Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Fuad Askerzadeh

30 Concentration Conditions of Industrially Valuable Accumulations of Gold Ore Mineralization of the Tulallar Ore-Bearing Structure

Authors: Narmina Ismayilova, Shamil Zabitov, Fuad Askerzadeh, Raqif Seyfullayev

Abstract:

Tulallar volcano-tectonic structure is located in the conjugation zone of the Gekgel horst-uplift, Dashkesan, and Agzhakend synclinorium. Regionally, these geological structures are an integral part of the Lok-Karabakh island arc system. Tulallar field is represented by three areas (Central, East, West). The area of the ore field is located within a partially eroded oblong volcano-tectonic depression. In the central part, the core is divided by the deep Tulallar-Chiragdara-Toganalinsky fault with arcuate fragments of the ring structure into three blocks -East, Central, and West, within which the same areas of the Tulallar field are located. In general, for the deposit, the position of both ore-bearing vein zones and ore-bearing blocks is controlled by fractures of two systems - sub-latitudinal and near-meridional orientations. Mineralization of gold-sulfide ores is confined to these zones of disturbances. The zones have a northwestern and northeastern (near-meridian) strike with a steep dip (70-85◦) to the southwest and southeast. The average thickness of the zones is 35 m; they are traced for 2.5 km along the strike and 500 m along with the dip. In general, for the indicated thickness, the zones contain an average of 1.56 ppm Au; however, areas enriched in noble metal are distinguished within them. The zones are complicated by postore fault tectonics. Gold mineralization is localized in the Kimmeridgian volcanics of andesi-basalt-porphyritic composition and their vitrolithoclastic, agglomerate tuffs, and tuff breccias. For the central part of the Tulallar ore field, a map of geochemical anomalies was built on the basis of analysis data carried out in an international laboratory. The total gold content ranges from 0.1-5 g/t, and in some places, even more than 5 g/t. The highest gold content is observed in the monoquartz facies among the secondary quartzites with quartz veins. The smallest amount of gold content appeared in the quartz-kaolin facies. And also, anomalous values of gold content are located in the upper part of the quartz vein. As a result, an en-echelon arrangement of anomalous values of gold along the strike and dip was revealed.

Keywords: geochemical anomaly, gold deposit, mineralization, Tulallar

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29 Brainwave Classification for Brain Balancing Index (BBI) via 3D EEG Model Using k-NN Technique

Authors: N. Fuad, M. N. Taib, R. Jailani, M. E. Marwan

Abstract:

In this paper, the comparison between k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) algorithms for classifying the 3D EEG model in brain balancing is presented. The EEG signal recording was conducted on 51 healthy subjects. Development of 3D EEG models involves pre-processing of raw EEG signals and construction of spectrogram images. Then, maximum PSD values were extracted as features from the model. There are three indexes for the balanced brain; index 3, index 4 and index 5. There are significant different of the EEG signals due to the brain balancing index (BBI). Alpha-α (8–13 Hz) and beta-β (13–30 Hz) were used as input signals for the classification model. The k-NN classification result is 88.46% accuracy. These results proved that k-NN can be used in order to predict the brain balancing application.

Keywords: power spectral density, 3D EEG model, brain balancing, kNN

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28 Use of Fractal Geometry in Machine Learning

Authors: Fuad M. Alkoot

Abstract:

The main component of a machine learning system is the classifier. Classifiers are mathematical models that can perform classification tasks for a specific application area. Additionally, many classifiers are combined using any of the available methods to reduce the classifier error rate. The benefits gained from the combination of multiple classifier designs has motivated the development of diverse approaches to multiple classifiers. We aim to investigate using fractal geometry to develop an improved classifier combiner. Initially we experiment with measuring the fractal dimension of data and use the results in the development of a combiner strategy.

Keywords: fractal geometry, machine learning, classifier, fractal dimension

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27 Characterization of 3D-MRP for Analyzing of Brain Balancing Index (BBI) Pattern

Authors: N. Fuad, M. N. Taib, R. Jailani, M. E. Marwan

Abstract:

This paper discusses on power spectral density (PSD) characteristics which are extracted from three-dimensional (3D) electroencephalogram (EEG) models. The EEG signal recording was conducted on 150 healthy subjects. Development of 3D EEG models involves pre-processing of raw EEG signals and construction of spectrogram images. Then, the values of maximum PSD were extracted as features from the model. These features are analysed using mean relative power (MRP) and different mean relative power (DMRP) technique to observe the pattern among different brain balancing indexes. The results showed that by implementing these techniques, the pattern of brain balancing indexes can be clearly observed. Some patterns are indicates between index 1 to index 5 for left frontal (LF) and right frontal (RF).

Keywords: power spectral density, 3D EEG model, brain balancing, mean relative power, different mean relative power

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26 Biodegradation of Cellulosic Materials by Marine Fungi Isolated from South Corniche of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Fuad Ameen, Mohamed Moslem, Sarfaraz Hadi

Abstract:

Twenty-eight fungal isolates belonging to 12 genera were derived from debris, sediment and water samples collected from Avicennia marina stands 25km south of Jeddah city on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Eight of these isolates were found to be able to grow in association cellulosic waste materials under in vitro conditions in the absence of any carbon source. Isolates were further tested for their potential to degrade paper and clothes wastes by co-cultivation under aeration on a rotary shaker. These fungi accumulated significantly higher biomass, produced ligninolytic and cellulase enzymes, and liberated larger volumes of CO2. These observations indicated that the selected isolates were able to break down and consume the waste materials.

Keywords: biodegradation, enzyme activity, waste materials, mangrove

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25 Identity Verification Using k-NN Classifiers and Autistic Genetic Data

Authors: Fuad M. Alkoot

Abstract:

DNA data have been used in forensics for decades. However, current research looks at using the DNA as a biometric identity verification modality. The goal is to improve the speed of identification. We aim at using gene data that was initially used for autism detection to find if and how accurate is this data for identification applications. Mainly our goal is to find if our data preprocessing technique yields data useful as a biometric identification tool. We experiment with using the nearest neighbor classifier to identify subjects. Results show that optimal classification rate is achieved when the test set is corrupted by normally distributed noise with zero mean and standard deviation of 1. The classification rate is close to optimal at higher noise standard deviation reaching 3. This shows that the data can be used for identity verification with high accuracy using a simple classifier such as the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN). 

Keywords: biometrics, genetic data, identity verification, k nearest neighbor

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24 Influencers of E-Learning Readiness among Palestinian Secondary School Teachers: An Explorative Study

Authors: Fuad A. A. Trayek, Tunku Badariah Tunku Ahmad, Mohamad Sahari Nordin, Mohammed AM Dwikat

Abstract:

This paper reports on the results of an exploratory factor analysis procedure applied on the e-learning readiness data obtained from a survey of four hundred and seventy-nine (N = 479) teachers from secondary schools in Nablus, Palestine. The data were drawn from a 23-item Likert questionnaire measuring e-learning readiness based on Chapnick's conception of the construct. Principal axis factoring (PAF) with Promax rotation applied on the data extracted four distinct factors supporting four of Chapnick's e-learning readiness dimensions, namely technological readiness, psychological readiness, infrastructure readiness and equipment readiness. Together these four dimensions explained 56% of the variance. These findings provide further support for the construct validity of the items and for the existence of these four factors that measure e-learning readiness.

Keywords: e-learning, e-learning readiness, technological readiness, psychological readiness, principal axis factoring

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23 Development of Mobile EEF Learning System (MEEFLS) for Mobile Learning Implementation in Kolej Poly-Tech MARA (KPTM)

Authors: M. E. Marwan, A. R. Madar, N. Fuad

Abstract:

Mobile learning (m-learning) is a new method in teaching and learning process which combines technology of mobile device with learning materials. It can enhance student's engagement in learning activities and facilitate them to access the learning materials at anytime and anywhere. In Kolej Poly-Tech Mara (KPTM), this method is seen as an important effort in teaching practice and to improve student learning performance. The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of m-learning application called Mobile EEF Learning System (MEEFLS) to be implemented for Electric and Electronic Fundamentals course using Flash, XML (Extensible Markup Language) and J2ME (Java 2 micro edition). System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) was used as an application development approach. It has three modules in this application such as notes or course material, exercises and video. MEELFS development is seen as a tool or a pilot test for m-learning in KPTM.

Keywords: flash, mobile device, mobile learning, teaching and learning, SDLC, XML

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22 The Methodology of Flip Chip Using Astro Place and Route Tool

Authors: Rohaya Abdul Wahab, Raja Mohd Fuad Tengku Aziz, Nazaliza Othman, Sharifah Saleh, Nabihah Razali, Rozaimah Baharim, Md Hanif Md Nasir

Abstract:

This paper will discuss flip chip methodology, in which I/O pads, standard cells, macros and bump cells array are placed in the floorplan, then routed using Astro place and route tool. Final DRC and LVS checking is done using Calibre verification tool. The design vehicle to run this methodology is an OpenRISC design targeted to Silterra 0.18 micrometer technology with 6 metal layers for routing. Astro has extensive support for flip chip placement and routing. Astro tool commands for flip chip are straightforward approach like the conventional standard wire bond packaging. However since we do not have flip chip commands in our Astro tool, no LEF file for bump cell and no LEF file for flip chip I/O pad, we create our own methodology to prepare for future flip chip tapeout. 

Keywords: methodology, flip chip, bump cell, LEF, astro, calibre, SCHEME, TCL

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21 Using Classifiers to Predict Student Outcome at Higher Institute of Telecommunication

Authors: Fuad M. Alkoot

Abstract:

We aim at highlighting the benefits of classifier systems especially in supporting educational management decisions. The paper aims at using classifiers in an educational application where an outcome is predicted based on given input parameters that represent various conditions at the institute. We present a classifier system that is designed using a limited training set with data for only one semester. The achieved system is able to reach at previously known outcomes accurately. It is also tested on new input parameters representing variations of input conditions to see its prediction on the possible outcome value. Given the supervised expectation of the outcome for the new input we find the system is able to predict the correct outcome. Experiments were conducted on one semester data from two departments only, Switching and Mathematics. Future work on other departments with larger training sets and wider input variations will show additional benefits of classifier systems in supporting the management decisions at an educational institute.

Keywords: machine learning, pattern recognition, classifier design, educational management, outcome estimation

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20 Enhancement of Learning Style in Kolej Poly-Tech MARA (KPTM) via Mobile EEF Learning System (MEEFLS)

Authors: M. E. Marwan, A. R. Madar, N. Fuad

Abstract:

Mobile communication provides access to the outside world without borders everywhere and at any time. The learning method that related to mobile communication technology is known as mobile learning (M-learning). It is a method that communicates learning materials with mobile device technology. The purpose of this method is to increase the interest in learning among students and assist them in obtaining learning materials at Kolej Poly-Tech MARA (KPTM) in order to improve the student’s performance in their study and to encourage educators to diversify the teaching practices. This paper discusses the student’s awareness for enhancement of learning style using mobile technologies and their readiness to apply the elements of mobile learning in learning to improve performance and interest in learning among students. An application called Mobile EEF Learning System (MEEFLS) has been developed as a tool to be used as a pilot test in KPTM.

Keywords: awareness, mobile learning, MEEFLS, teaching and learning, readiness

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19 HPPDFIM-HD: Transaction Distortion and Connected Perturbation Approach for Hierarchical Privacy Preserving Distributed Frequent Itemset Mining over Horizontally-Partitioned Dataset

Authors: Fuad Ali Mohammed Al-Yarimi

Abstract:

Many algorithms have been proposed to provide privacy preserving in data mining. These protocols are based on two main approaches named as: the perturbation approach and the Cryptographic approach. The first one is based on perturbation of the valuable information while the second one uses cryptographic techniques. The perturbation approach is much more efficient with reduced accuracy while the cryptographic approach can provide solutions with perfect accuracy. However, the cryptographic approach is a much slower method and requires considerable computation and communication overhead. In this paper, a new scalable protocol is proposed which combines the advantages of the perturbation and distortion along with cryptographic approach to perform privacy preserving in distributed frequent itemset mining on horizontally distributed data. Both the privacy and performance characteristics of the proposed protocol are studied empirically.

Keywords: anonymity data, data mining, distributed frequent itemset mining, gaussian perturbation, perturbation approach, privacy preserving data mining

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18 Sparse Coding Based Classification of Electrocardiography Signals Using Data-Driven Complete Dictionary Learning

Authors: Fuad Noman, Sh-Hussain Salleh, Chee-Ming Ting, Hadri Hussain, Syed Rasul

Abstract:

In this paper, a data-driven dictionary approach is proposed for the automatic detection and classification of cardiovascular abnormalities. Electrocardiography (ECG) signal is represented by the trained complete dictionaries that contain prototypes or atoms to avoid the limitations of pre-defined dictionaries. The data-driven trained dictionaries simply take the ECG signal as input rather than extracting features to study the set of parameters that yield the most descriptive dictionary. The approach inherently learns the complicated morphological changes in ECG waveform, which is then used to improve the classification. The classification performance was evaluated with ECG data under two different preprocessing environments. In the first category, QT-database is baseline drift corrected with notch filter and it filters the 60 Hz power line noise. In the second category, the data are further filtered using fast moving average smoother. The experimental results on QT database confirm that our proposed algorithm shows a classification accuracy of 92%.

Keywords: electrocardiogram, dictionary learning, sparse coding, classification

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17 Physical Verification Flow on Multiple Foundries

Authors: Rohaya Abdul Wahab, Raja Mohd Fuad Tengku Aziz, Nazaliza Othman, Sharifah Saleh, Nabihah Razali, Muhammad Al Baqir Zinal Abidin, Md Hanif Md Nasir

Abstract:

This paper will discuss how we optimize our physical verification flow in our IC Design Department having various rule decks from multiple foundries. Our ultimate goal is to achieve faster time to tape-out and avoid schedule delay. Currently the physical verification runtimes and memory usage have drastically increased with the increasing number of design rules, design complexity and the size of the chips to be verified. To manage design violations, we use a number of solutions to reduce the amount of violations needed to be checked by physical verification engineers. The most important functions in physical verifications are DRC (design rule check), LVS (layout vs. schematic) and XRC (extraction). Since we have a multiple number of foundries for our design tape-outs, we need a flow that improve the overall turnaround time and ease of use of the physical verification process. The demand for fast turnaround time is even more critical since the physical design is the last stage before sending the layout to the foundries.

Keywords: physical verification, DRC, LVS, XRC, flow, foundry, runset

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16 Microarray Gene Expression Data Dimensionality Reduction Using PCA

Authors: Fuad M. Alkoot

Abstract:

Different experimental technologies such as microarray sequencing have been proposed to generate high-resolution genetic data, in order to understand the complex dynamic interactions between complex diseases and the biological system components of genes and gene products. However, the generated samples have a very large dimension reaching thousands. Therefore, hindering all attempts to design a classifier system that can identify diseases based on such data. Additionally, the high overlap in the class distributions makes the task more difficult. The data we experiment with is generated for the identification of autism. It includes 142 samples, which is small compared to the large dimension of the data. The classifier systems trained on this data yield very low classification rates that are almost equivalent to a guess. We aim at reducing the data dimension and improve it for classification. Here, we experiment with applying a multistage PCA on the genetic data to reduce its dimensionality. Results show a significant improvement in the classification rates which increases the possibility of building an automated system for autism detection.

Keywords: PCA, gene expression, dimensionality reduction, classification, autism

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15 Negative Pressure Waves in Hydraulic Systems

Authors: Fuad H. Veliev

Abstract:

Negative pressure phenomenon appears in many thermodynamic, geophysical and biophysical processes in the Nature and technological systems. For more than 100 years of the laboratory researches beginning from F. M. Donny’s tests, the great values of negative pressure have been achieved. But this phenomenon has not been practically applied, being only a nice lab toy due to the special demands for the purity and homogeneity of the liquids for its appearance. The possibility of creation of direct wave of negative pressure in real heterogeneous liquid systems was confirmed experimentally under the certain kinetic and hydraulic conditions. The negative pressure can be considered as the factor of both useful and destroying energies. The new approach to generation of the negative pressure waves in impure, unclean fluids has allowed the creation of principally new energy saving technologies and installations to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of different production processes. It was proved that the negative pressure is one of the main factors causing hard troubles in some technological and natural processes. Received results emphasize the necessity to take into account the role of the negative pressure as an energy factor in evaluation of many transient thermohydrodynamic processes in the Nature and production systems.

Keywords: liquid systems, negative pressure, temperature, wave, metastable state

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14 The Integration and Automation of EDA Tools in an Integrated Circuit Design Environment

Authors: Rohaya Abdul Wahab, Raja Mohd Fuad Tengku Aziz, Nazaliza Othman, Sharifah Saleh, Nabihah Razali, Rozaimah Baharim, M. Hanif M. Nasir

Abstract:

This paper will discuss how EDA tools are integrated and automated in an Integrated Circuit Design Environment. Some of the problems face in our current environment is that users need to configure manually on the library paths, start-up files and project directories. Certain manual processes that happen between the users and applications can be automated but they must be transparent to the users. For example, the users can run the applications directly after login without knowing the library paths and start-up files locations. The solution to these problems is to automate the processes using standard configuration files which will benefit the users and EDA support. This paper will discuss how the implementation is done to automate the process using scripting languages such as Perl, Tcl, Scheme and Shell Script. These scripting tools are great assets for design engineers to build a robust and powerful design flow and this technique is widely used to integrate all the tools together.

Keywords: EDA tools, Integrated Circuits, scripting, integration, automation

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13 Managing the Cognitive Load of Medical Students during Anatomy Lecture

Authors: Siti Nurma Hanim Hadie, Asma’ Hassan, Zul Izhar Ismail, Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim, Mohd. Zarawi Mat Nor, Hairul Nizam Ismail

Abstract:

Anatomy is a medical subject, which contributes to high cognitive load during learning. Despite its complexity, anatomy remains as the most important basic sciences subject with high clinical relevancy. Although anatomy knowledge is required for safe practice, many medical students graduated without having sufficient knowledge. In fact, anatomy knowledge among the medical graduates was reported to be declining and this had led to various medico-legal problems. Applying cognitive load theory (CLT) in anatomy teaching particularly lecture would be able to address this issue since anatomy information is often perceived as cognitively challenging material. CLT identifies three types of loads which are intrinsic, extraneous and germane loads, which combine to form the total cognitive load. CLT describe that learning can only occur when the total cognitive load does not exceed human working memory capacity. Hence, managing these three types of loads with the aim of optimizing the working memory capacity would be beneficial to the students in learning anatomy and retaining the knowledge for future application.

Keywords: cognitive load theory, intrinsic load, extraneous load, germane load

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12 Attitude and Perception of Multiple Sclerosis Patients toward Exercise

Authors: Ali Fuad Ashour

Abstract:

Introduction: Contrary to the common belief that physical training for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients might exacerbate fatigue and provoke other symptoms of the illness, it is now widely accepted that exercise can be actually beneficial in terms of activities of daily living, reduced fatigue, and improved quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the attitude of MS patients toward exercise. Methodology: 112 MS patients who were recruited from the local community participated in this study. We utilised a self-developed questionnaire targeting attitudes and perceptions of MS patients towards physical exercise. The questionnaire was piloted and tested for validity and reliability. Results: Before being diagnosed with MS, 49.9% of our MS patients’ respondents used to engage in different types of physical activities and sports, namely aerobics/walking (35.3%), stretching exercise (18.7%), and strengthening exercise (11.4%). After being diagnosed with MS, 40.8% of our sample showed determination to remain physically active. The interest in sports activities was consistent after the diagnoses with MS and included aerobics/walking (33.8%), stretching exercise (22.6%), and strengthening exercise (19.7%). Discussion: The Kuwaiti respondents thought that lack of encouragement was the main reason for them not exercise. Aptly put, if they try to exercise, they will be discouraged by the loved ones lest the worse happens. On the other side, British patients are generally aware of the benefits of physical and mental health-promoting activities; they can seek help from a wide range of professionals and are more actively involved in the management of their condition. It is therefore important that the benefits of physical activity are promoted among MS patients, and that attitude towards MS and MS patients is changed through education.

Keywords: perception, multiple sclerosis, exercise, physical training

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11 Vermicomposting Amended With Microorganisms and Biochar: Phytopathogen Resistant Seedbeds for Vegetables and Heavy Metal Polluted Waste Treatment

Authors: Fuad Ameen, Ali A. Al-Homaidan

Abstract:

Biochar can be used in numerous biotechnological applications due to its properties to adsorb beneficial nutrients and harmful pollutants. Objectives: We aimed to treat heavy metal polluted organic wastes using vermicomposting process and produce a fertilizer that can be used in agriculture. We improved the process by adding biochar as well as microbial inoculum and biomass into household waste or sewage sludge before vermicomposting. The earthworm Eisenia fetida used in vermicomposting was included to accumulate heavy metals, biochar to adsorb heavy metals, and the microalga Navicula sp. or the mangrove fungus Acrophialophora sp. to promote plant growth in the final product used as a seedbed for Solanaceae vegetables. We carried out vermicomposting treatments to see the effect of different amendments. Final compost quality was analyzed for maturity. The earthworms were studied for their vitality, heavy metal accumulation, and metallothionein protein content to verify their role in the process. The compost was used as a seedbed for vegetables that were inoculated with a phytopathogen Pythium sp. known to cause root rot and destroy seeds. Compost as seedbed promoted plant growth and reduced disease symptoms in leaves. In the treatment where E. fetida, 6% biochar, and Navicula sp. had been added, 90% of the seeds germinated, while less than 20% germinated in the control treatment. The experimental plants had acquired resistance against Pythium sp. The metagenomic profile of microbial communities will be reported.

Keywords: organic wastes, vermicomposting process, biochar, mangrove fungus

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10 Biosignal Recognition for Personal Identification

Authors: Hadri Hussain, M.Nasir Ibrahim, Chee-Ming Ting, Mariani Idroas, Fuad Numan, Alias Mohd Noor

Abstract:

A biometric security system has become an important application in client identification and verification system. A conventional biometric system is normally based on unimodal biometric that depends on either behavioural or physiological information for authentication purposes. The behavioural biometric depends on human body biometric signal (such as speech) and biosignal biometric (such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and phonocardiogram or heart sound (HS)). The speech signal is commonly used in a recognition system in biometric, while the ECG and the HS have been used to identify a person’s diseases uniquely related to its cluster. However, the conventional biometric system is liable to spoof attack that will affect the performance of the system. Therefore, a multimodal biometric security system is developed, which is based on biometric signal of ECG, HS, and speech. The biosignal data involved in the biometric system is initially segmented, with each segment Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) method is exploited for extracting the feature. The Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is used to model the client and to classify the unknown input with respect to the modal. The recognition system involved training and testing session that is known as client identification (CID). In this project, twenty clients are tested with the developed system. The best overall performance at 44 kHz was 93.92% for ECG and the worst overall performance was ECG at 88.47%. The results were compared to the best overall performance at 44 kHz for (20clients) to increment of clients, which was 90.00% for HS and the worst overall performance falls at ECG at 79.91%. It can be concluded that the difference multimodal biometric has a substantial effect on performance of the biometric system and with the increment of data, even with higher frequency sampling, the performance still decreased slightly as predicted.

Keywords: electrocardiogram, phonocardiogram, hidden markov model, mel frequency cepstral coeffiecients, client identification

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9 Effectiveness of a Malaysian Workplace Intervention Study on Physical Activity Levels

Authors: M. Z. Bin Mohd Ghazali, N. C. Wilson, A. F. Bin Ahmad Fuad, M. A. H. B. Musa, M. U. Mohamad Sani, F. Zulkifli, M. S. Zainal Abidin

Abstract:

Physical activity levels are low in Malaysia and this study was undertaken to determine if a four week work-based intervention program would be effective in changing physical activity levels. The study was conducted in a Malaysian Government Department and had three stages: baseline data collection, four-week intervention and two-month post intervention data collection. During the intervention and two-month post intervention phases, physical activity levels (determined by a pedometer) and basic health profiles (BMI, abdominal obesity, blood pressure) were measured. Staff (58 males, 47 females) with an average age of 33 years completed baseline data collection. Pedometer steps averaged 7,102 steps/day at baseline, although male step counts were significantly higher than females (7,861 vs. 6114). Health profiles were poor: over 50% were overweight/obese (males 66%, females 40%); hypertension (males 23%, females 6%); excess waist circumference (males 52%, females 17%). While 86 staff participated in the intervention, only 49 regularly reported their steps. There was a significant increase (17%) in average daily steps from 8,965 (week 1) to 10,436 (week 4). Unfortunately, participation in the intervention program was avoided by the less healthy staff. Two months after the intervention there was no significant difference in average steps/day, despite the fact that 89% of staff reporting they planned to make long-term changes to their lifestyle. An unexpected average increase of 2kg in body weight occurred in participants, although this was less than the 5.6kg in non-participants. A number of recommendations are made for future interventions, including the conclusion that pedometers were a useful tool and popular with participants.

Keywords: pedometers, walking, health, intervention

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8 Investigating the Role of Emergency Nurses and Disaster Preparedness during Mass Gathering in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Fuad Alzahrani, Yiannis Kyratsis

Abstract:

Although emergency nurses, being the frontline workers in mass-gatherings, are essential for providing an effective public health response, little is known about the skills that emergency nurses have, or require, in order to respond effectively to a disaster event. This paper is designed to address this gap in the literature by conducting an empirical study on emergency nurses’ preparedness at the mass-gathering event of Hajj in Mecca city. To achieve this aim, this study conducted a cross-sectional survey among 106 emergency department nurses in all the public hospitals in Mecca in 2014. The results revealed that although emergency nurses’ role understanding is high; they have limited knowledge and awareness of how to respond appropriately to mass-gathering disaster events. To address this knowledge gap, the top three most beneficial types of education and training courses suggested are: hospital education sessions, the Emergency Management Saudi Course and workshop; and short courses in disaster management. Finally, recommendations and constructive strategies are developed to provide the best practice in enhancing disaster preparedness. This paper adds to the body of knowledge regarding emergency nurses and mass gathering disasters. This paper measures the level of disaster knowledge, previous disaster response experience and disaster education and training amongst emergency nurses in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is anticipated that this study will provide a foundation for future studies aimed at better preparing emergency nurses for disaster response. This paper employs new strategies to improve the emergency nurses’ response during mass gatherings for the Hajj. Increasing the emergency nurses’ knowledge will develop their effective responses in mass-gathering disasters.

Keywords: emergency nurses, mass-gatherings, hajj, disaster preparedness, disaster knowledge, perceived role, disaster training, previous disaster response experience

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7 Modified 'Perturb and Observe' with 'Incremental Conductance' Algorithm for Maximum Power Point Tracking

Authors: H. Fuad Usman, M. Rafay Khan Sial, Shahzaib Hamid

Abstract:

The trend of renewable energy resources has been amplified due to global warming and other environmental related complications in the 21st century. Recent research has very much emphasized on the generation of electrical power through renewable resources like solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, etc. The use of the photovoltaic cell has become very public as it is very useful for the domestic and commercial purpose overall the world. Although a single cell gives the low voltage output but connecting a number of cells in a series formed a complete module of the photovoltaic cells, it is becoming a financial investment as the use of it fetching popular. This also reduced the prices of the photovoltaic cell which gives the customers a confident of using this source for their electrical use. Photovoltaic cell gives the MPPT at single specific point of operation at a given temperature and level of solar intensity received at a given surface whereas the focal point changes over a large range depending upon the manufacturing factor, temperature conditions, intensity for insolation, instantaneous conditions for shading and aging factor for the photovoltaic cells. Two improved algorithms have been proposed in this article for the MPPT. The widely used algorithms are the ‘Incremental Conductance’ and ‘Perturb and Observe’ algorithms. To extract the maximum power from the source to the load, the duty cycle of the convertor will be effectively controlled. After assessing the previous techniques, this paper presents the improved and reformed idea of harvesting maximum power point from the photovoltaic cells. A thoroughly go through of the previous ideas has been observed before constructing the improvement in the traditional technique of MPP. Each technique has its own importance and boundaries at various weather conditions. An improved technique of implementing the use of both ‘Perturb and Observe’ and ‘Incremental Conductance’ is introduced.

Keywords: duty cycle, MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking), perturb and observe (P&O), photovoltaic module

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6 Upcoming Fight Simulation with Smart Shadow

Authors: Ramiz Kuliev, Fuad Kuliev-Smirnov

Abstract:

The 'Shadow Sparring' training exercise is widely used in the training of boxers and martial artists. The main disadvantage of the usual shadow sparring is that the trainer cannot fully control such training and evaluate its results. During the competition, the athlete, preparing for the upcoming fight, imagines the Shadow (upcoming opponent) in accordance with his own imagination. A ‘Smart-Shadow Sparring’ (SSS) is an innovative version of the ‘Shadow Sparring’. During SSS, the fighter will see the Shadow (virtual opponent that moves, defends, and punches) and understand when he misses the punches from the Shadow. The task of a real athlete is to spar with a virtual one, move around, punch in the direction of unprotected areas of the Shadow and dodge his punches. Moves and punches of Shadow are set up before each training. The system will give the coach full information about virtual sparring: (i) how many and what type of punches has the fighter landed, (ii) accuracy of these punches, (iii) how many and what type of virtual punches (punches of Smart-Shadow) has the fighter missed, etc. SSS will be recorded as animated fighting of two fighters and will help the coach to analyze past training. SSS can be configured to fit the physical and technical characteristics of the next real opponent (size, techniques, speed, missed and landed punches, etc.). This will allow to simulate and rehearse the upcoming fight and improve readiness for the next opponent. For amateur fighters, SSS will be reconfigured several times during a tournament, when the real opponent becomes known. SSS can be used in three versions: (1) Digital Shadow: the athlete will see a Shadow on a monitor (2) VR-Shadow: the athlete will see a Shadow in a VR-glasses (3) Smart Shadow: a Shadow will be controlled by artificial intelligence. These technologies are based on the ‘semi-real simulation’ method. The technology allows coaches to train athletes remotely. Simulation of different opponents will help the athletes better prepare for competition. Repeat rehearsals of the upcoming fight will help improve results. SSS can improve results in Boxing, Taekwondo, Karate, and Fencing. 41 sets of medals will be awarded in these sports at the 2020 Olympic Games.

Keywords: boxing, combat sports, fight simulation, shadow sparring

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5 Demographic Variations of Multiple Sclerosis Patients between Britain and Kuwait

Authors: Ali Fuad Ashour

Abstract:

Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive and degenerative disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). MS has been described to result in the debilitating symptom of the disease. It is reported to have a negative impact on the patient’s mental activities, brings a lower quality of life, leads to unemployment, causes distress and psychological disorders, generates low levels of motivation and self-esteem, and result in disability and neurological impairment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MS on patients from Britain and Kuwait. Methodology: A questionnaire was distributed to 200 individuals with MS (100 Kuwaiti and 100 British). The questionnaire consists of three parts; 1. General demographics, 2. Disease-specific data (symptoms, severity levels, relapse frequency, and support system), and 3. Attitudes towards physical exercise. Results: A response rate of 62% from the British sample and 50% from the Kuwaiti sample was achieved. 84% of the sample (n=52) were 41 years old or over. The duration of the disease was less than 10 years in 43.4% of British and 68% of Kuwaiti respondents. The majority of British respondents (56.5%) reported the disease severity to be moderate, while the majority of Kuwaitis was mild (72%). The annual relapse rates in Kuwait were relatively low, with 82% of the Kuwaiti sample had one relapse per year, compared to the 64.5% of British. The most common symptoms reported by British respondents were balance (75.8%), fatigue (74.2%), and weakness (71%), and by Kuwaiti respondents were fatigue (86%), balance (76%), and weakness (66%). The help and support for MS were by far more diverse for the British than Kuwaiti respondents. Discussion: The results unveiled marked differences between two groups of British and Kuwaiti MS patients in terms of patients’ age and disease duration, and severity. The overwhelming majority of Kuwaiti patients are young individuals who have been with the disease for a relatively short period of time, and their MS in most cases was mild. On the other hand, British patients were relatively older, many have been with the disease for a long period of time, and their average MS condition was more serious than that of their Kuwaiti counterparts. The main support in Kuwait comes from the neurologist, who primarily prescribe medications and advise patients to try to be active. The Kuwaiti respondents thought that lack of encouragement was the main reason for them not to engage in social activities.

Keywords: multiple sclerosis, Kuwait, exercise, demographic

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4 Ficus Microcarpa Fruit Derived Iron Oxide Nanomaterials and Its Anti-bacterial, Antioxidant and Anticancer Efficacy

Authors: Fuad Abdullah Alatawi

Abstract:

Microbial infections-based diseases are a significant public health issue around the world, mainly when antibiotic-resistant bacterium types evolve. In this research, we explored the anti-bacterial and anti-cancer potency of iron-oxide (Fe₂O₃) nanoparticles prepared from F. macrocarpa fruit extract. The chemical composition of F. macrocarpa fruit extract was used as a reducing and capping agent for nanoparticles’ synthesis was examined by GC-MS/MS analysis. Then, the prepared nanoparticles were confirmed by various biophysical techniques, including X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis Spectroscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDAX), and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Also, the antioxidant capacity of fruit extract was determined through 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) assays. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity activities of Fe₂O₃ NPs were determined using the (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) test on MCF-7 cells. In the antibacterial assay, lethal doses of the Fe₂O₃NPs effectively inhibited the growth of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The surface damage, ROS production, and protein leakage are the antibacterial mechanisms of Fe₂O₃NPs. Concerning antioxidant activity, the fruit extracts of F. macrocarpa had strong antioxidant properties, which were confirmed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and SOD assays. In addition, the F. microcarpa-derived iron oxide nanomaterials greatly reduced the cell viability of (MCF-7). The GC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of 25 main bioactive compounds in the F. microcarpa extract. Overall, the finding of this research revealed that F. microcarpa-derived Fe₂O₃ nanoparticles could be employed as an alternative therapeutic agent to cure microbial infection and breast cancer in humans.

Keywords: ficus microcarpa, iron oxide, antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity

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3 Psychosocial Support in Disaster Situations in the Philippines and Indonesia: A Critical Literature Review

Authors: Fuad Hamsyah

Abstract:

Since last two decades, major disasters have happened in the Philippines and Indonesia as two countries that are located in the pacific ring of fire territory. While in Southeast Asian countries, the process of psychosocial support provision is facing various constraints such as limited number of mental health professionals and the limited knowledge about the provision of psychosocial support for disaster survivors. Yet after the tsunami disaster in 2004, many Asian countries begin to develop policies about the provision of psychosocial interventions as an effort for future disasters preparedness. In addition, mental health professionals have to consider the local cultural values and beliefs in order to provide people with effective psychosocial support since cultural values and beliefs play a significant role in the diversity of psychological distress that forms symptoms formation, and people’s way to seek for psychological assistance. This study is a critical literature review on 130 relevant selected documents and literatures. IASC MHPSS guideline is used as the research framework in doing critical analysis. The purpose of this study is to conduct a critical analysis on the mental health and psychosocial support provision in the Philippines and Indonesia with three main objectives: 1) To describe strengths, weaknesses, and challenges in the process of psychosocial supports given by public and private organizations in emergency settings of disaster in the Philippines and Indonesia, 2) To compare psychosocial support practices between the Philippines and Indonesia, and to identify the good practices among these countries, 3) To learn how cultural values influence the implementation of psychosocial supports in emergency settings of disaster. This research indicated that almost every function from IASC MHPSS guidelines has been implemented effectively in the Philippines and Indonesia, yet not in every detail of IASC MHPSS guidelines. Several similarities and differences are indicated in this study also based on the IASC MHPSS guidelines as the analysis framework. Further, both countries have some good practices that can be useful as an example of a comprehensive psychosocial support implementation. Apart from the IASC MHPSS guideline, cultural values and beliefs in the Philippines such as kanya-kanya syndrome, pakikipakapwa, utang na loob, bahala na, pagkaya are indicated as several cultural values that have strong influences towards people’s attitude and behavior in disaster situations. While in Indonesia, several cultural values such as sabar and nrimo become two important attitudes to cope disaster situations.

Keywords: disaster, Indonesia, psychosocial support, Philippines

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2 Petrographic Properties of Sedimentary-Exhalative Type Ores of Filizchay Polymetallic Deposit

Authors: Samir Verdiyev, Fuad Huseynov, Islam Guliyev, Coşqun İsmayıl

Abstract:

The Filizchay polymetallic deposit is located on the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range, northwest of Azerbaijan in the Balaken district. Filizchay is the largest polymetallic deposit in the region and the second-largest polymetallic deposit in Europe. The mineral deposits in the region are associated with two different geodynamic evolutions that began with the Mesozoic collision along the Eurasian continent and the formation of a magmatic arc after the collision and continued with subduction in the Cenozoic. The bedrocks associated with Filizchay mineralization are Early Jurassic aged. The stratigraphic sequence of the deposit is consisting of black metamorphic clay shales, sandstones, and ore layers. Shales, sandstones, and siltstones are encountered in the upper and middle sections of the ore body, while only shales are observed at the lowest ranges. The ore body is mainly layered by the geometric structure of the bedrock; folding can be observed in the ore layers along with the bedrock foliation, and just in few points indirect laying due to the metamorphism. This suggests that the Filizchay ore mineralization is syngenetic, which is proved by the mineralization by the bedrock. To determine the ore petrography properties of the Filizchay deposit, samples were collected from the region where the ore is concentrated, and a polished section was prepared. These collected samples were examined under the mineralogical microscope to reveal the paragenesis of the mineralization and to explain the relation of ore minerals to each other. In this study, macroscopically observed minerals and textures of these minerals were used in the cores revealed during drilling exploration made by AzerGold CJS company. As a result of all these studies, it has been determined that there are three main mineralization types in the Filizchay deposit: banded, massive, and veinlet ores. The mineralization is in the massive pyrite; furthermore, the basis of the ore-mass contains pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena. The pyrite in some parts of the ore body transformed to pyrrhotite as a result of metamorphism. Pyrite-chalcopyrite, pyrite-sphalerite-galena, pyrite-pyrrhotite mineral assemblages were determined during microscopic studies of mineralization. The replacement texture is more developed in Filizchay ores. The banded polymetallic type mineralization and near bedrocks are cut by quartz-carbonate veins. The geotectonic position and lithological conditions of the Filizchay deposit, the texture, and interrelationship of the sulfide mineralization indicate that it is a sedimentary-exhalative type of Au-Cu-Ag-Zn-Pb polymetallic deposit that is genetically related to the massive sulfide deposits.

Keywords: Balaken, Filizchay, metamorphism, polymetallic mineralization

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1 Rainwater Harvesting is an Effective Tool for City’s Storm Water Management and People’s Willingness to Install Rainwater Harvesting System in Buildings: A Case Study in Kazipara, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Authors: M. Abu Hanif, Anika Tabassum, Fuad Hasan Ovi, Ishrat Islam

Abstract:

Water is essential for life. Enormous quantities of water are cycled each year through hydrologic cycle but only a fraction of circulated water is available each year for human use. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh is the 19th mega city in the world with a population of over 14 million (World City Information, 2011). As a result the growth of urban population is increasing rapidly; the city is not able to manage with altering situations due to resource limitations and management capacity. Water crisis has become an acute problem faced by the inhabitants of Dhaka city. It is found that total water demand in Dhaka city is 2,240 million liter per day (MLD) whereas supply is 2,150 (MLD). According to Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority about 87 percent of this supply comes from groundwater resources and rest 13 percent from surface water. According to Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority it has been found that the current groundwater depletion rate is 3.52 meter per year. Such a fast depletion of the water table will result in intrusion of southern saline water into the groundwater reservoir, depriving this mega city of pure drinking water. This study mainly focus on the potential of Rainwater Harvesting System(RWHS) in Kazipara area of Dhaka city, determine the perception level of local people in installation of rainwater harvesting system in their building and identify the factors regarding willingness of owner in installing rainwater harvesting system. As most of the residential area of Dhaka city is unplanned with small plots, Kazipara area has been chosen as study area which depicts similar characteristics. In this study only roof top area is considered as catchment area and potential of rainwater harvesting has been calculated. From the calculation it is found that harvested rainwater can serve the 66% of demand of water for toilet flushing and cleaning purposes for the people of Kazipara. It is also observed that if only rooftop rainwater harvesting applied to all the structures of the study area then two third of surface runoff would be reduced than present surface runoff. In determining the perception of local people only owners of the buildings were. surveyed. From the questionnaire survey it is found that around 75% people have no idea about the rainwater harvesting system. About 83% people are not willing to install rainwater harvesting system in their dwelling. The reasons behind the unwillingness are high cost of installation, inadequate space, ignorance about the system, etc. Among 16% of the willing respondents who are interested in installing RWHS system, it was found that higher income, bigger size of buildings are important factors in willingness of installing rainwater harvesting system. Majority of the respondents demanded for both technical and economical support to install the system in their buildings. Government of Bangladesh has taken some initiatives to promote rainwater harvesting in urban areas. It is very much necessary to incorporate rainwater harvesting device and artificial recharge system in every building of Dhaka city to make Dhaka city self sufficient in water supply management and to solve water crisis problem of megacity like as Dhaka city.

Keywords: rainwater harvesting, water table, willingness, storm water

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