Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 250

Search results for: geochemical anomaly

250 Use of Hierarchical Temporal Memory Algorithm in Heart Attack Detection

Authors: Tesnim Charrad, Kaouther Nouira, Ahmed Ferchichi


In order to reduce the number of deaths due to heart problems, we propose the use of Hierarchical Temporal Memory Algorithm (HTM) which is a real time anomaly detection algorithm. HTM is a cortical learning algorithm based on neocortex used for anomaly detection. In other words, it is based on a conceptual theory of how the human brain can work. It is powerful in predicting unusual patterns, anomaly detection and classification. In this paper, HTM have been implemented and tested on ECG datasets in order to detect cardiac anomalies. Experiments showed good performance in terms of specificity, sensitivity and execution time.

Keywords: cardiac anomalies, ECG, HTM, real time anomaly detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
249 Facility Anomaly Detection with Gaussian Mixture Model

Authors: Sunghoon Park, Hank Kim, Jinwon An, Sungzoon Cho


Internet of Things allows one to collect data from facilities which are then used to monitor them and even predict malfunctions in advance. Conventional quality control methods focus on setting a normal range on a sensor value defined between a lower control limit and an upper control limit, and declaring as an anomaly anything falling outside it. However, interactions among sensor values are ignored, thus leading to suboptimal performance. We propose a multivariate approach which takes into account many sensor values at the same time. In particular Gaussian Mixture Model is used which is trained to maximize likelihood value using Expectation-Maximization algorithm. The number of Gaussian component distributions is determined by Bayesian Information Criterion. The negative Log likelihood value is used as an anomaly score. The actual usage scenario goes like a following. For each instance of sensor values from a facility, an anomaly score is computed. If it is larger than a threshold, an alarm will go off and a human expert intervenes and checks the system. A real world data from Building energy system was used to test the model.

Keywords: facility anomaly detection, gaussian mixture model, anomaly score, expectation maximization algorithm

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248 Machine Learning Approach for Anomaly Detection in the Simulated Iec-60870-5-104 Traffic

Authors: Stepan Grebeniuk, Ersi Hodo, Henri Ruotsalainen, Paul Tavolato


Substation security plays an important role in the power delivery system. During the past years, there has been an increase in number of attacks on automation networks of the substations. In spite of that, there hasn’t been enough focus dedicated to the protection of such networks. Aiming to design a specialized anomaly detection system based on machine learning, in this paper we will discuss the IEC 60870-5-104 protocol that is used for communication between substation and control station and focus on the simulation of the substation traffic. Firstly, we will simulate the communication between substation slave and server. Secondly, we will compare the system's normal behavior and its behavior under the attack, in order to extract the right features which will be needed for building an anomaly detection system. Lastly, based on the features we will suggest the anomaly detection system for the asynchronous protocol IEC 60870-5-104.

Keywords: Anomaly detection, IEC-60870-5-104, Machine learning, Man-in-the-Middle attacks, Substation security

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247 Incorporating Anomaly Detection in a Digital Twin Scenario Using Symbolic Regression

Authors: Manuel Alves, Angelica Reis, Armindo Lobo, Valdemar Leiras


In industry 4.0, it is common to have a lot of sensor data. In this deluge of data, hints of possible problems are difficult to spot. The digital twin concept aims to help answer this problem, but it is mainly used as a monitoring tool to handle the visualisation of data. Failure detection is of paramount importance in any industry, and it consumes a lot of resources. Any improvement in this regard is of tangible value to the organisation. The aim of this paper is to add the ability to forecast test failures, curtailing detection times. To achieve this, several anomaly detection algorithms were compared with a symbolic regression approach. To this end, Isolation Forest, One-Class SVM and an auto-encoder have been explored. For the symbolic regression PySR library was used. The first results show that this approach is valid and can be added to the tools available in this context as a low resource anomaly detection method since, after training, the only requirement is the calculation of a polynomial, a useful feature in the digital twin context.

Keywords: anomaly detection, digital twin, industry 4.0, symbolic regression

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246 A Dynamic Ensemble Learning Approach for Online Anomaly Detection in Alibaba Datacenters

Authors: Wanyi Zhu, Xia Ming, Huafeng Wang, Junda Chen, Lu Liu, Jiangwei Jiang, Guohua Liu


Anomaly detection is a first and imperative step needed to respond to unexpected problems and to assure high performance and security in large data center management. This paper presents an online anomaly detection system through an innovative approach of ensemble machine learning and adaptive differentiation algorithms, and applies them to performance data collected from a continuous monitoring system for multi-tier web applications running in Alibaba data centers. We evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of this algorithm with production traffic data and compare with the traditional anomaly detection approaches such as a static threshold and other deviation-based detection techniques. The experiment results show that our algorithm correctly identifies the unexpected performance variances of any running application, with an acceptable false positive rate. This proposed approach has already been deployed in real-time production environments to enhance the efficiency and stability in daily data center operations.

Keywords: Alibaba data centers, anomaly detection, big data computation, dynamic ensemble learning

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245 Magnetic Investigation and 2½D Gravity Profile Modelling across the Beattie Magnetic Anomaly in the Southeastern Karoo Basin, South Africa

Authors: Christopher Baiyegunhi, Oswald Gwavava


The location/source of the Beattie magnetic anomaly (BMA) and interconnectivity of geologic structures at depth have been a topic of investigation for over 30 years. Up to now, no relationship between geological structures (interconnectivity of dolerite intrusions) at depth has been established. Therefore, the environmental impact of fracking the Karoo for shale gas could not be assessed despite the fact that dolerite dykes are groundwater localizers in the Karoo. In this paper, we shed more light to the unanswered questions concerning the possible location of the source of the BMA, the connectivity of geologic structures like dolerite dykes and sills at depth and this relationship needs to be established before the tectonic evolution of the Karoo basin can be fully understood and related to fracking of the Karoo for shale gas. The result of the magnetic investigation and modelling of four gravity profiles that crosses the BMA in the study area reveals that the anomaly, which is part of the Beattie magnetic anomaly tends to divide into two anomalies and continue to trend in an NE-SW direction, the dominant gravity signatures is of long wavelength that is due to a deep source/interface inland and shallows towards the coast, the average depth to the top of the shallow and deep magnetic sources was estimated to be approximately 0.6 km and 15 km, respectively. The BMA become stronger with depth which could be an indication that the source(s) is deep possibly a buried body in the basement. The bean-shaped anomaly also behaves in a similar manner like the BMA thus it could possibly share the same source(s) with the BMA.

Keywords: Beattie magnetic anomaly, magnetic sources, modelling, Karoo Basin

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244 Spatial REE Geochemical Modeling at Lake Acıgöl, Denizli, Turkey: Analytical Approaches on Spatial Interpolation and Spatial Correlation

Authors: M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, A. Abdelnasser, M. Kumral


The spatial interpolation and spatial correlation of the rare earth elements (REE) of lake surface sediments of Lake Acıgöl and its surrounding lithological units is carried out by using GIS techniques like Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) techniques. IDW technique which makes the spatial interpolation shows that the lithological units like Hayrettin Formation at north of Lake Acigol have high REE contents than lake sediments as well as ∑LREE and ∑HREE contents. However, Eu/Eu* values (based on chondrite-normalized REE pattern) show high value in some lake surface sediments than in lithological units and that refers to negative Eu-anomaly. Also, the spatial interpolation of the V/Cr ratio indicated that Acıgöl lithological units and lake sediments deposited in in oxic and dysoxic conditions. But, the spatial correlation is carried out by GWR technique. This technique shows high spatial correlation coefficient between ∑LREE and ∑HREE which is higher in the lithological units (Hayrettin Formation and Cameli Formation) than in the other lithological units and lake surface sediments. Also, the matching between REEs and Sc and Al refers to REE abundances of Lake Acıgöl sediments weathered from local bedrock around the lake.

Keywords: spatial geochemical modeling, IDW, GWR techniques, REE, lake sediments, Lake Acıgöl, Turkey

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243 Distribution Patterns of Trace Metals in Soils of Gbongan-Odeyinka-Orileowu Area, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: T. A. Adesiyan, J. A. Adekoya A. Akinlua, N. Torto


One hundred and eighty six in situ soil samples of the B–horizon were collected around Gbongan–Odeyinka-Orileowu area, southwestern Nigeria, delineated by longitude 4°15l and 4°30l and latitude 7°14l and 7°31 for a reconnaissance geochemical soil survey. The objective was to determine the distribution pattern of some trace metals in the area with a view to discovering any indication of metallic mineralization. The samples were air–dried and sieved to obtain the minus 230 µ fractions which were used for pH determinations and subjected to hot aqua regia acid digestion. The solutions obtained were analyzed for Ag, As, Au, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn using atomic absorption spectrometric methods. The resulting data were subjected to simple statistical treatment and used in preparing distribution maps of the elements. With these, the spatial distributions of the elements in the area were discussed. The pH of the soils range from 4.70 to 7.59 and this reflects the geochemical distribution patterns of trace metals in the area. The spatial distribution maps of the elements showed similarity in the distributions of Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Mn and Pb. This suggests close associations between these elements none of which showed any significant anomaly in the study. The associations might be due to the scavenging actions of Fe–Mn oxides on the elements. Only Ag, Au and Sn on one hand and Zn on the other hand showed significant anomalies, which are thought to be due to mineralization and anthropogenic activities respectively.

Keywords: distribution, metals, Gbongan, Nigeria, mineralization anthropogenic

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
242 Geochemical and Petrological Survey in Northern Ethiopia Basement Rocks for Investigation of Gold and Base Metal Mineral Potential in Finarwa, Southeast Tigray, Ethiopia

Authors: Siraj Beyan Mohamed, Woldia University


The study is accompanied in northern Ethiopian basement rocks, Finarwa area, and its surrounding areas, south eastern Tigray. From the field observations, the geology of the area haven been described and mapped based on mineral composition, texture, structure, and colour of both fresh and weather rocks. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) have conducted to analysis gold and base metal mineralization. The ore mineral under microscope are commonly base metal sulphides pyrrhotite, Chalcopyrite, pentilanditeoccurring in variable proportions. Galena, chalcopyrite, pyrite, and gold mineral are hosted in quartz vein. Pyrite occurs both in quartz vein and enclosing rocks as a primary mineral. The base metal sulfides occur as disseminated, vein filling, and replacement. Geochemical analyses result determination of the threshold of geochemical anomalies is directly related to the identification of mineralization information. From samples, stream sediment samples and the soil samples indicated that the most promising mineralization occur in the prospect area are gold(Au), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). This is also supported by the abundance of chalcopyrite and sphalerite in some highly altered samples. The stream sediment geochemical survey data shows relatively higher values for zinc compared to Pb and Cu. The moderate concentration of the base metals in some of the samples indicates availability base metal mineralization in the study area requiring further investigation. The rock and soil geochemistry shows the significant concentration of gold with maximum value of 0.33ppm and 0.97 ppm in the south western part of the study area. In Finarwa, artisanal gold mining has become an increasingly widespread economic activity of the local people undertaken by socially differentiated groups with a wide range of education levels and economic backgrounds incorporating a wide variety of ‘labour intensive activities without mechanisation.

Keywords: gold, base metal, anomaly, threshold

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241 Minimum Pension Guarantee in Funded Pension Schemes: Theoretical Model and Global Implementation

Authors: Ishay Wolf


In this study, the financial position of pension actors in the market during the pension system transition toward a more funded capitalized scheme is explored, mainly via an option benefit model. This is enabled by not considering the economy as a single earning cohort. We analytically demonstrate a socio-economic anomaly in the funded pension system, which is in favor of high earning cohorts on at the expense of low earning cohorts. This anomaly is realized by a lack of insurance and exposure to financial and systemic risks. Furthermore, the anomaly might lead to pension re-reform back to unfunded scheme, mostly due to political pressure. We find that a minimum pension guarantee is a rebalance mechanism to this anomaly, which increases the probability to of the sustainable pension scheme. Specifically, we argue that implementing the guarantee with an intra-generational, risk-sharing mechanism is the most efficient way to reduce the effect of this abnormality. Moreover, we exhibit the convergence process toward implementing minimum pension guarantee in many countries which have capitalized their pension systems during the last three decades, particularly among Latin America and CEE countries.

Keywords: benefits, pension scheme, put option, social security

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240 Anomaly Detection Based on Alarms Data

Authors: Michel Kamel, Anis Hoayek, Mireille Batton-Hubert


Alarms data is a very important source of information for network operation center (NOC) teams to aggregate and display alarming events occurring within a network element. However, on a large network, a long list of alarms is generated almost continuously. Intelligent analytical reporting of these alarms is needed to help the NOC team to eliminate noise and focus on primary events. Hence, there is a need for an anomaly detection model to learn from and use historical alarms data to achieve this. It is also important to indicate the root cause of anomalies so that immediate corrective action can be taken. In this paper, we introduce a new algorithm to derive four features based on historical data and aggregate them to generate a final score that is optimized through supervised labels for greater accuracy. These four features reflect the likelihood of occurrence of events, the sequence of events and the importance of relatively new events not seen in the historical data. Certain assumptions are tested on the data using the relevant statistical tests. After validating these assumptions, we measure the accuracy on labeled data, revealing that the proposed algorithm performs with a high anomaly detection accuracy.

Keywords: alarms, anomaly detection, events data, probabilistic scoring distribution

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239 Evaluating Performance of an Anomaly Detection Module with Artificial Neural Network Implementation

Authors: Edward Guillén, Jhordany Rodriguez, Rafael Páez


Anomaly detection techniques have been focused on two main components: data extraction and selection and the second one is the analysis performed over the obtained data. The goal of this paper is to analyze the influence that each of these components has over the system performance by evaluating detection over network scenarios with different setups. The independent variables are as follows: the number of system inputs, the way the inputs are codified and the complexity of the analysis techniques. For the analysis, some approaches of artificial neural networks are implemented with different number of layers. The obtained results show the influence that each of these variables has in the system performance.

Keywords: network intrusion detection, machine learning, artificial neural network, anomaly detection module

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238 Intrusion Detection and Prevention System (IDPS) in Cloud Computing Using Anomaly-Based and Signature-Based Detection Techniques

Authors: John Onyima, Ikechukwu Ezepue


Virtualization and cloud computing are among the fast-growing computing innovations in recent times. Organisations all over the world are moving their computing services towards the cloud this is because of its rapid transformation of the organization’s infrastructure and improvement of efficient resource utilization and cost reduction. However, this technology brings new security threats and challenges about safety, reliability and data confidentiality. Evidently, no single security technique can guarantee security or protection against malicious attacks on a cloud computing network hence an integrated model of intrusion detection and prevention system has been proposed. Anomaly-based and signature-based detection techniques will be integrated to enable the network and its host defend themselves with some level of intelligence. The anomaly-base detection was implemented using the local deviation factor graph-based (LDFGB) algorithm while the signature-based detection was implemented using the snort algorithm. Results from this collaborative intrusion detection and prevention techniques show robust and efficient security architecture for cloud computing networks.

Keywords: anomaly-based detection, cloud computing, intrusion detection, intrusion prevention, signature-based detection

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237 Uncertainty Quantification of Corrosion Anomaly Length of Oil and Gas Steel Pipelines Based on Inline Inspection and Field Data

Authors: Tammeen Siraj, Wenxing Zhou, Terry Huang, Mohammad Al-Amin


The high resolution inline inspection (ILI) tool is used extensively in the pipeline industry to identify, locate, and measure metal-loss corrosion anomalies on buried oil and gas steel pipelines. Corrosion anomalies may occur singly (i.e. individual anomalies) or as clusters (i.e. a colony of corrosion anomalies). Although the ILI technology has advanced immensely, there are measurement errors associated with the sizes of corrosion anomalies reported by ILI tools due limitations of the tools and associated sizing algorithms, and detection threshold of the tools (i.e. the minimum detectable feature dimension). Quantifying the measurement error in the ILI data is crucial for corrosion management and developing maintenance strategies that satisfy the safety and economic constraints. Studies on the measurement error associated with the length of the corrosion anomalies (in the longitudinal direction of the pipeline) has been scarcely reported in the literature and will be investigated in the present study. Limitations in the ILI tool and clustering process can sometimes cause clustering error, which is defined as the error introduced during the clustering process by including or excluding a single or group of anomalies in or from a cluster. Clustering error has been found to be one of the biggest contributory factors for relatively high uncertainties associated with ILI reported anomaly length. As such, this study focuses on developing a consistent and comprehensive framework to quantify the measurement errors in the ILI-reported anomaly length by comparing the ILI data and corresponding field measurements for individual and clustered corrosion anomalies. The analysis carried out in this study is based on the ILI and field measurement data for a set of anomalies collected from two segments of a buried natural gas pipeline currently in service in Alberta, Canada. Data analyses showed that the measurement error associated with the ILI-reported length of the anomalies without clustering error, denoted as Type I anomalies is markedly less than that for anomalies with clustering error, denoted as Type II anomalies. A methodology employing data mining techniques is further proposed to classify the Type I and Type II anomalies based on the ILI-reported corrosion anomaly information.

Keywords: clustered corrosion anomaly, corrosion anomaly assessment, corrosion anomaly length, individual corrosion anomaly, metal-loss corrosion, oil and gas steel pipeline

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236 Depositional Environment of the Babouchite Rocks of Numidian Formation, Northwestern Tunisia: Mineralogical Study and Geochemical Properties

Authors: Ben Yahia Nouha, Harris Chris, Boussen Slim, Chaabani Fredj


The present work has set itself the objective of studying non-detritic siliceous rocks in the extreme northwestern of Tunisia. It aims to discuss the origin and depositional environment of siliceous rocks based on petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical results. The different sections were made in the area of Babouch and the area of Cap-Serrat. The collected samples were subjected to petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical characterization using different analytical methods: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), geochemical analysis (ICP- AES), isotopic geochemistry (δ¹⁸O) to assess their suitability for industrial use. These babouchite shows that the mineralogy consists of quartz as the dominant mineral with the total lack of amorphous silica, while clay represents the minor phase. The petrographic examination revealed allowed to deduce that it is a rock of chemical origin deriving from tests of siliceous organisms (the radiolarians). Chemical analyzes show that SiO₂, Al₂O₃, and Fe₂O₃ represent the most abundant oxides. The other oxides are present in negligible quantity. Geochemical data support a biogenic and non-hydrothermal origin of babouchite silica. Oxygen isotopic has shown that babouchites are formed in an environment with a high temperature, ranging from 56°C to 73°C.

Keywords: siliceous rocks, babouchite formation, XRD, chemical analysis, isotopic geochemistry, Northwestern of Tunisia

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235 Mineralogical and Geochemical Constraints on the Origin and Environment of Numidian Siliceous Sedimentary Rocks of the Extreme Northwest Tunisia

Authors: Ben Yahia Nouha, Harris Chris, Sebei Abdelaziz, Boussen Slim, Chaabani Fredj


The present work has set itself the objective of studying non-detritic siliceous rocks of the extreme northwest Tunisia. It aims to examine the origin and their sedimentary depositional environment based on mineralogical and geochemical characteristics. The different sections were located in the area of Babouch and the area of Tabarka. The collected samples were subjected to mineralogical and geochemical characterization using different analytical methods: X-ray diffraction (XRD), geochemical analysis (ICP- AES), isotopic geochemistry (δ18O), to assess their suitability for industrial use. X-ray powder diffraction of the pure siliceous rock indicates quartz as the major mineral, with the total lack of amorphous silica. Trace impurities, such as carbonate and clay minerals, are concealed in the analytical results. The petrographic examination revealed allowed us to deduce that this rock was deriving from tests of siliceous organisms (the radiolarians). The chemical composition shows that SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 represent the most abundant oxides. The other oxides are present in negligible quantities. Geochemical data support a biogenic and non-hydrothermal origin of babouchite silica. Oxygen isotopic has shown that babouchites were formed in an environment with a high temperature ranging from 56 °C to 73 °C.

Keywords: biogenic silica, babouchite formation, XRD, chemical analysis, oxygen isotopic, northwest tunisia

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234 Combination between Intrusion Systems and Honeypots

Authors: Majed Sanan, Mohammad Rammal, Wassim Rammal


Today, security is a major concern. Intrusion Detection, Prevention Systems and Honeypot can be used to moderate attacks. Many researchers have proposed to use many IDSs ((Intrusion Detection System) time to time. Some of these IDS’s combine their features of two or more IDSs which are called Hybrid Intrusion Detection Systems. Most of the researchers combine the features of Signature based detection methodology and Anomaly based detection methodology. For a signature based IDS, if an attacker attacks slowly and in organized way, the attack may go undetected through the IDS, as signatures include factors based on duration of the events but the actions of attacker do not match. Sometimes, for an unknown attack there is no signature updated or an attacker attack in the mean time when the database is updating. Thus, signature-based IDS fail to detect unknown attacks. Anomaly based IDS suffer from many false-positive readings. So there is a need to hybridize those IDS which can overcome the shortcomings of each other. In this paper we propose a new approach to IDS (Intrusion Detection System) which is more efficient than the traditional IDS (Intrusion Detection System). The IDS is based on Honeypot Technology and Anomaly based Detection Methodology. We have designed Architecture for the IDS in a packet tracer and then implemented it in real time. We have discussed experimental results performed: both the Honeypot and Anomaly based IDS have some shortcomings but if we hybridized these two technologies, the newly proposed Hybrid Intrusion Detection System (HIDS) is capable enough to overcome these shortcomings with much enhanced performance. In this paper, we present a modified Hybrid Intrusion Detection System (HIDS) that combines the positive features of two different detection methodologies - Honeypot methodology and anomaly based intrusion detection methodology. In the experiment, we ran both the Intrusion Detection System individually first and then together and recorded the data from time to time. From the data we can conclude that the resulting IDS are much better in detecting intrusions from the existing IDSs.

Keywords: security, intrusion detection, intrusion prevention, honeypot, anomaly-based detection, signature-based detection, cloud computing, kfsensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
233 Anomaly Detection in a Data Center with a Reconstruction Method Using a Multi-Autoencoders Model

Authors: Victor Breux, Jérôme Boutet, Alain Goret, Viviane Cattin


Early detection of anomalies in data centers is important to reduce downtimes and the costs of periodic maintenance. However, there is little research on this topic and even fewer on the fusion of sensor data for the detection of abnormal events. The goal of this paper is to propose a method for anomaly detection in data centers by combining sensor data (temperature, humidity, power) and deep learning models. The model described in the paper uses one autoencoder per sensor to reconstruct the inputs. The auto-encoders contain Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) layers and are trained using the normal samples of the relevant sensors selected by correlation analysis. The difference signal between the input and its reconstruction is then used to classify the samples using feature extraction and a random forest classifier. The data measured by the sensors of a data center between January 2019 and May 2020 are used to train the model, while the data between June 2020 and May 2021 are used to assess it. Performances of the model are assessed a posteriori through F1-score by comparing detected anomalies with the data center’s history. The proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art reconstruction method, which uses only one autoencoder taking multivariate sequences and detects an anomaly with a threshold on the reconstruction error, with an F1-score of 83.60% compared to 24.16%.

Keywords: anomaly detection, autoencoder, data centers, deep learning

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232 The Use of Image Processing Responses Tools Applied to Analysing Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map (Tangier-Tetuan's Area-Morocco)

Authors: Saad Bakkali


Image processing is a powerful tool for the enhancement of edges in images used in the interpretation of geophysical potential field data. Arial and terrestrial gravimetric surveys were carried out in the region of Tangier-Tetuan. From the observed and measured data of gravity Bouguer gravity anomalies map was prepared. This paper reports the results and interpretations of the transformed maps of Bouguer gravity anomaly of the Tangier-Tetuan area using image processing. Filtering analysis based on classical image process was applied. Operator image process like logarithmic and gamma correction are used. This paper also present the results obtained from this image processing analysis of the enhancement edges of the Bouguer gravity anomaly map of the Tangier-Tetuan zone.

Keywords: bouguer, tangier, filtering, gamma correction, logarithmic enhancement edges

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231 A Data-Driven Monitoring Technique Using Combined Anomaly Detectors

Authors: Fouzi Harrou, Ying Sun, Sofiane Khadraoui


Anomaly detection based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was studied intensively and largely applied to multivariate processes with highly cross-correlated process variables. Monitoring metrics such as the Hotelling's T2 and the Q statistics are usually used in PCA-based monitoring to elucidate the pattern variations in the principal and residual subspaces, respectively. However, these metrics are ill suited to detect small faults. In this paper, the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) based on the Q and T statistics, T2-EWMA and Q-EWMA, were developed for detecting faults in the process mean. The performance of the proposed methods was compared with that of the conventional PCA-based fault detection method using synthetic data. The results clearly show the benefit and the effectiveness of the proposed methods over the conventional PCA method, especially for detecting small faults in highly correlated multivariate data.

Keywords: data-driven method, process control, anomaly detection, dimensionality reduction

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230 An Active Subsurface Geological Structure Pattern of Mud Volcano Phenomenon as an Environmental Impact of Petroleum Withdrawal in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

Authors: M. M. S. Prahastomi, M. Muhajir Saputra, Axel Derian


Lapindo mud (LUSI ) phenomenon which occurred in Sidoarjo 2006 is a national scale of the geological phenomenon. This mudflow forms a mud volcano that spreads by time is in the need of serious treatment. Some further research has been conducted either by the application method of geodesy, geophysics, and subsurface geology, but still remains a mystery to this phenomenon. Sidoarjo Physiographic regions are included in the Kendeng zone flanked by Rembang zones in northern and Solo zones in southern. In this region revealed Kabuh formation, Jombang formation, and alluvium. In general, in the northern part of the area is composed of sedimentary rocks Sidoarjo klastika, epiklastic, pyroclastics, and older alluvium of the Early Pleistocene to Resen. The study was conducted with the literature study of the stratigraphy and regional geology as well as secondary data from observations coupled gravity method (Anomaly Bouger). The aim of the study is to reveal the subsurface geology structure pattern and the changes in mass flow. Gravity anomaly data were obtained from the calculation of the value of gravity and altitude, then processed into gravity anomaly contours which reflect changes in density of each group observed gravity. The gravity data could indicate a bottom surface which deformation occur the stronger or more intense to the south. Deformation in the form of gravity impairment was associated with a decrease in future density which is indicated by the presence of gas, water and gas bursts. Sectional analysis of changes in the measured value of gravity at different times indicates a change in the value of gravity caused by the presence of subsurface subsidence. While the gravity anomaly section describes the fault zone causes the zone to be unstable.

Keywords: mud volcano, Lumpur Sidoarjo, Bouger anomaly, Indonesia

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229 Analysis of Magnetic Anomaly Data for Identification Structure in Subsurface of Geothermal Manifestation at Candi Umbul Area, Magelang, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: N. A. Kharisa, I. Wulandari, R. Narendratama, M. I. Faisal, K. Kirana, R. Zipora, I. Arfiansah, I. Suyanto


Acquisition of geophysical survey with magnetic method has been done in manifestation of geothermalat Candi Umbul, Grabag, Magelang, Central Java Province on 10-12 May 2013. This objective research is interpretation to interpret structural geology that control geothermal system in CandiUmbul area. The research has been finished with area size 1,5 km x 2 km and measurement space of 150 m. And each point of line space survey is 150 m using PPM Geometrics model G-856. Data processing was started with IGRF and diurnal variation correction to get total magnetic field anomaly. Then, advance processing was done until reduction to pole, upward continuation, and residual anomaly. That results become next interpretation in qualitative step. It is known that the biggest object position causes low anomaly located in central of area survey that comes from hot spring manifestation and demagnetization zone that indicates the existence of heat source activity. Then, modeling the anomaly map was used for quantitative interpretation step. The result of modeling is rock layers and geological structure model that can inform about the geothermal system. And further information from quantitative interpretations can be interpreted about lithology susceptibility. And lithology susceptibilities are andesiteas heat source has susceptibility value of (k= 0.00014 emu), basaltic as alteration rock (k= 0.0016 emu), volcanic breccia as reservoir rock (k= 0.0026 emu), andesite porfirtic as cap rock (k= 0.004 emu), lava andesite (k= 0.003 emu), and alluvium (k= 0.0007 emu). The hot spring manifestation is controlled by the normal fault which becomes a weak zone, easily passed by hot water which comes from the geothermal reservoir.

Keywords: geological structure, geothermal system, magnetic, susceptibility

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228 Anomaly Detection of Log Analysis using Data Visualization Techniques for Digital Forensics Audit and Investigation

Authors: Mohamed Fadzlee Sulaiman, Zainurrasyid Abdullah, Mohd Zabri Adil Talib, Aswami Fadillah Mohd Ariffin


In common digital forensics cases, investigation may rely on the analysis conducted on specific and relevant exhibits involved. Usually the investigation officer may define and advise digital forensic analyst about the goals and objectives to be achieved in reconstructing the trail of evidence while maintaining the specific scope of investigation. With the technology growth, people are starting to realize the importance of cyber security to their organization and this new perspective creates awareness that digital forensics auditing must come in place in order to measure possible threat or attack to their cyber-infrastructure. Instead of performing investigation on incident basis, auditing may broaden the scope of investigation to the level of anomaly detection in daily operation of organization’s cyber space. While handling a huge amount of data such as log files, performing digital forensics audit for large organization proven to be onerous task for the analyst either to analyze the huge files or to translate the findings in a way where the stakeholder can clearly understand. Data visualization can be emphasized in conducting digital forensic audit and investigation to resolve both needs. This study will identify the important factors that should be considered to perform data visualization techniques in order to detect anomaly that meet the digital forensic audit and investigation objectives.

Keywords: digital forensic, data visualization, anomaly detection , log analysis, forensic audit, visualization techniques

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227 First Approximation to Congenital Anomalies in Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) in Veracruz, Mexico

Authors: Judith Correa-Gomez, Cristina Garcia-De la Pena, Veronica Avila-Rodriguez, David R. Aguillon-Gutierrez


Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) is the smallest species of sea turtle. It nests on the beaches of the Gulf of Mexico during summer. To date, there is no information about congenital anomalies in this species, which could be an important factor to be considered as a survival threat. The aim of this study was to determine congenital anomalies in dead embryos and hatchlings of Kemp's ridley sea turtle during 2020 nesting season. Fieldwork was conducted at the 'Campamento Tortugero Barra Norte', on the shores of Tuxpan, Veracruz, Mexico. A total of 95 nests were evaluated, from which 223 dead embryos and hatchlings were collected. Anomalies were detected by detailed physical examinations. Photographs of each anomaly were taken. From the 223 dead turtles, 213 (95%) showed a congenital anomaly. A total of 53 types of congenital anomalies were found: 22 types on the head region, 21 on the carapace region, 6 on the flipper region, and 4 regarding the entire body. The most prevalent anomaly in the head region was the presence of prefrontal supernumerary scales (42%, 93 occurrences). On the carapace region, the most common anomaly was the presence of supernumerary gular scales (59%, 131 occurrences). The two most common anomalies on the flipper region were amelia in fore flippers and rear bifurcation of flippers (0.9%, 2 occurrences each). The most common anomaly involving the entire body was hypomelanism (35%, 79 occurrences). These results agree with the recent studies on congenital malformations on sea turtles, being the head and the carapace regions the ones with the highest number of congenital anomalies. It is unknown whether the reported anomalies can be related to the death of these individuals. However, it is necessary to develop embryological studies in this species. To our best knowledge, this is the first worldwide report on Kemp’s ridley sea turtle anomalies.

Keywords: Amelia, hypomelanism, morphology, supernumerary scales

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226 Malaysian's Shale Formation Characterizations: Geochemical Properties, Mineralogy, Adsorption and Desorption Behavior

Authors: Ahmed M. Al-Mutarreb, Shiferaw R. Jufar


Global shale gas resource assessment is still in its preliminary stage in most of the countries including the development of shale gas reservoirs in Malaysia. This project presents the main geochemical and mineral characteristics of few Malaysian’s shale samples which contribute on evaluating shale gas reserve world resource evaluations. Three shale samples from the western part of Peninsular Malaysia (Batu-Caja, Kuala Lumpur, and Johor Baru shale formations) were collected for this study. Total organic carbon wt.%, thermal maturity, kerogen type, mineralogy and adsorption/desorption characteristics are measured at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS laboratories. Two samples show good potential in TOC results exhibited > 2wt.% exceeding the minimum values of Shale gas potential, while the third revealed < 1.5wt. Mineralogical compositions for the three samples are within the acceptable range percentage% of quartz and clays compared to shale plays in USA. This research’s results are promising and recommend to continue exploring and assessing unconventional shale gas reserves values in these areas.

Keywords: shale gas characterizations, geochemical properties, Malaysia, shale gas reserve

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225 The Evaluation of Gravity Anomalies Based on Global Models by Land Gravity Data

Authors: M. Yilmaz, I. Yilmaz, M. Uysal


The Earth system generates different phenomena that are observable at the surface of the Earth such as mass deformations and displacements leading to plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanism. The dynamic processes associated with the interior, surface, and atmosphere of the Earth affect the three pillars of geodesy: shape of the Earth, its gravity field, and its rotation. Geodesy establishes a characteristic structure in order to define, monitor, and predict of the whole Earth system. The traditional and new instruments, observables, and techniques in geodesy are related to the gravity field. Therefore, the geodesy monitors the gravity field and its temporal variability in order to transform the geodetic observations made on the physical surface of the Earth into the geometrical surface in which positions are mathematically defined. In this paper, the main components of the gravity field modeling, (Free-air and Bouguer) gravity anomalies are calculated via recent global models (EGM2008, EIGEN6C4, and GECO) over a selected study area. The model-based gravity anomalies are compared with the corresponding terrestrial gravity data in terms of standard deviation (SD) and root mean square error (RMSE) for determining the best fit global model in the study area at a regional scale in Turkey. The least SD (13.63 mGal) and RMSE (15.71 mGal) were obtained by EGM2008 for the Free-air gravity anomaly residuals. For the Bouguer gravity anomaly residuals, EIGEN6C4 provides the least SD (8.05 mGal) and RMSE (8.12 mGal). The results indicated that EIGEN6C4 can be a useful tool for modeling the gravity field of the Earth over the study area.

Keywords: free-air gravity anomaly, Bouguer gravity anomaly, global model, land gravity

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224 Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of High-K Calc-Alkaline Granitic Rocks of Song, Hawal Massif, N. E. Nigeria

Authors: Ismaila Haruna


The global downfall in fossil energy prices and dwindling oil reserves in Nigeria has ignited interest in the search for alternative sources of foreign income for the country. Solid minerals, particularly Uranium and other base metals like Lead and Zinc have been considered as potentially good options. Several occurrences of this mineral have been discovered in both the sedimentary and granitic rocks of the Hawal and Adamawa Massifs as well as in the adjoining Benue Trough in northeastern Nigeria. However, the paucity of geochemical data and consequent poor petrogenetic knowledge of the granitoids in this region has made exploration works difficult. Song, a small area within the Hawal Massif, was mapped and the collected samples chemically determined in Activation Laboratory, Canada through fusion dissolution technique of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Field mapping results show that the area is underlain by Granites, diorites with pockets of gneisses and pegmatites and that these rocks consists of microcline, quartz, plagioclase, biotite, hornblende, pyroxene and accessory apatite, zircon, sphene, magnetite and opaques in various proportions. Geochemical data show continous compositional variation from diorite to granites within silica range of 52.69 to 76.04 wt %. Plot of the data on various Harker variation diagrams show distinct evolutionary trends from diorites to granites indicated by decreasing CaO, Fe2O3, MnO, MgO, Ti2O, and increasing K2O with increasing silica. This pattern is reflected in trace elements data which, in general, decrease from diorite to the granites with rising Rb and K. Tectonic, triangular and other diagrams, indicate high-K calc-alkaline trends, syn-collisional granite signatures, I-type characteristics, with CNK/A of less than 1.1 (minimum of 0.58 and maximum of 0.94) and strong potassic character (K2O/Na2O˃1). However, only the granites are slightly peraluminous containing high silica percentage (68.46 to 76.04), K2O (2.71 to 6.16 wt %) with low CaO (1.88 on the average). Chondrite normalised rare earth elements trends indicate strongly fractionated REEs and enriched LREEs with slightly increasing negative Eu anomaly from the diorite to the granite. On the basis of field and geochemical data, the granitoids are interpreted to be high-K calc-alkaline, I-type, formed as a result of hybridization between mantle-derived magma and continental source materials (probably older meta-sediments) in a syn-collisional tectonic setting.

Keywords: geochemistry, granite, Hawal Massif, Nigeria, petrogenesis, song

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223 Investigation of Geothermal Gradient of the Niger Delta from Recent Studies

Authors: Adedapo Jepson Olumide, Kurowska Ewa, K. Schoeneich, Ikpokonte A. Enoch


In this paper, subsurface temperature measured from continuous temperature logs were used to determine the geothermal gradient of NigerDelta sedimentary basin. The measured temperatures were corrected to the true subsurface temperatures by applying the American Association of Petroleum Resources (AAPG) correction factor, borehole temperature correction factor with La Max’s correction factor and Zeta Utilities borehole correction factor. Geothermal gradient in this basin ranges from 1.20C to 7.560C/100m. Six geothermal anomalies centres were observed at depth in the southern parts of the Abakaliki anticlinorium around Onitsha, Ihiala, Umuaha area and named A1 to A6 while two more centre appeared at depth of 3500m and 4000m named A7 and A8 respectively. Anomaly A1 describes the southern end of the Abakaliki anticlinorium and extends southwards, anomaly A2 to A5 were found associated with a NW-SE structural alignment of the Calabar hinge line with structures describing the edge of the Niger Delta basin with the basement block of the Oban massif. Anomaly A6 locates in the south-eastern part of the basin offshore while A7 and A8 are located in the south western part of the basin offshore. At the average exploratory depth of 3500m, the geothermal gradient values for these anomalies A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, and A8 are 6.50C/100m, 1.750C/100m, 7.50C/100m, 1.250C/100m, 6.50C/100m, 5.50C/100m, 60C/100m, and 2.250C/100m respectively. Anomaly A8 area may yield higher thermal value at greater depth than 3500m. These results show that anomalies areas of A1, A3, A5, A6 and A7 are potentially prospective and explorable for geothermal energy using abandoned oil wells in the study area. Anomalies A1, A3.A5, A6 occur at areas where drilled boreholes were not exploitable for oil and gas but for the remaining areas where wells are so exploitable there appears no geothermal anomaly. Geothermal energy is environmentally friendly, clean and reversible.

Keywords: temperature logs, geothermal gradient anomalies, alternative energy, Niger delta basin

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222 Analysis Of Magnetic Anomaly Data For Identification Subsurface Structure Geothermal Manifestations Area Candi Umbul, Grabag, Magelang, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Ikawati Wulandari


Acquisition of geomagnetic field has been done at Geothermal manifestation Candi Umbul, Grabag, Magelang, Central Java Province on 10-12 May 2013. The purpose of this research to study sub-surface structure condition and the structure which control the hot springs manifestation. The research area have size of 1,5 km x 2 km and measurement spacing of 150 m. Total magnetic field data, the position, and the north pole direction have acquired by Proton Precession Magnetometer (PPM), Global Positioning System (GPS), and of geology compass, respectively. The raw data has been processed and performed using IGRF (International Geomagnetics Reference Field) correction to obtain total field magnetic anomaly. Upward continuation was performed at 100 meters height using software Magpick. Analysis conclude horizontal position of the body causing anomaly which is located at hot springs manifestation, and it stretch along Northeast - Southwest, which later interpreted as normal fault. This hotsprings manifestation was controlled by the downward fault which becomes a weak zone where hot water from underground the geothermal reservoir leakage

Keywords: PPM, Geothermal, Fault, Grabag

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221 Air Handling Units Power Consumption Using Generalized Additive Model for Anomaly Detection: A Case Study in a Singapore Campus

Authors: Ju Peng Poh, Jun Yu Charles Lee, Jonathan Chew Hoe Khoo


The emergence of digital twin technology, a digital replica of physical world, has improved the real-time access to data from sensors about the performance of buildings. This digital transformation has opened up many opportunities to improve the management of the building by using the data collected to help monitor consumption patterns and energy leakages. One example is the integration of predictive models for anomaly detection. In this paper, we use the GAM (Generalised Additive Model) for the anomaly detection of Air Handling Units (AHU) power consumption pattern. There is ample research work on the use of GAM for the prediction of power consumption at the office building and nation-wide level. However, there is limited illustration of its anomaly detection capabilities, prescriptive analytics case study, and its integration with the latest development of digital twin technology. In this paper, we applied the general GAM modelling framework on the historical data of the AHU power consumption and cooling load of the building between Jan 2018 to Aug 2019 from an education campus in Singapore to train prediction models that, in turn, yield predicted values and ranges. The historical data are seamlessly extracted from the digital twin for modelling purposes. We enhanced the utility of the GAM model by using it to power a real-time anomaly detection system based on the forward predicted ranges. The magnitude of deviation from the upper and lower bounds of the uncertainty intervals is used to inform and identify anomalous data points, all based on historical data, without explicit intervention from domain experts. Notwithstanding, the domain expert fits in through an optional feedback loop through which iterative data cleansing is performed. After an anomalously high or low level of power consumption detected, a set of rule-based conditions are evaluated in real-time to help determine the next course of action for the facilities manager. The performance of GAM is then compared with other approaches to evaluate its effectiveness. Lastly, we discuss the successfully deployment of this approach for the detection of anomalous power consumption pattern and illustrated with real-world use cases.

Keywords: anomaly detection, digital twin, generalised additive model, GAM, power consumption, supervised learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 51