Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6440

Search results for: Normalized Difference Mid Red Index (NDMIDR)

6440 Use of Landsat OLI Images in the Mapping of Landslides: Case of the Taounate Province in Northern Morocco

Authors: S. Benchelha, H. Chennaoui, M. Hakdaoui, L. Baidder, H. Mansouri, H. Ejjaaouani, T. Benchelha

Abstract:

Northern Morocco is characterized by relatively young mountains experiencing a very important dynamic compared to other areas of Morocco. The dynamics associated with the formation of the Rif chain (Alpine tectonics), is accompanied by instabilities essentially related to tectonic movements. The realization of important infrastructures (Roads, Highways,...) represents a triggering factor and favoring landslides. This paper is part of the establishment of landslides susceptibility map and concerns the mapping of unstable areas in the province of Taounate. The landslide was identified using the components of the false color (FCC) of images Landsat OLI: i) the first independent component (IC1), ii) The main component (PC), iii) Normalized difference index (NDI). This mapping for landslides class is validated by in-situ surveys.

Keywords: landslides, False Color Composite (FCC), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Normalized Difference Index (NDI), Normalized Difference Mid Red Index (NDMIDR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
6439 Urban Energy Demand Modelling: Spatial Analysis Approach

Authors: Hung-Chu Chen, Han Qi, Bauke de Vries

Abstract:

Energy consumption in the urban environment has attracted numerous researches in recent decades. However, it is comparatively rare to find literary works which investigated 3D spatial analysis of urban energy demand modelling. In order to analyze the spatial correlation between urban morphology and energy demand comprehensively, this paper investigates their relation by using the spatial regression tool. In addition, the spatial regression tool which is applied in this paper is ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and building volume are explainers of urban morphology, which act as independent variables of Energy-land use (E-L) model. NDBI and NDVI are used as the index to describe five types of land use: urban area (U), open space (O), artificial green area (G), natural green area (V), and water body (W). Accordingly, annual electricity, gas demand and energy demand are dependent variables of the E-L model. Based on the analytical result of E-L model relation, it revealed that energy demand and urban morphology are closely connected and the possible causes and practical use are discussed. Besides, the spatial analysis methods of OLS and GWR are compared.

Keywords: energy demand model, geographically weighted regression, normalized difference built-up index, normalized difference vegetation index, spatial statistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
6438 Image Processing and Calculation of NGRDI Embedded System in Raspberry

Authors: Efren Lopez Jimenez, Maria Isabel Cajero, J. Irving-Vasqueza

Abstract:

The use and processing of digital images have opened up new opportunities for the resolution of problems of various kinds, such as the calculation of different vegetation indexes, among other things, differentiating healthy vegetation from humid vegetation. However, obtaining images from which these indexes are calculated is still the exclusive subject of active research. In the present work, we propose to obtain these images using a low cost embedded system (Raspberry Pi) and its processing, using a set of libraries of open code called OpenCV, in order to obtain the Normalized Red-Green Difference Index (NGRDI).

Keywords: Raspberry Pi, vegetation index, Normalized Red-Green Difference Index (NGRDI), OpenCV

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
6437 Assessment of Land Surface Temperature Using Satellite Remote Sensing

Authors: R. Vidhya, M. Navamuniyammal M. Sivakumar, S. Reeta

Abstract:

The unplanned urbanization affects the environment due to pollution, conditions of the atmosphere, decreased vegetation and the pervious and impervious soil surface. Considered to be a cumulative effect of all these impacts is the Urban Heat Island. In this paper, the urban heat island effect is studied for the Chennai city, TamilNadu, South India using satellite remote sensing data. LANDSAT 8 OLI and TIRS DATA acquired on 9th September 2014 were used to Land Surface Temperature (LST) map, vegetation fraction map, Impervious surface fraction, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Building Index (NDBI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) map. The relationship among LST, Vegetation fraction, NDBI, NDWI, and NDVI was calculated. The Chennai city’s Urban Heat Island effect is significant, and the results indicate LST has strong negative correlation with the vegetation present and positive correlation with NDBI. The vegetation is the main factor to control urban heat island effect issues in urban area like Chennai City. This study will help in developing measures to land use planning to reduce the heat effects in urban area based on remote sensing derivatives.

Keywords: land surface temperature, brightness temperature, emissivity, vegetation index

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
6436 Application of Rapid Eye Imagery in Crop Type Classification Using Vegetation Indices

Authors: Sunita Singh, Rajani Srivastava

Abstract:

For natural resource management and in other applications about earth observation revolutionary remote sensing technology plays a significant role. One of such application in monitoring and classification of crop types at spatial and temporal scale, as it provides latest, most precise and cost-effective information. Present study emphasizes the use of three different vegetation indices of Rapid Eye imagery on crop type classification. It also analyzed the effect of each indices on classification accuracy. Rapid Eye imagery is highly demanded and preferred for agricultural and forestry sectors as it has red-edge and NIR bands. The three indices used in this study were: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI), and the Normalized Difference Red Edge Index (NDRE) and all of these incorporated the Red Edge band. The study area is Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh, India and Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel was used here for the Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classification. Classification was performed with these three vegetation indices. The contribution of each indices on image classification accuracy was also tested with single band classification. Highest classification accuracy of 85% was obtained using three vegetation indices. The study concluded that NDRE has the highest contribution on classification accuracy compared to the other vegetation indices and the Rapid Eye imagery can get satisfactory results of classification accuracy without original bands.

Keywords: GNDVI, NDRE, NDVI, rapid eye, vegetation indices

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
6435 Analyzing Land use change and its impacts on the Urban Environment in a Fast Growing Metropolitan City of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Nasar-u-Minallah, Dagmar Haase, Salman Qureshi

Abstract:

In a rapidly growing developing country cities are becoming more urbanized leading to modifications in urban climate. Rapid urbanization, especially unplanned urban land expansion, together with climate change has a profound impact on the urban settlement and urban thermal environment. Cities, particularly Pakistan are facing remarkably environmental issues and uneven development, and thus it is important to strengthen the investigation of urban environmental pressure brought by land-use changes and urbanization. The present study investigated the long term modification of the urban environment by urbanization utilizing Spatio-temporal dynamics of land-use change, urban population data, urban heat islands, monthly maximum, and minimum temperature of thirty years, multi remote sensing imageries, and spectral indices such as Normalized Difference Built-up Index and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. The results indicate rapid growth in an urban built-up area and a reduction in vegetation cover in the last three decades (1990-2020). A positive correlation between urban heat islands and Normalized Difference Built-up Index, whereas a negative correlation between urban heat islands and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index clearly shows how urbanization is affecting the local environment. The increase in air and land surface temperature temperatures is dangerous to human comfort. Practical approaches, such as increasing the urban green spaces and proper planning of the cities, have been suggested to help prevent further modification of the urban thermal environment by urbanization. The findings of this work are thus important for multi-sectorial use in the cities of Pakistan. By taking into consideration these results, the urban planners, decision-makers, and local government can make different policies to mitigate the urban land use impacts on the urban thermal environment in Pakistan.

Keywords: land use, urban environment, local climate, Lahore

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
6434 Some New Bounds for a Real Power of the Normalized Laplacian Eigenvalues

Authors: Ayşe Dilek Maden

Abstract:

For a given a simple connected graph, we present some new bounds via a new approach for a special topological index given by the sum of the real number power of the non-zero normalized Laplacian eigenvalues. To use this approach presents an advantage not only to derive old and new bounds on this topic but also gives an idea how some previous results in similar area can be developed.

Keywords: degree Kirchhoff index, normalized Laplacian eigenvalue, spanning tree, simple connected graph

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
6433 Assessing the Effect of Urban Growth on Land Surface Temperature: A Case Study of Conakry Guinea

Authors: Arafan Traore, Teiji Watanabe

Abstract:

Conakry, the capital city of the Republic of Guinea, has experienced a rapid urban expansion and population increased in the last two decades, which has resulted in remarkable local weather and climate change, raise energy demand and pollution and treating social, economic and environmental development. In this study, the spatiotemporal variation of the land surface temperature (LST) is retrieved to characterize the effect of urban growth on the thermal environment and quantify its relationship with biophysical indices, a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and a normalized difference built up Index (NDBI). Landsat data TM and OLI/TIRS acquired respectively in 1986, 2000 and 2016 were used for LST retrieval and Land use/cover change analysis. A quantitative analysis based on the integration of a remote sensing and a geography information system (GIS) has revealed an important increased in the LST pattern in the average from 25.21°C in 1986 to 27.06°C in 2000 and 29.34°C in 2016, which was quite eminent with an average gain in surface temperature of 4.13°C over 30 years study period. Additionally, an analysis using a Pearson correlation (r) between (LST) and the biophysical indices, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and a normalized difference built-up Index (NDBI) has revealed a negative relationship between LST and NDVI and a strong positive relationship between LST and NDBI. Which implies that an increase in the NDVI value can reduce the LST intensity; conversely increase in NDBI value may strengthen LST intensity in the study area. Although Landsat data were found efficient in assessing the thermal environment in Conakry, however, the method needs to be refined with in situ measurements of LST in the future studies. The results of this study may assist urban planners, scientists and policies makers concerned about climate variability to make decisions that will enhance sustainable environmental practices in Conakry.

Keywords: Conakry, land surface temperature, urban heat island, geography information system, remote sensing, land use/cover change

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
6432 Analysis of Enhanced Built-up and Bare Land Index in the Urban Area of Yangon, Myanmar

Authors: Su Nandar Tin, Wutjanun Muttitanon

Abstract:

The availability of free global and historical satellite imagery provides a valuable opportunity for mapping and monitoring the year by year for the built-up area, constantly and effectively. Land distribution guidelines and identification of changes are important in preparing and reviewing changes in the ground overview data. This study utilizes Landsat images for thirty years of information to acquire significant, and land spread data that are extremely valuable for urban arranging. This paper is mainly introducing to focus the basic of extracting built-up area for the city development area from the satellite images of LANDSAT 5,7,8 and Sentinel 2A from USGS in every five years. The purpose analyses the changing of the urban built-up area according to the year by year and to get the accuracy of mapping built-up and bare land areas in studying the trend of urban built-up changes the periods from 1990 to 2020. The GIS tools such as raster calculator and built-up area modelling are using in this study and then calculating the indices, which include enhanced built-up and bareness index (EBBI), Normalized difference Built-up index (NDBI), Urban index (UI), Built-up index (BUI) and Normalized difference bareness index (NDBAI) are used to get the high accuracy urban built-up area. Therefore, this study will point out a variable approach to automatically mapping typical enhanced built-up and bare land changes (EBBI) with simple indices and according to the outputs of indexes. Therefore, the percentage of the outputs of enhanced built-up and bareness index (EBBI) of the sentinel-2A can be realized with 48.4% of accuracy than the other index of Landsat images which are 15.6% in 1990 where there is increasing urban expansion area from 43.6% in 1990 to 92.5% in 2020 on the study area for last thirty years.

Keywords: built-up area, EBBI, NDBI, NDBAI, urban index

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
6431 Vegetation Index-Deduced Crop Coefficient of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Using Remote Sensing: Case Study on Four Basins of Golestan Province, Iran

Authors: Hoda Zolfagharnejad, Behnam Kamkar, Omid Abdi

Abstract:

Crop coefficient (Kc) is an important factor contributing to estimation of evapotranspiration, and is also used to determine the irrigation schedule. This study investigated and determined the monthly Kc of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using five vegetation indices (VIs): Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Difference Vegetation Index (DVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Infrared Percentage Vegetation Index (IPVI), and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) of four basins in Golestan province, Iran. 14 Landsat-8 images according to crop growth stage were used to estimate monthly Kc of wheat. VIs were calculated based on infrared and near infrared bands of Landsat 8 images using Geographical Information System (GIS) software. The best VIs were chosen after establishing a regression relationship among these VIs with FAO Kc and Kc that was modified for the study area by the previous research based on R² and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The result showed that local modified SAVI with R²= 0.767 and RMSE= 0.174 was the best index to produce monthly wheat Kc maps.

Keywords: crop coefficient, remote sensing, vegetation indices, wheat

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
6430 Normalized Compression Distance Based Scene Alteration Analysis of a Video

Authors: Lakshay Kharbanda, Aabhas Chauhan

Abstract:

In this paper, an application of Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) to detect notable scene alterations occurring in videos is presented. Several research groups have been developing methods to perform image classification using NCD, a computable approximation to Normalized Information Distance (NID) by studying the degree of similarity in images. The timeframes where significant aberrations between the frames of a video have occurred have been identified by obtaining a threshold NCD value, using two compressors: LZMA and BZIP2 and defining scene alterations using Pixel Difference Percentage metrics.

Keywords: image compression, Kolmogorov complexity, normalized compression distance, root mean square error

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
6429 Identification of Healthy and BSR-Infected Oil Palm Trees Using Color Indices

Authors: Siti Khairunniza-Bejo, Yusnida Yusoff, Nik Salwani Nik Yusoff, Idris Abu Seman, Mohamad Izzuddin Anuar

Abstract:

Most of the oil palm plantations have been threatened by Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease which causes serious economic impact. This study was conducted to identify the healthy and BSR-infected oil palm tree using thirteen color indices. Multispectral and thermal camera was used to capture 216 images of the leaves taken from frond number 1, 9 and 17. Indices of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), red (R), green (G), blue (B), near infrared (NIR), green – blue (GB), green/blue (G/B), green – red (GR), green/red (G/R), hue (H), saturation (S), intensity (I) and thermal index (T) were used. From this study, it can be concluded that G index taken from frond number 9 is the best index to differentiate between the healthy and BSR-infected oil palm trees. It not only gave high value of correlation coefficient (R=-0.962), but also high value of separation between healthy and BSR-infected oil palm tree. Furthermore, power and S model developed using G index gave the highest R2 value which is 0.985.

Keywords: oil palm, image processing, disease, leaves

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
6428 Enhanced Image Representation for Deep Belief Network Classification of Hyperspectral Images

Authors: Khitem Amiri, Mohamed Farah

Abstract:

Image classification is a challenging task and is gaining lots of interest since it helps us to understand the content of images. Recently Deep Learning (DL) based methods gave very interesting results on several benchmarks. For Hyperspectral images (HSI), the application of DL techniques is still challenging due to the scarcity of labeled data and to the curse of dimensionality. Among other approaches, Deep Belief Network (DBN) based approaches gave a fair classification accuracy. In this paper, we address the problem of the curse of dimensionality by reducing the number of bands and replacing the HSI channels by the channels representing radiometric indices. Therefore, instead of using all the HSI bands, we compute the radiometric indices such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index), etc, and we use the combination of these indices as input for the Deep Belief Network (DBN) based classification model. Thus, we keep almost all the pertinent spectral information while reducing considerably the size of the image. In order to test our image representation, we applied our method on several HSI datasets including the Indian pines dataset, Jasper Ridge data and it gave comparable results to the state of the art methods while reducing considerably the time of training and testing.

Keywords: hyperspectral images, deep belief network, radiometric indices, image classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
6427 Comparison of the H-Index of Researchers of Google Scholar and Scopus

Authors: Adian Fatchur Rochim, Abdul Muis, Riri Fitri Sari

Abstract:

H-index has been widely used as a performance indicator of researchers around the world especially in Indonesia. The Government uses Scopus and Google scholar as indexing references in providing recognition and appreciation. However, those two indexing services yield to different H-index values. For that purpose, this paper evaluates the difference of the H-index from those services. Researchers indexed by Webometrics, are used as reference’s data in this paper. Currently, Webometrics only uses H-index from Google Scholar. This paper observed and compared corresponding researchers’ data from Scopus to get their H-index score. Subsequently, some researchers with huge differences in score are observed in more detail on their paper’s publisher. This paper shows that the H-index of researchers in Google Scholar is approximately 2.45 times of their Scopus H-Index. Most difference exists due to the existence of uncertified publishers, which is considered in Google Scholar but not in Scopus.

Keywords: Google Scholar, H-index, Scopus, performance indicator

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
6426 A Spatio-Temporal Analysis and Change Detection of Wetlands in Diamond Harbour, West Bengal, India Using Normalized Difference Water Index

Authors: Lopita Pal, Suresh V. Madha

Abstract:

Wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peat land or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres. The rapidly expanding human population, large scale changes in land use/land cover, burgeoning development projects and improper use of watersheds all has caused a substantial decline of wetland resources in the world. Major degradations have been impacted from agricultural, industrial and urban developments leading to various types of pollutions and hydrological perturbations. Regular fishing activities and unsustainable grazing of animals are degrading the wetlands in a slow pace. The paper focuses on the spatio-temporal change detection of the area of the water body and the main cause of this depletion. The total area under study (22°19’87’’ N, 88°20’23’’ E) is a wetland region in West Bengal of 213 sq.km. The procedure used is the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) from multi-spectral imagery and Landsat to detect the presence of surface water, and the datasets have been compared of the years 2016, 2006 and 1996. The result shows a sharp decline in the area of water body due to a rapid increase in the agricultural practices and the growing urbanization.

Keywords: spatio-temporal change, NDWI, urbanization, wetland

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
6425 Urban Heat Island Intensity Assessment through Comparative Study on Land Surface Temperature and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index: A Case Study of Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: Tausif A. Ishtiaque, Zarrin T. Tasin, Kazi S. Akter

Abstract:

Current trend of urban expansion, especially in the developing countries has caused significant changes in land cover, which is generating great concern due to its widespread environmental degradation. Energy consumption of the cities is also increasing with the aggravated heat island effect. Distribution of land surface temperature (LST) is one of the most significant climatic parameters affected by urban land cover change. Recent increasing trend of LST is causing elevated temperature profile of the built up area with less vegetative cover. Gradual change in land cover, especially decrease in vegetative cover is enhancing the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect in the developing cities around the world. Increase in the amount of urban vegetation cover can be a useful solution for the reduction of UHI intensity. LST and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) have widely been accepted as reliable indicators of UHI and vegetation abundance respectively. Chittagong, the second largest city of Bangladesh, has been a growth center due to rapid urbanization over the last several decades. This study assesses the intensity of UHI in Chittagong city by analyzing the relationship between LST and NDVI based on the type of land use/land cover (LULC) in the study area applying an integrated approach of Geographic Information System (GIS), remote sensing (RS), and regression analysis. Land cover map is prepared through an interactive supervised classification using remotely sensed data from Landsat ETM+ image along with NDVI differencing using ArcGIS. LST and NDVI values are extracted from the same image. The regression analysis between LST and NDVI indicates that within the study area, UHI is directly correlated with LST while negatively correlated with NDVI. It interprets that surface temperature reduces with increase in vegetation cover along with reduction in UHI intensity. Moreover, there are noticeable differences in the relationship between LST and NDVI based on the type of LULC. In other words, depending on the type of land usage, increase in vegetation cover has a varying impact on the UHI intensity. This analysis will contribute to the formulation of sustainable urban land use planning decisions as well as suggesting suitable actions for mitigation of UHI intensity within the study area.

Keywords: land cover change, land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, urban heat island

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
6424 Remote Assessment and Change Detection of GreenLAI of Cotton Crop Using Different Vegetation Indices

Authors: Ganesh B. Shinde, Vijaya B. Musande

Abstract:

Cotton crop identification based on the timely information has significant advantage to the different implications of food, economic and environment. Due to the significant advantages, the accurate detection of cotton crop regions using supervised learning procedure is challenging problem in remote sensing. Here, classifiers on the direct image are played a major role but the results are not much satisfactorily. In order to further improve the effectiveness, variety of vegetation indices are proposed in the literature. But, recently, the major challenge is to find the better vegetation indices for the cotton crop identification through the proposed methodology. Accordingly, fuzzy c-means clustering is combined with neural network algorithm, trained by Levenberg-Marquardt for cotton crop classification. To experiment the proposed method, five LISS-III satellite images was taken and the experimentation was done with six vegetation indices such as Simple Ratio, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, Green Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index, Wide-Dynamic Range Vegetation Index, Green Chlorophyll Index. Along with these indices, Green Leaf Area Index is also considered for investigation. From the research outcome, Green Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index outperformed with all other indices by reaching the average accuracy value of 95.21%.

Keywords: Fuzzy C-Means clustering (FCM), neural network, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm, vegetation indices

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
6423 Estimation of Normalized Glandular Doses Using a Three-Layer Mammographic Phantom

Authors: Kuan-Jen Lai, Fang-Yi Lin, Shang-Rong Huang, Yun-Zheng Zeng, Po-Chieh Hsu, Jay Wu

Abstract:

The normalized glandular dose (DgN) estimates the energy deposition of mammography in clinical practice. The Monte Carlo simulations frequently use uniformly mixed phantom for calculating the conversion factor. However, breast tissues are not uniformly distributed, leading to errors of conversion factor estimation. This study constructed a three-layer phantom to estimated more accurate of normalized glandular dose. In this study, MCNP code (Monte Carlo N-Particles code) was used to create the geometric structure. We simulated three types of target/filter combinations (Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, Rh/Rh), six voltages (25 ~ 35 kVp), six HVL parameters and nine breast phantom thicknesses (2 ~ 10 cm) for the three-layer mammographic phantom. The conversion factor for 25%, 50% and 75% glandularity was calculated. The error of conversion factors compared with the results of the American College of Radiology (ACR) was within 6%. For Rh/Rh, the difference was within 9%. The difference between the 50% average glandularity and the uniform phantom was 7.1% ~ -6.7% for the Mo/Mo combination, voltage of 27 kVp, half value layer of 0.34 mmAl, and breast thickness of 4 cm. According to the simulation results, the regression analysis found that the three-layer mammographic phantom at 0% ~ 100% glandularity can be used to accurately calculate the conversion factors. The difference in glandular tissue distribution leads to errors of conversion factor calculation. The three-layer mammographic phantom can provide accurate estimates of glandular dose in clinical practice.

Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, mammography, normalized glandular dose, glandularity

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
6422 Normalized Laplacian Eigenvalues of Graphs

Authors: Shaowei Sun

Abstract:

Let G be a graph with vertex set V(G)={v_1,v_2,...,v_n} and edge set E(G). For any vertex v belong to V(G), let d_v denote the degree of v. The normalized Laplacian matrix of the graph G is the matrix where the non-diagonal (i,j)-th entry is -1/(d_id_j) when vertex i is adjacent to vertex j and 0 when they are not adjacent, and the diagonal (i,i)-th entry is the di. In this paper, we discuss some bounds on the largest and the second smallest normalized Laplacian eigenvalue of trees and graphs. As following, we found some new bounds on the second smallest normalized Laplacian eigenvalue of tree T in terms of graph parameters. Moreover, we use Sage to give some conjectures on the second largest and the third smallest normalized eigenvalues of graph.

Keywords: graph, normalized Laplacian eigenvalues, normalized Laplacian matrix, tree

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
6421 Multi-Temporal Mapping of Built-up Areas Using Daytime and Nighttime Satellite Images Based on Google Earth Engine Platform

Authors: S. Hutasavi, D. Chen

Abstract:

The built-up area is a significant proxy to measure regional economic growth and reflects the Gross Provincial Product (GPP). However, an up-to-date and reliable database of built-up areas is not always available, especially in developing countries. The cloud-based geospatial analysis platform such as Google Earth Engine (GEE) provides an opportunity with accessibility and computational power for those countries to generate the built-up data. Therefore, this study aims to extract the built-up areas in Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC), Thailand using day and nighttime satellite imagery based on GEE facilities. The normalized indices were generated from Landsat 8 surface reflectance dataset, including Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Built-up Index (BUI), and Modified Built-up Index (MBUI). These indices were applied to identify built-up areas in EEC. The result shows that MBUI performs better than BUI and NDBI, with the highest accuracy of 0.85 and Kappa of 0.82. Moreover, the overall accuracy of classification was improved from 79% to 90%, and error of total built-up area was decreased from 29% to 0.7%, after night-time light data from the Visible and Infrared Imaging Suite (VIIRS) Day Night Band (DNB). The results suggest that MBUI with night-time light imagery is appropriate for built-up area extraction and be utilize for further study of socioeconomic impacts of regional development policy over the EEC region.

Keywords: built-up area extraction, google earth engine, adaptive thresholding method, rapid mapping

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6420 Multi-Temporal Urban Land Cover Mapping Using Spectral Indices

Authors: Mst Ilme Faridatul, Bo Wu

Abstract:

Multi-temporal urban land cover mapping is of paramount importance for monitoring urban sprawl and managing the ecological environment. For diversified urban activities, it is challenging to map land covers in a complex urban environment. Spectral indices have proved to be effective for mapping urban land covers. To improve multi-temporal urban land cover classification and mapping, we evaluate the performance of three spectral indices, e.g. modified normalized difference bare-land index (MNDBI), tasseled cap water and vegetation index (TCWVI) and shadow index (ShDI). The MNDBI is developed to evaluate its performance of enhancing urban impervious areas by separating bare lands. A tasseled cap index, TCWVI is developed to evaluate its competence to detect vegetation and water simultaneously. The ShDI is developed to maximize the spectral difference between shadows of skyscrapers and water and enhance water detection. First, this paper presents a comparative analysis of three spectral indices using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Second, optimized thresholds of the spectral indices are imputed to classify land covers, and finally, their performance of enhancing multi-temporal urban land cover mapping is assessed. The results indicate that the spectral indices are competent to enhance multi-temporal urban land cover mapping and achieves an overall classification accuracy of 93-96%.

Keywords: land cover, mapping, multi-temporal, spectral indices

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
6419 Land Suitability Assessment for Vineyards in Afghanistan Based on Physical and Socio-Economic Criteria

Authors: Sara Tokhi Arab, Tariq Salari, Ryozo Noguchi, Tofael Ahamed

Abstract:

Land suitability analysis is essential for table grape cultivation in order to increase its production and productivity under the dry condition of Afghanistan. In this context, the main aim of this paper was to determine the suitable locations for vineyards based on satellite remote sensing and GIS (geographical information system) in Kabul Province of Afghanistan. The Landsat8 OLI (operational land imager) and thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) and shuttle radar topography mission digital elevation model (SRTM DEM) images were processed to obtain the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference moisture index (NDMI), land surface temperature (LST), and topographic criteria (elevation, aspect, and slope). Moreover, Jaxa rainfall (mm per hour), soil properties information are also used for the physical suitability of vineyards. Besides, socio-economic criteria were collected through field surveys from Kabul Province in order to develop the socio-economic suitability map. Finally, the suitable classes were determined using weighted overly based on a reclassification of each criterion based on AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) weights. The results indicated that only 11.1% of areas were highly suitable, 24.8% were moderately suitable, 35.7% were marginally suitable and 28.4% were not physically suitable for grapes production. However, 15.7% were highly suitable, 17.6% were moderately suitable, 28.4% were marginally suitable and 38.3% were not socio-economically suitable for table grapes production in Kabul Province. This research could help decision-makers, growers, and other stakeholders with conducting precise land assessments by identifying the main limiting factors for the production of table grapes management and able to increase land productivity more precisely.

Keywords: vineyards, land physical suitability, socio-economic suitability, AHP

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
6418 Construction of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Index through Global Sensitivity Analysis of Radiative Transfer Model

Authors: Guanhua Zhou, Zhongqi Ma

Abstract:

Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in wetlands can absorb nitrogen and phosphorus effectively to prevent the eutrophication of water. It is feasible to monitor the distribution of SAV through remote sensing, but for the reason of weak vegetation signals affected by water body, traditional terrestrial vegetation indices are not applicable. This paper aims at constructing SAV index to enhance the vegetation signals and distinguish SAV from water body. The methodology is as follows: (1) select the bands sensitive to the vegetation parameters based on global sensitivity analysis of SAV canopy radiative transfer model; (2) take the soil line concept as reference, analyze the distribution of SAV and water reflectance simulated by SAV canopy model and semi-analytical water model in the two-dimensional space built by different sensitive bands; (3)select the band combinations which have better separation performance between SAV and water, and use them to build the SAVI indices in the form of normalized difference vegetation index(NDVI); (4)analyze the sensitivity of indices to the water and vegetation parameters, choose the one more sensitive to vegetation parameters. It is proved that index formed of the bands with central wavelengths in 705nm and 842nm has high sensitivity to chlorophyll content in leaves while it is less affected by water constituents. The model simulation shows a general negative, little correlation of SAV index with increasing water depth. Moreover, the index enhances capabilities in separating SAV from water compared to NDVI. The SAV index is expected to have potential in parameter inversion of wetland remote sensing.

Keywords: global sensitivity analysis, radiative transfer model, submerged aquatic vegetation, vegetation indices

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
6417 Greenland Monitoring Using Vegetation Index: A Case Study of Lal Suhanra National Park

Authors: Rabia Munsaf Khan, Eshrat Fatima

Abstract:

The analysis of the spatial extent and temporal change of vegetation cover using remotely sensed data is of critical importance to agricultural sciences. Pakistan, being an agricultural country depends on this resource as it makes 70% of the GDP. The case study is of Lal Suhanra National Park, which is not only the biggest forest reserve of Pakistan but also of Asia. The study is performed using different temporal images of Landsat. Also, the results of Landsat are cross-checked by using Sentinel-2 imagery as it has both higher spectral and spatial resolution. Vegetation can easily be detected using NDVI which is a common and widely used index. It is an important vegetation index, widely applied in research on global environmental and climatic change. The images are then classified to observe the change occurred over 15 years. Vegetation cover maps of 2000 and 2016 are used to generate the map of vegetation change detection for the respective years and to find out the changing pattern of vegetation cover. Also, the NDVI values aided in the detection of percentage decrease in vegetation cover. The study reveals that vegetation cover of the area has decreased significantly during the year 2000 and 2016.

Keywords: Landsat, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), sentinel 2, Greenland monitoring

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6416 Evaluating the Impact of Urban Green Spaces on Urban Microclimate of Lahore: A Rapidly Urbanizing Metropolis of the Punjab-Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Nasar-U-Minallah, Dagmar Haase, Salman Qureshi, Safdar Ali Shirazi

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Urban green spaces (UGS) play a key role in the urban ecology of an area since they provide significant ecological services to compensate for natural environment functions damaged by the rapid growth of urbanization. The transformation of urban green specs to impervious landscapes has been recognized as a key factor prompting the distinctive urban heat and associated microclimatic changes. There is no doubt that urban green spaces offer a range of ecosystem services that can help to mitigate the ill effects of urbanization, heat anomalies, and climate change. The present study attempts to appraise the impact of urban green spaces on the urban thermal environment for the development of the microclimatic conditions in Lahore, Pakistan. The influence of urban heat has been studied through Landsat 8 data. The land surface temperature (LST) of Lahore was computed through the Radiative transfer method (RTM). The spatial variation of land surface temperature is retrieved to describe their local heat effect on urban microclimate. The association between the LST, normalized difference vegetation index, and the normalized difference built-up index are investigated to explore the impact of the urban green spaces and impervious surfaces on urban microclimate. The results of this study show significant changes in (impervious land surface 18% increase) land use within the study area. However, conversion of natural green cover to commercial and residential uses considerably increases the LST. Furthermore, results show that green spaces were the major heat sinks while impervious landscapes were the major heat source in the study area. Urban green spaces reveal 1 to 3℃ lower LST associated with their surrounding urban built-up area. This study shows that urban green spaces will help to mitigate the effect of urban microclimate and it is significant for the sustainable urban environment as well as to improve the quality of life of the urban inhabitants.

Keywords: thermal environmental, urban green space, cooling effect, microclimate, Lahore

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6415 Artificial Neural Network and Satellite Derived Chlorophyll Indices for Estimation of Wheat Chlorophyll Content under Rainfed Condition

Authors: Muhammad Naveed Tahir, Wang Yingkuan, Huang Wenjiang, Raheel Osman

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Numerous models used in prediction and decision-making process but most of them are linear in natural environment, and linear models reach their limitations with non-linearity in data. Therefore accurate estimation is difficult. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) found extensive acceptance to address the modeling of the complex real world for the non-linear environment. ANN’s have more general and flexible functional forms than traditional statistical methods can effectively deal with. The link between information technology and agriculture will become more firm in the near future. Monitoring crop biophysical properties non-destructively can provide a rapid and accurate understanding of its response to various environmental influences. Crop chlorophyll content is an important indicator of crop health and therefore the estimation of crop yield. In recent years, remote sensing has been accepted as a robust tool for site-specific management by detecting crop parameters at both local and large scales. The present research combined the ANN model with satellite-derived chlorophyll indices from LANDSAT 8 imagery for predicting real-time wheat chlorophyll estimation. The cloud-free scenes of LANDSAT 8 were acquired (Feb-March 2016-17) at the same time when ground-truthing campaign was performed for chlorophyll estimation by using SPAD-502. Different vegetation indices were derived from LANDSAT 8 imagery using ERADAS Imagine (v.2014) software for chlorophyll determination. The vegetation indices were including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI), Chlorophyll Absorbed Ratio Index (CARI), Modified Chlorophyll Absorbed Ratio Index (MCARI) and Transformed Chlorophyll Absorbed Ratio index (TCARI). For ANN modeling, MATLAB and SPSS (ANN) tools were used. Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) in MATLAB provided very satisfactory results. For training purpose of MLP 61.7% of the data, for validation purpose 28.3% of data and rest 10% of data were used to evaluate and validate the ANN model results. For error evaluation, sum of squares error and relative error were used. ANN model summery showed that sum of squares error of 10.786, the average overall relative error was .099. The MCARI and NDVI were revealed to be more sensitive indices for assessing wheat chlorophyll content with the highest coefficient of determination R²=0.93 and 0.90 respectively. The results suggested that use of high spatial resolution satellite imagery for the retrieval of crop chlorophyll content by using ANN model provides accurate, reliable assessment of crop health status at a larger scale which can help in managing crop nutrition requirement in real time.

Keywords: ANN, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll indices, satellite images, wheat

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6414 Urbanization in Delhi: A Multiparameter Study

Authors: Ishu Surender, M. Amez Khair, Ishan Singh

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Urbanization is a multidimensional phenomenon. It is an indication of the long-term process for the shift of economics to industrial from rural. The significance of urbanization in modernization, socio-economic development, and poverty eradication is relevant in modern times. This paper aims to study the urbanization index model in the capital of India, Delhi using aspects such as demographic aspect, infrastructural development aspect, and economic development aspect. The urbanization index of all the nine districts of Delhi will be determined using multiple parameters such as population density and the availability of health and education facilities. The definition of the urban area varies from city to city and requires periodic classification which makes direct comparisons difficult. The urbanization index calculated in this paper can be employed to measure the urbanization of a district and compare the level of urbanization in different districts.

Keywords: multiparameter, population density, multiple regression, normalized urbanization index

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6413 Predicting OpenStreetMap Coverage by Means of Remote Sensing: The Case of Haiti

Authors: Ran Goldblatt, Nicholas Jones, Jennifer Mannix, Brad Bottoms

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Accurate, complete, and up-to-date geospatial information is the foundation of successful disaster management. When the 2010 Haiti Earthquake struck, accurate and timely information on the distribution of critical infrastructure was essential for the disaster response community for effective search and rescue operations. Existing geospatial datasets such as Google Maps did not have comprehensive coverage of these features. In the days following the earthquake, many organizations released high-resolution satellite imagery, catalyzing a worldwide effort to map Haiti and support the recovery operations. Of these organizations, OpenStreetMap (OSM), a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world, used the imagery to support volunteers to digitize roads, buildings, and other features, creating the most detailed map of Haiti in existence in just a few weeks. However, large portions of the island are still not fully covered by OSM. There is an increasing need for a tool to automatically identify which areas in Haiti, as well as in other countries vulnerable to disasters, that are not fully mapped. The objective of this project is to leverage different types of remote sensing measurements, together with machine learning approaches, in order to identify geographical areas where OSM coverage of building footprints is incomplete. Several remote sensing measures and derived products were assessed as potential predictors of OSM building footprints coverage, including: intensity of light emitted at night (based on VIIRS measurements), spectral indices derived from Sentinel-2 satellite (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference built-up index (NDBI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), urban index (UI)), surface texture (based on Sentinel-1 SAR measurements)), elevation and slope. Additional remote sensing derived products, such as Hansen Global Forest Change, DLR`s Global Urban Footprint (GUF), and World Settlement Footprint (WSF), were also evaluated as predictors, as well as OSM street and road network (including junctions). Using a supervised classification with a random forest classifier resulted in the prediction of 89% of the variation of OSM building footprint area in a given cell. These predictions allowed for the identification of cells that are predicted to be covered but are actually not mapped yet. With these results, this methodology could be adapted to any location to assist with preparing for future disastrous events and assure that essential geospatial information is available to support the response and recovery efforts during and following major disasters.

Keywords: disaster management, Haiti, machine learning, OpenStreetMap, remote sensing

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6412 The Threshold Values of Soil Water Index for Landslides on Country Road No.89

Authors: Ji-Yuan Lin, Yu-Ming Liou, Yi-Ting Chen, Chen-Syuan Lin

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Soil water index obtained by tank model is now commonly used in soil and sand disaster alarm system in Japan. Comparing with the rainfall trigging index in Taiwan, the tank model is easy to predict the slope water content on large-scale landslide. Therefore, this study aims to estimate the threshold value of large-scale landslide using the soil water index Sixteen typhoons and heavy rainfall events, were selected to establish the, to relationship between landslide event and soil water index. Finally, the proposed threshold values for landslides on country road No.89 are suggested in this study. The study results show that 95% landslide cases occurred in soil water index more than 125mm, and 30% of the more serious slope failure occurred in the soil water index is greater than 250mm. Beside, this study speculates when soil water index more than 250mm and the difference value between second tank and third tank less than -25mm, it leads to large-scale landslide more probably.

Keywords: soil water index, tank model, landslide, threshold values

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6411 Spatially Downscaling Land Surface Temperature with a Non-Linear Model

Authors: Kai Liu

Abstract:

Remote sensing-derived land surface temperature (LST) can provide an indication of the temporal and spatial patterns of surface evapotranspiration (ET). However, the spatial resolution achieved by existing commonly satellite products is ~1 km, which remains too coarse for ET estimations. This paper proposed a model that can disaggregate coarse resolution MODIS LST at 1 km scale to fine spatial resolutions at the scale of 250 m. Our approach attempted to weaken the impacts of soil moisture and growing statues on LST variations. The proposed model spatially disaggregates the coarse thermal data by using a non-linear model involving Bowen ratio, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and photochemical reflectance index (PRI). This LST disaggregation model was tested on two heterogeneous landscapes in central Iowa, USA and Heihe River, China, during the growing seasons. Statistical results demonstrated that our model achieved better than the two classical methods (DisTrad and TsHARP). Furthermore, using the surface energy balance model, it was observed that the estimated ETs using the disaggregated LST from our model were more accurate than those using the disaggregated LST from DisTrad and TsHARP.

Keywords: Bowen ration, downscaling, evapotranspiration, land surface temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 254