + curauá, and jute fiber in polymer matrices. Two types of chemical treatment: alkalinization and silanization were employed, besides the condition without treatment. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) were performed to explore the thermal stability and weight loss in the natural fiber reinforced composite as a function of chemical treatment.

Keywords: chemical treatment, hybrid composite, jute, thermal

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27320 The Role of Initiator in the Synthesis of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)-Layered Silicate Nanocomposites through Bulk Polymerization

Authors: Tsung-Yen Tsai, Naveen Bunekar, Ming Hsuan Chang, Wen-Kuang Wang, Satoshi Onda

Abstract:

The structure-property relationship and initiator effect on bulk polymerized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)–oragnomodified layered silicate nanocomposites was investigated. In this study, we used 2, 2'-azobis (4-methoxy-2,4-dimethyl valeronitrile and benzoyl peroxide initiators for bulk polymerization. The bulk polymerized nanocomposites’ morphology was investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The type of initiator strongly influences the physiochemical properties of the polymer nanocomposite. The thermal degradation of PMMA in the presence of nanofiller was studied. 5 wt% weight loss temperature (T5d) increased as compared to pure PMMA. The peak degradation temperature increased for the nanocomposites. Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed to investigate the glass transition temperature and the nature of the constrained region as the reinforcement mechanism respectively. Furthermore, the optical properties such as UV-Vis and Total Luminous Transmission of nanocomposites are examined.

Keywords: initiator, bulk polymerization, layered silicates, methyl methacrylate

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27319 Ceiba Speciosa Nanocellulose Obtained from a Sustainable Method as a Potential Reinforcement for Polymeric Composites

Authors: Heloise Sasso Teixeira, Talita Szlapak Franco, Thais Helena Sydenstricker Flores-Sahagun, Milton Vazquez Lepe, Graciela Bolzon Muñiz

Abstract:

Due to the need to reduce the consumption of materials produced from non-renewable sources, the search for new raw materials of natural origin is growing. In this regard, lignocellulosic fibers have great potential. Ceiba sp fibers are found in the fruit of the tree of the same name and have characteristics that differ from other natural fibers. Ceiba fibers are very light, have a high cellulose content, and are hydrophobic due to the presence of waxes on their surface. In this study, Ceiba fiber was used as raw material to obtain cellulose nanofibers (CNF), with the potential to be used in polymeric matrices. Due to the characteristics of this fiber, no chemical pretreatment was necessary before the mechanical defibrilation process in a colloidal mill, obtaining sustainable nanocellulose. The CNFs were characterized by Fourier infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), analysis of the rmogravimetic (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

Keywords: cellulose nanofibers, nanocellulose, fibers, Brazilian fIbers, lignocellulosic, characterization

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27318 A Differential Scanning Calorimetric Study of Frozen Liquid Egg Yolk Thawed by Different Thawing Methods

Authors: Karina I. Hidas, Csaba Németh, Anna Visy, Judit Csonka, László Friedrich, Ildikó Cs. Nyulas-Zeke

Abstract:

Egg yolk is a popular ingredient in the food industry due to its gelling, emulsifying, colouring, and coagulating properties. Because of the heat sensitivity of proteins, egg yolk can only be heat treated at low temperatures, so its shelf life, even with the addition of a preservative, is only a few weeks. Freezing can increase the shelf life of liquid egg yolk up to 1 year, but it undergoes gelling below -6 ° C, which is an irreversible phenomenon. The degree of gelation depends on the time and temperature of freezing and is influenced by the process of thawing. Therefore, in our experiment, we examined egg yolks thawed in different ways. In this study, unpasteurized, industrially broken, separated, and homogenized liquid egg yolk was used. Freshly produced samples were frozen in plastic containers at -18°C in a laboratory freezer. Frozen storage was performed for 90 days. Samples were analysed at day zero (unfrozen) and after frozen storage for 1, 7, 14, 30, 60 and 90 days. Samples were thawed in two ways (at 5°C for 24 hours and 30°C for 3 hours) before testing. Calorimetric properties were examined by differential scanning calorimetry, where heat flow curves were recorded. Denaturation enthalpy values were calculated by fitting a linear baseline, and denaturation temperature values were evaluated. Besides, dry matter content of samples was measured by the oven method with drying at 105°C to constant weight. For statistical analysis two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05) was employed, where thawing mode and freezing time were the fixed factors. Denaturation enthalpy values decreased from 1.1 to 0.47 at the end of the storage experiment, which represents a reduction of about 60%. The effect of freezing time was significant on these values, already the enthalpy of samples stored frozen for 1 day was significantly reduced. However, the mode of thawing did not significantly affect the denaturation enthalpy of the samples, and no interaction was seen between the two factors. The denaturation temperature and dry matter content did not change significantly either during the freezing period or during the defrosting mode. Results of our study show that slow freezing and frozen storage at -18°C greatly reduces the amount of protein that can be denatured in egg yolk, indicating that the proteins have been subjected to aggregation, denaturation or other protein conversions regardless of how they were thawed.

Keywords: denaturation enthalpy, differential scanning calorimetry, liquid egg yolk, slow freezing

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27317 Development of Thermo-Regulating Fabric Using Microcapsules of Phase Change Material

Authors: D. Benmoussa, H. Hannache, O. Cherkaoui

Abstract:

In textiles, the major interest in microencapsulation is currently in the application of durable fragrances, skin softeners, phase-change materials, antimicrobial agents and drug delivery systems onto textile materials. In our research “Polyethylene Glycol” was applied as phase change material and it was encapsulated in polymethacrylic acid (PMA) by radical polymerization in suspension of methacrylic acid in presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAM) as crosslinking agent. Thereafter the obtained microcapsule was modified by amidation with ethylenediamine as a spacer molecule. At the end of this spacer trichlorotriazine reactive group was fixed. Microcapsules were grafted onto cotton textile substrate. The surface morphologies of the microencapsulated phase change materials (micro PCMs) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal properties, thermal reliabilities and thermal stabilities of the as-prepared micro PCMs were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravmetric analysis (TGA). The results obtained show the obtaining microcapsules with a mean diameter of 10 µm and the resistance of the microcapsules is demonstrated by thermal analysis.

Keywords: energy storage, microencapsulation, phase-change materials, thermogravmetric analysis (TGA)

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27316 Synthesis and Characterization of Functionalized Carbon Nanorods/Polystyrene Nanocomposites

Authors: M. A. Karakassides, M. Baikousi, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis

Abstract:

Nanocomposites of Carbon Nanorods (CNRs) with Polystyrene (PS), have been synthesized successfully by means of in situ polymerization process and characterized. Firstly, carbon nanorods with graphitic structure were prepared by the standard synthetic procedure of CMK-3 using MCM-41 as template, instead of SBA-15, and sucrose as carbon source. In order to create an organophilic surface on CNRs, two parts of modification were realized: surface chemical oxidation (CNRs-ox) according to the Staudenmaier’s method and the attachment of octadecylamine molecules on the functional groups of CNRs-ox (CNRs-ODA The nanocomposite materials of polystyrene with CNRs-ODA, were prepared by a solution-precipitation method at three nanoadditive to polymer loadings (1, 3 and 5 wt. %). The as derived nanocomposites were studied with a combination of characterization and analytical techniques. Especially, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopies were used for the chemical and structural characterization of the pristine materials and the derived nanocomposites while the morphology of nanocomposites and the dispersion of the carbon nanorods were analyzed by atomic force and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Tensile testing and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) along with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were also used to examine the mechanical properties and thermal stability -glass transition temperature of PS after the incorporation of CNRs-ODA nanorods. The results showed that the thermal and mechanical properties of the PS/ CNRs-ODA nanocomposites gradually improved with increasing of CNRs-ODA loading.

Keywords: nanocomposites, polystyrene, carbon, nanorods

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27315 Chemical and Mechanical Characterization of Composites Reinforced with Coconut Fiber in the Polymeric Matrix of Recycled PVC

Authors: Luiz C. G. Pennafort Jr., Alexandre de S. Rios, Enio P. de Deus

Abstract:

In the search for materials that replace conventional polymers in order to preserve natural resources, combined with the need to minimize the problems arising from environmental pollution generated by plastic waste, comes the recycled materials biodegradable, especially the composites reinforced with natural fibers. However, such materials exhibit properties little known, requiring studies of manufacturing methods and characterization of these composites. This article shows informations about preparation and characterization of a composite produced by extrusion, which consists of recycled PVC derived from the recycling of materials discarded, added of the micronized coconut fiber. The recycled PVC with 5% of micronized fiber were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric, differential scanning calorimetry, mechanical analysis and optical microscopy. The use of fiber in the composite caused a decrease in its specific weight, due to the lower specific weight of fibers and the appearance of porosity, in addition to the decrease of mechanical properties.

Keywords: recycled PVC, coconut fiber, characterization, composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 384