Search results for: H. Chennaoui
3 Use of Landsat OLI Images in the Mapping of Landslides: Case of the Taounate Province in Northern Morocco
Abstract:Northern Morocco is characterized by relatively young mountains experiencing a very important dynamic compared to other areas of Morocco. The dynamics associated with the formation of the Rif chain (Alpine tectonics), is accompanied by instabilities essentially related to tectonic movements. The realization of important infrastructures (Roads, Highways,...) represents a triggering factor and favoring landslides. This paper is part of the establishment of landslides susceptibility map and concerns the mapping of unstable areas in the province of Taounate. The landslide was identified using the components of the false color (FCC) of images Landsat OLI: i) the first independent component (IC1), ii) The main component (PC), iii) Normalized difference index (NDI). This mapping for landslides class is validated by in-situ surveys.
Keywords: landslides, False Color Composite (FCC), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Normalized Difference Index (NDI), Normalized Difference Mid Red Index (NDMIDR)Procedia PDF Downloads 201
2 Optimum Turbomachine Preliminary Selection for Power Regeneration in Vapor Compression Cool Production Plants
Abstract:Primary energy consumption and emissions of pollutants (including CO2) sustainability call to search methodologies to lower power absorption for unit of a given product. Cool production plants based on vapour compression are widely used for many applications: air conditioning, food conservation, domestic refrigerators and freezers, special industrial processes, etc. In the field of cool production, the amount of Yearly Consumed Primary Energy is enormous, thus, saving some percentage of it, leads to big worldwide impact in the energy consumption and related energy sustainability. Among various techniques to reduce power required by a Vapour Compression Cool Production Plant (VCCPP), the technique based on Power Regeneration by means of Internal Direct Cycle (IDC) will be considered in this paper. Power produced by IDC reduces power need for unit of produced Cool Power by the VCCPP. The paper contains basic concepts that lead to develop IDCs and the proposed options to use the IDC Power. Among various selections for using turbo machines, Best Economically Available Technologies (BEATs) have been explored. Based on vehicle engine turbochargers, they have been taken into consideration for this application. According to BEAT Database and similarity rules, the best turbo machine selection leads to the minimum nominal power required by VCCPP Main Compressor. Results obtained installing the prototype in “ad hoc” designed test bench will be discussed and compared with the expected performance. Forecasts for the upgrading VCCPP, various applications will be given and discussed. 4-6% saving is expected for air conditioning cooling plants and 15-22% is expected for cryogenic plants. Procedia PDF Downloads 348
1 Benefits of Environmental Aids to Chronobiology Management and Its Impact on Depressive Mood in an Operational Setting
Abstract:According to published data, undersea navigation for long periods (nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine, SSBN) constitutes an extreme environment in which crews are subjected to multiple stresses, including the absence of natural light, illuminance below 1,000 lux, and watch schedules that do not respect natural chronobiological rhythms, for a period of 60-80 days. These stresses seem clearly detrimental to the submariners’ sleep, with consequences for their affective (seasonal affective disorder-like) and cognitive functioning. In the long term, there are abundant publications regarding the consequences of sleep disruption for the occurrence of organic cardiovascular, metabolic, immunological or malignant diseases. It seems essential to propose countermeasures for the duration of the patrol in order to reduce the negative physiological effects on the sleep and mood of submariners. Light therapy, the preferred treatment for dysfunctions of the internal biological clock and the resulting seasonal depression, cannot be used without data to assist knowledge of submariners’ chronobiology (melatonin secretion curve) during patrols, given the unusual characteristics of their working environment. These data are not available in the literature. The aim of this project was to assess, in the course of two studies, the benefits of two environmental techniques for managing chronobiological stress: techniques for optimizing potential (TOP; study 1)3, an existing programme to help in the psychophysiological regulation of stress and sleep in the armed forces, and dawn and dusk simulators (DDS, study 2). For each experiment, psychological, physiological (sleep) or biological (melatonin secretion) data were collected on D20 and D50 of patrol. In the first experiment, we studied sleep and depressive distress in 19 submariners in an operational setting on board an SSBM during a first patrol, and assessed the impact of TOP on the quality of sleep and depressive distress in these same submariners over the course of a second patrol. The submariners were trained in TOP between the two patrols for a 2-month period, at a rate of 1 h of training per week, and assigned daily informal exercises. Results show moderate disruptions in sleep pattern and duration associated with the intensity of depressive distress. The use of TOP during the following patrol improved sleep and depressive mood only in submariners who regularly practiced the techniques. In light of these limited benefits, we assessed, in a second experiment, the benefits of DDS on chronobiology (daily secretion of melatonin) and depressive distress. Ninety submariners were randomly allocated to two groups, group 1 using DDS daily, and group 2 constituting the control group. Although the placebo effect was not controlled, results showed a beneficial effect on chronobiology and depressive mood for submariners with a morning chronotype. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the difficulty of practicing the tools of psychophysiological management in real life. They raise the question of the subjects’ autonomy with respect to using aids that involve regular practice. It seems important to study autonomy in future studies, as a cognitive resource resulting from the interaction between internal positive resources and “coping” resources, to gain a better understanding of compliance problems. Procedia PDF Downloads 372