Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3561

Search results for: science teachers

3561 Pre-Service Science Teachers' Perceptions Related to the Concept of Laboratory: A Metaphorical Analysis

Authors: Salih Uzun

Abstract:

The laboratory activities are seen an indispensable part of science, teaching, and learning. In this study, the aim was to identify pre-service science teachers’ perceptions related to the concept of laboratory through metaphors. It is expressed that metaphors can be used as a powerful research tool in order to understand personal perceptions. Therefore, metaphors were used with the aim of revealing a picture regarding how pre-service science teachers perceive laboratory. Within the scope of this aim, phenomenographic research design was adopted for this study and an answer was sought to the question; ‘What are pre-service science teachers’ perceptions about the concept of laboratory?’. The sample of this study was a total of 80 pre-service science teachers at various grade levels in Turkey. Participants were asked to complete the sentence; ‘Laboratory is like…; because…’. Documents including pre-service science teachers’ answers to the open-ended questions were used as data sources and the data were analysed with content analysis.

Keywords: laboratory, metaphor, phenomenology, pre-service science teachers

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3560 E-Learning in Primary Science: Teachers versus Students

Authors: Winnie Wing Mui So, Yu Chen

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This study investigated primary school teachers’ and students’ perceptions of science learning in an e-learning environment. This study used a multiple case study design and involved eight science teachers and their students from four Hong Kong primary schools. The science topics taught included ‘season and weather’ ‘force and movement’, ‘solar and lunar eclipse’ and ‘living things and habitats’. Data were collected through lesson observations, interviews with teachers, and interviews with students. Results revealed some differences between the teachers’ and the students’ perceptions regarding the usefulness of e-learning resources, the organization of student-centred activities, and the impact on engagement and interactions in lessons. The findings have implications for the more effective creation of e-learning environments for science teaching and learning in primary schools.

Keywords: e-learning, science education, teacher' and students' perceptions, primary schools

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3559 Thai Student Teachers' Prior Understanding of Nature of Science (NOS)

Authors: N. Songumpai, W. Sumranwanich, S. Chatmaneerungcharoen

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This research aims to study the understanding of 8 aspects of nature of science (NOS). The research participants were 39 General Science student teachers who were selected by purposive sampling. In 2015 academic year, they enrolled in the course of Science Education Learning Management. Qualitative research was used as research methodology to understand how the student teachers propose on NOS. The research instruments consisted of open-ended questionnaires and semi-structure interviews that were used to assess students’ understanding of NOS. Research data was collected by 8 items- questionnaire and was categorized into students’ understanding of NOS, which consisted of complete understanding (CU), partial understanding (PU), misunderstanding (MU) and no understanding (NU). The findings reveal the majority of students’ misunderstanding of NOS regarding the aspects of theory and law(89.7%), scientific method(61.5%) and empirical evidence(15.4%) respectively. From the interview data, the student teachers present their misconceptions of NOS that indicate about theory and law cannot change; science knowledge is gained through experiment only (step by step); science is the things that are around humans. These results suggest that for effective science teacher education, the composition of design of NOS course needs to be considered. Therefore, teachers’ understanding of NOS is necessary to integrate into professional development program/course for empowering student teachers to begin their careers as strong science teachers in schools.

Keywords: nature of science, student teacher, no understanding, misunderstanding, partial understanding, complete understanding

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3558 Secondary Science Teachers' Views about Purposes of Practical Works in School Science

Authors: Kew-Cheol Shim, Sung-Hwan Moon, Ji-Hyon Kil, Kyoungho Kim

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The purpose of this paper was to examine views of secondary school science teachers about purposes to use practical works in school science. The instrument to survey consisted eighteen items, which were categorized into four components as follows: ‘Scientific inquiry’, ‘Scientific knowledge’, ‘Science-related attitude’, and ‘STS (science-technology-society)’. Subjects were 152 secondary school science teachers (male 70 and female 82; middle school 50 and high school 102), who are teaching in 42 schools of 8 provinces. On the survey, science teachers were asked to answer on 5-point Lickert scale (from 1 to 5) how they thought of using practical works on purposes with domains of science objectives in school. They had positive views about using practical works for improving scientific inquiry process skills, science-related attitudes, and perceptions about STS literacy, and acquiring scientific knowledge. They would have the most willingness of using practical works for ‘Scientific Inquiry’ among domains of science objectives in school.

Keywords: secondary school, science teacher, practical work, scientific inquiry, scientific knowledge, scientific attitude, STS

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3557 Saudi Arabian Science and Mathematics Teachers’ Attitudes toward Integrating STEM in Teaching before and after Participating in a Professional Development Workshop

Authors: Abdulwali H. Aldahmash, Naem M. Alamri

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The purpose of this study was to analyze Saudi Arabian science and mathematics teachers’ attitudes toward integrating STEM in teaching before and after they participated in a professional development workshop focused on STEM integration in a specific middle school science and mathematics unit. The participants were 48 Saudi Arabian science and mathematics teachers who participated in a three-day workshop held in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The research method was a pretest-posttest group design. The primary data source was the instrument for teachers' attitudes toward teaching integrated STEM. The results indicate that Saudi Arabian science and mathematics teachers’ perceptions of difficulties decreased due to their participation in the professional development workshop on integrated STEM. Meanwhile, the teachers' self-efficacy improved following their participation in the STEM professional development (PD) workshop. However, no perceived effect was found for the teachers' perceptions of the relevance of or their anxiety about or enjoyment of integrated STEM teaching due to their participation in the three-day PD workshop.

Keywords: STEM integration, attitude toward STEM, STEM workshop, professional development

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3556 Science Anxiety Levels in Emirati Pre-Service Teachers

Authors: Martina Dickson, Hanadi Kadbey, Melissa Mcminn

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Research has shown that anxiety and trepidation towards learning about science is prevalent among elementary school teachers in Western countries. It has also been shown repeatedly that pre-service and in-service teachers who show signs of anxiety towards science are; a) less likely to teach it at all, where they have some autonomy over this, b) less likely to teach it effectively c) ultimately that their students have lower attainment scores in science. It is therefore critically important to gauge pre-service teachers’ science anxiety levels early on whilst there are still possibilities to overturn some of the reasons behind these fears and avert these serious issues occurring later on. This study takes place in the capital of the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) in the context of training local elementary school teachers. In the U.A.E., where Emirati teachers are already in the vast minority and attrition rates are high, it is important to offer as much support to pre-service teachers as possible. If pre-service teachers are graduating with high levels of science anxiety unabated, according to the research there is a very real concern that as generalist primary school teachers, their science teaching will be far from optimal. The aims of this research study were to ascertain the science anxiety levels of pre-service elementary teachers and to identify particular areas of their science anxiety, if appropriate. We surveyed 200 Emirati pre-service teachers and found that levels of science anxiety were directly related to their perceptions of performance in science exams, laboratory experiments and inquiry approaches to science learning. Whilst some studies have shown that science anxiety can decrease as students gain confidence in science knowledge by studying courses, we did not see this effect in our study. This is based upon a theoretical framework which holds that in some cases, science anxiety is related to lack of exposure to, or insecurity with science content itself which in some cases is alleviated by the students’ covering of material and greater confidence in the subject. Exploring this variable allowed us to explore whether students educated in schools influenced by the educational reform in Abu Dhabi have differing science anxiety levels from those who were educated prior to the reforms. We discuss the possible implications of these findings to the future teaching of science in Abu Dhabi public schools.

Keywords: pre-service teachers, science anxiety, United Arab Emirates, educational reform

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3555 The Impact of Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognition on Their Use of Inquiry Based Teaching Approaches

Authors: Irfan Ahmed Rind

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Science education has recently become the top priority of government of Pakistan. Number of schemes has been initiated for the improvement of science teaching and learning at primary and secondary levels of education, most importantly training in-service science teachers on inquiry based teaching and learning to empower students and encourage creativity, critical thinking, and innovation among them. Therefore, this approach has been promoted in the recent continuous professional development trainings for the in-service teachers. However, the follow ups on trained science teachers and educators suggest that these teachers fail to implement the inquiry based teaching and learning in their classes. In addition, these trainings also fail to bring any significant change in students’ science content knowledge and understanding as per the annual national level surveys conducted by government and independent agencies. Research suggests that science has been taught using scientific positivism, which supports objectivity based on experiments and mathematics. In contrary, the inquiry based teaching and learning are based on constructivism, which conflicts with the positivist epistemology of science teachers. It was, therefore, assumed that science teachers struggle to implement the inquiry based teaching approach as it conflicts with their basic epistemological beliefs. With this assumption, this research aimed to (i) understand how science teachers conceptualize the nature of science, and how this influence their understanding of learning, learners, their own roles as teachers and their teaching strategies, (ii) identify the conflict of science teachers’ epistemological beliefs with the inquiry based teaching approach, and (iii) find the ways in which science teachers epistemological beliefs may be developed from positivism to constructivism, so that they may effectively use the inquiry based teaching approach in teaching science. Using qualitative case study approach, thirty six secondary and higher secondary science teachers (21 male and 15 female) were selected. Data was collected using interviewed, participatory observations (sixty lessons were observed), and twenty interviews from students for verifications of teachers’ responses. The findings suggest that most of the science teacher were positivist in defining the nature of science. Most of them limit themselves to one fix answer that is provided in the books and that there is only one 'right' way to teach science. There is no room for students’ or teachers’ own opinion or bias when it comes to scientific concepts. Inquiry based teaching seems 'no right' to them. They find it difficult to allow students to think out of the box. However, some interesting exercises were found to be very effective in bringing the change in teachers’ epistemological beliefs. These will be discussed in detail in the paper. The findings have major implications for the teachers, educators, and policymakers.

Keywords: science teachers, epistemology, metacognition, inquiry based teaching

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3554 The Effect of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Education on Preservice Science Teachers' Awareness of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Authors: Tuba Senel Zor, Oktay Aslan

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With current trends in nanoscience and nanotechnology (NST), scientists have paid much attention to education and nanoliteracy in parallel with the developments on these fields. To understand the advances in NST research requires a population with a high degree of science literacy. All citizens should soon need nanoliteracy in order to navigate some of the important science-based issues faced to their everyday lives. While the fields of NST are advancing rapidly and raising their societal significance, general public’s awareness of these fields has remained at a low level. Moreover, students enrolled different education levels and teachers don’t have awareness at expected level. This problem may be stemmed from inadequate education and training. To remove the inadequacy, teachers have greatest duties and responsibilities. Especially science teachers at all levels need to be made aware of these developments and adequately prepared so that they are able to teach about these advances in a developmentally appropriate manner. If the teachers develop understanding and awareness of NST, they can also discuss the topic with their students. Therefore, the awareness and conceptual understandings of both the teachers who will teach science to students and the students who will be introduced about NST should be increased, and the necessary training should be provided. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of NST education on preservice science teachers’ awareness of NST. The study was designed in one group pre-test post-test quasi-experimental pattern. The study was conducted with 32 preservice science teachers attending the Elementary Science Education Program at a large Turkish university in central Anatolia. NST education was given during five weeks as two hours per week. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Awareness Questionnaire was used as data collected tool and was implemented for pre-test and post-test. The collected data were analyzed using Statistical package for the Social Science (SPSS). The results of data analysis showed that there was a significant difference (z=6.25, p< .05) on NST awareness of preservice science teachers after implemented NST education. The results of the study indicate that NST education has an important effect for improving awareness of preservice science teachers on NST.

Keywords: awareness level, nanoliteracy, nanoscience and nanotechnology education, preservice science teachers

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3553 Preservice Science Teachers' Understanding of Equitable Assessment

Authors: Kemal Izci, Ahmet Oguz Akturk

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Learning is dependent on cognitive and physical differences as well as other differences such as ethnicity, language, and culture. Furthermore, these differences also influence how students show their learning. Assessment is an integral part of learning and teaching process and is essential for effective instruction. In order to provide effective instruction, teachers need to provide equal assessment opportunities for all students to see their learning difficulties and use them to modify instruction to aid learning. Successful assessment practices are dependent upon the knowledge and value of teachers. Therefore, in order to use assessment to assess and support diverse students learning, preservice and inservice teachers should hold an appropriate understanding of equitable assessment. In order to prepare teachers to help them support diverse student learning, as a first step, this study aims to explore how preservice teachers’ understand equitable assessment. 105 preservice science teachers studying at teacher preparation program in a large university located at Eastern part of Turkey participated in the current study. A questionnaire, preservice teachers’ reflection papers and interviews served as data sources for this study. All collected data qualitatively analyzed to develop themes that illustrate preservice science teachers’ understanding of equitable assessment. Results of the study showed that preservice teachers mostly emphasized fairness including fairness in grading and fairness in asking questions not out of covered concepts for equitable assessment. However, most of preservice teachers do not show an understanding of equity for providing equal opportunities for all students to display their understanding of related content. For some preservice teachers providing different opportunities (providing extra time for non-native speaking students) for some students seems to be unfair for other students and therefore, these kinds of refinements do not need to be used. The results of the study illustrated that preservice science teachers mostly understand equitable assessment as fairness and less highlight the role of using equitable assessment to support all student learning, which is more important in order to improve students’ achievement of science. Therefore, we recommend that more opportunities should be provided for preservice teachers engage in a more broad understanding of equitable assessment and learn how to use equitable assessment practices to aid and support all students learning trough classroom assessment.

Keywords: science teaching, equitable assessment, assessment literacy, preservice science teachers

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3552 Teachers' Accessibility to and Utilization of Electronic Media for Teaching Basic Science and Technology in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara, Nigeria

Authors: Taibat Busari

Abstract:

Electronic media has created new options for enhancing education. It has long been providing innovative methods for arousing students’ attention in learning and improves teachers’ performance in disseminating instructional contents. However, the advancement of electronic media has increased the flexibility, availability, accessibility and improved communications among students-students, students-teacher, and teacher-students. This study investigated: (i) teachers’ accessibility to, and utilization of electronic media for teaching basic science and technology in Ilorin metropolis; (ii) the influence of school proprietorship on teachers’ access to and utilization of electronic media for teaching and; the influence of teachers’ gender on the use of electronic media. The research was a descriptive design using the survey method. The study sample was drawn for private and public secondary schools in Ilorin Metropolis. The respondents were 285 basic science and technology teachers, which comprised of 146 males and 139 females. A structured researcher designed questionnaire was used to gather data for the study. Pilot study was carried out on mini sample of 20 basic science and technology teachers in five schools which are not part of the study’s population. It was then subjected to Cronbach’s Alpha and yielded the values 0.794 for availability, 0.730 for accessibility and 0.84 for utilization of electronic media. The research questions were answered using mean and percentage while research hypotheses one and two was tested using t- test. The findings of the study showed that: (i) electronic media are available for teaching basic science and technology; (ii) teachers’ had access to electronic media for teaching; (iii) teachers’ utilized electronic media for teaching basic science and technology; (iv) there was no significant difference between teachers’ utilization of electronic media for teaching; (v) there was no significant difference between teachers’ utilization of electronic media for teaching based on school proprietorship. The study, therefore, concluded that teachers’ had access to electronic media and utilized it for teaching purposes. Gender had no influence on teachers’ access to and utilization on electronic media for teaching and also, school proprietorship had no influence on access and utilization of electronic media for teaching. Based on findings it was recommended that electronic media should be made available and utilized in all schools across the nation to improve the learning rate of the students.

Keywords: electronic media, basic science and technology, teachers' accessibility, Nigeria

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3551 Assessing the Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers’ Continuation of Use of Technology After Participation in Professional Development

Authors: Ayoub Kafyulilo, Petra Fisser, Joke Voogt

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This study was conducted to assess the continuation of the use of technology in science and mathematics teaching of the pre-service and in-service teachers who attended the professional development programme. It also assessed professional development, personal, institutional, and technological factors contributing to the continuous use of technology in teaching. The study involved 42 teachers, thirteen pre-service teachers, and twenty-nine in-service teachers. A mixed-method research approach was used to collect data for this study. Findings showed that the continuous use of technology in teaching after the termination of the professional development arrangement was high among the pre-service teachers, and differed for the in-service teachers. The regression model showed that knowledge and skills, access to technology and ease of use were strong predictors (R2 = 55.3%) of the teachers’ continuous use of technology after the professional development arrangement. The professional development factor did not have a direct effect on the continuous use of technology, rather had an influence on personal factors (knowledge and skills). In turn, the personal factors had influence on the institutional factors (access to technology) and technological factors (ease of use), which together had an effect on the teachers’ continuous use of technology in teaching.

Keywords: technology, professional development, teachers, science and mathematics

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3550 Teachers' and Learners' ICT-Readiness Assessment for Agricultural Science Instruction in Secondary Schools in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: A. Olusegun Egunjobi, Samson Sunday Adekunte

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This study investigated the teachers’ and learners’ ICT-readiness assessment for agricultural science instruction in secondary schools in Ogun State, Nigeria. However, the sample population of 6 and 120 agricultural science teachers and learners were randomly selected respectively from 3 public and 3 private senior secondary schools in Ado-Odo/Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design of ex post-facto type was adopted for the study. Two structured questionnaires tagged Teachers’ and Learners’ Questionnaires on ICT-Readiness for Agricultural Science Instruction TQICTRASI and LQICTRASI respectively were used for data collection. The two questionnaires were subjected to Cronbach alpha coefficient with the results 0.86 and 0.82 respectively. Five research hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed that teachers in private senior secondary school (SSS) were more ready and prepared than their counterparts in public SSS with the result t-value = 4.25 greater than t-critical = 2.77, df = 4 at p<0.05. Also, learners in private SSS were more prepared and ready for the utilisation of ICT-facilities for agricultural science instruction with the result t-value = 3.51 greater than t-critical = 1.98, df = 118 at p<0.05. However, male and female learners in both private and public SSS were equally prepared and ready for the ICT-facilities utilisation for agricultural science instruction, thus, there were no significant differences in their ICT-readiness. Therefore, the study proffered that, both male and female teachers and learners should be more ICT-compliant and always ready to upgrade their skills and knowledge in ICT-facilities, utilisation for agricultural science instruction and even for other school subjects particularly in Ogun State and in generally in Nigeria.

Keywords: ICT-readiness, teachers’ and learners’ assessment, private and public senior secondary schools, agricultural science instruction

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3549 Advantages and Disadvantages of Socioscientific Issue Based Instruction in Science Classrooms: Pre-Service Science Teachers' Views

Authors: Aysegul Evren Yapicioglu

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The social roles and responsibilities expected from citizens are increasing due to changing global living conditions. Science education is expected to prepare conscious and sensitive students. Because today’s students are the adults of future. Precondition of this task is Teacher Education. In the past decade, one of the most important research field is socioscientific issues. This study deals with advantages and disadvantages of socioscientific issue based instruction in science classroom according to pre-service science teachers’ views. A case study approach that is one of the qualitative research design was used to explore their views. Fourteen pre-service science teachers participated to instruction process. Dolphinariums, Kyoto Protocol, genetically modified organisms, recyclable black bags’ benefits and damages, genetic tests, alternative energy sources and organ donation are examples of socioscientific issues, which were taught through activities in a special teaching course. Diaries and focus group interview were used as data collection tools. As a result of the study, the advantages of socioscientific issue based instruction in science classroom comprise of six sub-categories which are multi-skilling, social awareness development of thinking, meaningful learning, character and professional development, contribution of scientific literacy whereas disadvantages of this instruction process are challenges teachers and students, limitations of teaching and learning process in pre-service science teachers’ perspectives. Finally, this study contributes to science teachers and researchers to overcome disadvantages and benefit from the advantage of socioscientific issue based instruction in science classroom.

Keywords: science education, socioscientific issues, socioscientific issue based instruction, pre-service science teacher

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3548 Pre-Service Science Teachers’ Attitudes about Teaching Science Courses at the Faculty of Education, Lebanese University: An Exploratory Case Study

Authors: Suzanne El Takach

Abstract:

The research study explored pre-service teachers’ attitudes towards 6 courses taught in 3rd till 6th semesters at the Faculty of Education, Lebanese University, during the academic year 2015-2016. They assessed science teaching courses that are essential for teacher preparation for Science at the primary and elementary level. These courses were: Action Research I and II in Teaching Science, New trends in Teaching Science, Teaching Science I and II for the elementary level and Teaching Science for Early Childhood Education. Qualitative and Quantitative Data were gathered from a) a survey questionnaire consisting of 23 closed-ended items; some were of Likert scale type, that aimed at collecting students’ opinions on courses, in terms of teaching, assessment and class interaction (N=102 respondents) and b) a second questionnaire of 10 questions was disseminated on a sample of 39 students in their last semester in science and Mathematics, in order to know more about students’ skills gained, suggestions for new courses and improvement. Students were satisfied with science teaching courses and they have admitted that they gained a good pedagogical content knowledge, such as, lesson planning, students’ misconceptions, and use of various teaching and assessment strategies.

Keywords: assessment in higher education, LMD program, pre-service teachers’ attitudes, pre-PCK skills

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3547 Enhancing Thai In-Service Science Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Integrating Local Context and Sufficiency Economy into Science Teaching

Authors: Siriwan Chatmaneerungcharoen

Abstract:

An emerging body of ‘21st century skills’-such as adaptability, complex communication skills, technology skills and the ability to solve non-routine problems--are valuable across a wide range of jobs in the national economy. Within the Thai context, a focus on the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy is integrated into Science Education. Thai science education has advocated infusing 21st century skills and Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy into the school curriculum and several educational levels have launched such efforts. Therefore, developing science teachers to have proper knowledge is the most important factor to success of the goals. The purposes of this study were to develop 40 Cooperative Science teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) and to develop Professional Development Model integrated with Co-teaching Model and Coaching System (Co-TPACK). TPACK is essential to career development for teachers. Forty volunteer In-service teachers who were science cooperative teachers participated in this study for 2 years. Data sources throughout the research project consisted of teacher refection, classroom observations, Semi-structure interviews, Situation interview, questionnaires and document analysis. Interpretivist framework was used to analyze the data. Findings indicate that at the beginning, the teachers understood only the meaning of Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy but they did not know how to integrate the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy into their science classrooms. Mostly, they preferred to use lecture based teaching and experimental teaching styles. While the Co- TPACK was progressing, the teachers had blended their teaching styles and learning evaluation methods. Co-TPACK consists of 3 cycles (Student Teachers’ Preparation Cycle, Cooperative Science Teachers Cycle, Collaboration cycle (Co-teaching, Co-planning, and Co-Evaluating and Coaching System)).The Co-TPACK enhances the 40 cooperative science teachers, student teachers and university supervisor to exchange their knowledge and experience on teaching science. There are many channels that they used for communication including online. They have used more Phuket context-integrated lessons, technology-integrated teaching and Learning that can explicit Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy. Their sustained development is shown in their lesson plans and teaching practices.

Keywords: technological pedagogical content knowledge, philosophy of sufficiency economy, professional development, coaching system

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3546 The Reflection on Pre-Service Teacher Training Program in Science Education

Authors: Sumalee Tientongdee

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The pre-service teacher training program at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bankgok Thailand has been provided for undergraduate students for more than 80 years. It was established as the first teacher college in the country. The pre-service teacher program in science education is considered as one of the new training programs to prepare pre-service teacher to teach science in secondary school level. The need of program assessment is strongly important. Therefore, this study was conducted to gain the opinions and recommendations from the principals, in-service teachers, and mentoring teachers from the partnership schools of Bangkok. The invited 120 participants for the annual meeting was hold in May 2017. The focus group discussion and questionnaires were used to collect the data during the reflection session. The content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. The results showed that the pre-service teacher training program in science education should improve students’ creative thinking skill, service mind, personality, and attitudes toward teaching science career. Also, the future science teachers must be able to teach in English to have more opportunities to teach science in Southeast Asian countries.

Keywords: pre-service teacher training program, reflection, science education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat university

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3545 Analysis of Teachers' Self Efficacy in Terms of Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Ercan Yilmaz, Ali Murat Sünbül

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The aim of the study is to investigate teachers’ self-efficacy with regards to their emotional intelligence. The relational model was used in the study. The participant of the study included 194 teachers from secondary schools in Konya, Turkey. In order to assess teachers’ emotional intelligence, “Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-short Form was implemented. For teachers’ self-efficacy, “Teachers’ Sense of Self-Efficacy Scale” was used. As a result of the study, a significant relationship is available between teachers’ sense of self-efficacy and their emotional intelligence. Teachers’ emotional intelligence enucleates approximate eighteen percent of the variable in dimension named teachers’ self-efficacy for the students’ involvement. About nineteen percent of the variable in dimension “self-efficacy for teaching strategies is represented through emotional intelligence. Teachers’ emotional intelligence demonstrates about seventeen percent of variable aimed at classroom management.

Keywords: teachers, self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, education

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3544 The Use of Webquests in Developing Inquiry Based Learning: Views of Teachers and Students in Qatar

Authors: Abdullah Abu-Tineh, Carol Murphy, Nigel Calder, Nasser Mansour

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This paper reports on an aspect of e-learning in developing inquiry-based learning (IBL). We present data on the views of teachers and students in Qatar following a professional development programme intended to help teachers implement IBL in their science and mathematics classrooms. Key to this programme was the use of WebQuests. Views of the teachers and students suggested that WebQuests helped students to develop technical skills, work collaboratively and become independent in their learning. The use of WebQuests also enabled a combination of digital and non-digital tools that helped students connect ideas and enhance their understanding of topics.

Keywords: digital technology, inquiry-based learning, mathematics and science education, professional development

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3543 An Investigation of the Science Process Skills of 48-66 Months Old Children

Authors: Nilüfer Kuru, Berrin Akman

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In this study, science process skills of children with ages varying between 48-months and 66-months are analyzed. Science process skills of children are investigated in terms of factors including gender of children, attendance of children to the previous educational institution and duration of their attendance, educational background of their parents, ages of children and teachers, professional experience of teachers, educational background, and department of graduation of teachers, type of pre-school education institution of teachers and children. Sample of research consists of 250 children aged between 48-months and 66-months who attend state and private kindergartens under the Ministry of National Education, nursery classes of elementary schools and kindergartens of establishments in central districts of Ankara and 50 teachers who serve in these children’s classes. Science Observation Form, reached from the website of Alaska Department of Education & Early, are analyzed in terms of language, content, construct validity, and reliability by the researchers. Additionally, Personal Information Form is also developed by the researchers. Data obtained in the study are analyzed with SPSS 16.0 package program to obtain percentage and frequency, Kruskal Wallis H-test, and Mann- Whitney U test, which are one of the non-parametric tests, are used. Within the context of this study it has been seen that independent variables of age, type of school attending and status of attendance to pre-school education, educational background of children’s father are meaningful expositive in gaining science process skills for children. It has been seen that period of service of teachers, duration of attendance to pre-school education for children, gender of children and educational background of children’s mother are not meaningful expositive in gaining science process skills for children.

Keywords: preschool, science process skills, early childhood education, science

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3542 Teachers' Gender-Counts a Lot: Impact of Teachers’ Gender on Students’ Score Achievement at Primary Level

Authors: Aqleem Fatimah

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The purpose of study was to find out the impact of teachers’ gender on students’ score achievement. Focusing on primary level’s teachers & students, a survey research was conducted by using convenient sampling technique. All the students of grade four (1500) and fifty-six teachers (equally divided by gender) from the 50 randomly selected coeducational schools from Lahore were taken as sample. The academic performance was operationalized using a t-test on standardized achievement tests of the students in language, science mathematics and social studies. In addition, all those gender based characteristics of teachers that count a lot in classroom interactions (taking Multi-grade classes, classroom strategies, feedback strategies and evaluation method) that influence students’ achievement were also analyzed by using a questionnaire and an observation schedule. The results of the study showed better academic achievement of students (girl &boy) of female teachers comparatively to the students of male teachers. Therefore, as the female teachers’ number lacks in Pakistan, the study suggests policy makers to seek guidelines to induct more specialized and professionally competent female teachers because their induction will prove highly beneficial for the betterment of students’ score achievement.

Keywords: gender, teacher, competency, score achievement

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3541 Indigenous Knowledge and Nature of Science Interface: Content Considerations for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education

Authors: Mpofu Vongai, Vhurumuku Elaosi

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Many African countries, such as Zimbabwe and South Africa, have curricula reform agendas that include incorporation of Indigenous Knowledge and Nature of Science (NOS) into school Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education. It is argued that at high school level, STEM learning, which incorporates understandings of indigenization science and NOS, has the potential to provide a strong foundation for a culturally embedded scientific knowledge essential for their advancement in Science and Technology. Globally, investment in STEM education is recognized as essential for economic development. For this reason, developing countries such as Zimbabwe and South Africa have been investing into training specialized teachers in natural sciences and technology. However, in many cases this training has been detached from the cultural realities and contexts of indigenous learners. For this reason, the STEM curricula reform has provided implementation challenges to teachers. An issue of major concern is the teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), which is essential for effective implementation of these STEM curricula. Well-developed Teacher PCK include an understanding of both the nature of indigenous knowledge (NOIK) and of NOS. This paper reports the results of a study that investigated the development of 3 South African and 3 Zimbabwean in-service teachers’ abilities to integrate NOS and NOIK as part of their PCK. A participatory action research design was utilized. The main focus was on capturing, determining and developing teachers STEM knowledge for integrating NOIK and NOS in science classrooms. Their use of indigenous games was used to determine how their subject knowledge for STEM and pedagogical abilities could be developed. Qualitative data were gathered through the use dialogues between the researchers and the in-service teachers, as well as interviewing the participating teachers. Analysis of the data provides a methodological window through which in-service teachers’ PCK can be STEMITIZED and their abilities to integrate NOS and NOIK developed. Implications are raised for developing teachers’ STEM education in universities and teacher training colleges.

Keywords: indigenous knowledge, nature of science, pedagogical content knowledge, STEM education

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3540 Qualitative Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Imagined Professional World vs. Real Experiences of In-Service Teachers

Authors: Masood Monjezi

Abstract:

The English teachers’ pedagogical identity construction is the way teachers go through the process of becoming teachers and how they maintain their teaching selves. The pedagogical identity of teachers is influenced by several factors within the individual and the society. The purpose of this study was to compare the imagined social world of the pre-service teachers with the real experiences the in-service teachers had in the context of Iran to see how prepared the pre-service teachers are with a view to their identity being. This study used a qualitative approach to collection and analysis of the data. Structured and semi-structured interviews, focus groups and process logs were used to collect the data. Then, using open coding, the data were analyzed. The findings showed that the imagined world of the pre-service teachers partly corresponded with the real world experiences of the in-service teachers leaving the pre-service teachers unprepared for their real world teaching profession. The findings suggest that the current approaches to English teacher training are in need of modification to better prepare the pre-service teachers for the future that expects them.

Keywords: imagined professional world, in-service teachers, pre-service teachers, real experiences, community of practice, identity

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3539 Professional Development of Pre-Service Teachers: The Case of Practicum Experience

Authors: G. Lingam, N. Lingam, K. Raghuwaiya

Abstract:

The reported study focuses on pre-service teachers’ professional development during the teaching practice. The cohort studied comprised participants in their final year in the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science with Graduate Certificate in Education programmes of a university in Fiji. Analysis of the data obtained using a survey questionnaire indicates that overall, the pre-service teachers were satisfied with the practicum experience. This is assumed to demonstrate that the practicum experience contributed well towards their professional preparation for work expected of them in Fiji secondary schools. Participants also identified some concerns as needing attention. To conclude, the paper provides suggestions for improving the preparation of teachers by strengthening the identified areas of the practicum offered by the university. The study has implications for other teacher education providers in small developing island states and even beyond for the purpose of enhancing learning in student teachers’ for future work.

Keywords: pre-service, teacher education, practicum, teachers’ world of work, student teachers

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3538 A Reflection on the Professional Development Journey of Science Educators

Authors: M. Shaheed Hartley

Abstract:

Science and mathematics are regarded as gateway subjects in South Africa as they are the perceived route to careers in science, engineering, technology and mathematics (STEM). One of the biggest challenges that the country faces is the poor achievement of learners in these two learning areas in the external high school exit examination. To compound the problem many national and international benchmark tests paint a bleak picture of the state of science and mathematics in the country. In an attempt to address this challenge, the education department of the Eastern Cape Province invited the Science Learning Centre of the University of the Western Cape to provide training to their science teachers in the form of a structured course conducted on a part-time basis in 2010 and 2011. The course was directed at improving teachers’ content knowledge, pedagogical strategies and practical and experimental skills. A total of 41 of the original 50 science teachers completed the course and received their certificates in 2012. As part of their continuous professional development, 31 science teachers enrolled for BEd Hons in science education in 2013 and 28 of them completed the course in 2014. These students graduated in 2015. Of the 28 BEd Hons students who completed the course 23 registered in 2015 for Masters in Science Education and were joined by an additional 3 students. This paper provides a reflection by science educators on the training, supervision and mentorship provided to them as students of science education. The growth and development of students through their own reflection and understanding as well as through the eyes of the lecturers and supervisors that took part in the training provide the evaluation of the professional development process over the past few years. This study attempts to identify the merits, challenges and limitations of this project and the lessons to be learnt on such projects. It also documents some of the useful performance indicators with a view to developing a framework for good practice for such programmes.

Keywords: reflection, science education, professional development, rural schools

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3537 Predominance of Teaching Models Used by Math Teachers in Secondary Education

Authors: Verónica Diaz Quezada

Abstract:

This research examines the teaching models used by secondary math teachers when teaching logarithmic, quadratic and exponential functions. For this, descriptive case studies have been carried out on 5 secondary teachers. These teachers have been chosen from 3 scientific-humanistic and technical schools, in Chile. Data have been obtained through non-participant class observation and the application of a questionnaire and a rubric to teachers. According to the results, the didactic model that prevails is the one that starts with an interactive strategy, moves to a more content-based structure, and ends with a reinforcement stage. Nonetheless, there is always influence from teachers, their methods, and the group of students.

Keywords: teaching models, math teachers, functions, secondary education

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
3536 Developing Pedagogy for Argumentation and Teacher Agency: An Educational Design Study in the UK

Authors: Zeynep Guler

Abstract:

Argumentation and the production of scientific arguments are essential components that are necessary for helping students become scientifically literate through engaging them in constructing and critiquing ideas. Incorporating argumentation into science classrooms is challenging and can be a long-term process for both students and teachers. Students have difficulty in engaging tasks that require them to craft arguments, evaluate them to seek weaknesses, and revise them. Teachers also struggle with facilitating argumentation when they have underdeveloped science practices, underdeveloped pedagogical knowledge for argumentation science teaching, or underdeveloped teaching practice with argumentation (or a combination of all three). Thus, there is a need to support teachers in developing pedagogy for science teaching as argumentation, planning and implementing teaching practice for facilitating argumentation and also in becoming more agentic in this regards. Looking specifically at the experience of agency within education, it is arguable that agency is necessary for teachers’ renegotiation of professional purposes and practices in the light of changing educational practices. This study investigated how science teachers develop pedagogy for argumentation both individually and with their colleagues and also how teachers become more agentic (or not) through the active engagement of their contexts-for-action that refer to this as an ecological understanding of agency in order to positively influence or change their practice and their students' engagement with argumentation over two academic years. Through educational design study, this study conducted with three secondary science teachers (key stage 3-year 7 students aged 11-12) in the UK to find out if similar or different patterns of developing pedagogy for argumentation and of becoming more agentic emerge as they engage in planning and implementing a cycle of activities during the practice of teaching science with argumentation. Data from video and audio-recording of classroom practice and open-ended interviews with the science teachers were analysed using content analysis. The findings indicated that all the science teachers perceived strong agency in their opportunities to develop and apply pedagogical practices within the classroom. The teachers were pro-actively shaping their practices and classroom contexts in ways that were over and above the amendments to their pedagogy. They demonstrated some outcomes in developing pedagogy for argumentation and becoming more agentic in their teaching in this regards as a result of the collaboration with their colleagues and researcher; some appeared more agentic than others. The role of the collaboration between their colleagues was seen crucial for the teachers’ practice in the schools: close collaboration and support from other teachers in planning and implementing new educational innovations were seen as crucial for the development of pedagogy and becoming more agentic in practice. They needed to understand the importance of scientific argumentation but also understand how it can be planned and integrated into classroom practice. They also perceived constraint emerged from their lack of competence and knowledge in posing appropriate questions to help the students engage in argumentation, providing support for the students' construction of oral and written arguments.

Keywords: argumentation, teacher professional development, teacher agency, students' construction of argument

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3535 Use of Concept Maps as a Tool for Evaluating Students' Understanding of Science

Authors: Aregamalage Sujeewa Vijayanthi Polgampala, Fang Huang

Abstract:

This study explores the genesis and development of concept mapping as a useful tool for science education and its effectiveness as technique for teaching and learning and evaluation for secondary science in schools and the role played by National College of Education science teachers. Concept maps, when carefully employed and executed serves as an integral part of teaching method and measure of effectiveness of teaching and tool for evaluation. Research has shown that science concept maps can have positive influence on student learning and motivation. The success of concept maps played in an instruction class depends on the type of theme selected, the development of learning outcomes, and the flexibility of instruction in providing library unit that is equipped with multimedia equipment where learners can interact. The study was restricted to 6 male and 9 female respondents' teachers in third-year internship pre service science teachers in Gampaha district Sri Lanka. Data were collected through 15 item questionnaire provided to learners and in depth interviews and class observations of 18 science classes. The two generated hypotheses for the study were rejected, while the results revealed that significant difference exists between factors influencing teachers' choice of concept maps, its usefulness and problems hindering the effectiveness of concept maps for teaching and learning process of secondary science in schools. It was examined that concept maps can be used as an effective measure to evaluate students understanding of concepts and misconceptions. Even the teacher trainees could not identify, key concept is on top, and subordinate concepts fall below. It is recommended that pre service science teacher trainees should be provided a thorough training using it as an evaluation instrument.

Keywords: concept maps, evaluation, learning science, misconceptions

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3534 A Co-Constructed Picture of Chinese Teachers' Conceptions of Learning at Play

Authors: Shu-Chen Wu

Abstract:

This qualitative study investigated Chinese teachers’ perspectives on learning at play. Six kindergarten teachers were interviewed to obtain their understanding of learning at play. Exemplary play episodes from their classrooms were selected with the assistance of the participating teachers. Four three-minute videos containing the largest amount of learning elements based on the teachers’ views were selected for analysis. Applying video-stimulated interviews, the selected video clips were shown to eight teachers in two focus groups to elicit their perspectives on learning at play. The findings revealed that Chinese teachers have a very structured representation of learning at play, which should contribute to the development of professional practices and curricular policies.

Keywords: learning at play, teachers’ perspectives, co-constructed views, video-stimulated interviews

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3533 Gardening as a Contextual Scaffold for Learning: Connecting Community Wisdom for Science and Health Learning through Participatory Action Research

Authors: Kamal Prasad Acharya

Abstract:

The related literature suggests that teaching and learning science at the basic level community schools in Nepal is based on book recitation. Consequently, the achievement levels and the understanding of basic science concepts is much below the policy expectations. In this context, this study intended to gain perception in the implementation practices of school gardens ‘One Garden One School’ for science learning and to meet the target of sustainable development goals that connects community wisdom regarding school gardening activities (SGAs) for science learning. This Participatory Action Research (PAR) study was done at the action school located in Province 3, Chitwan of Federal Nepal, supported under the NORHED/Rupantaran project. The purpose of the study was to connect the community wisdom related to gardening activities as contextual scaffolds for science learning. For this, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were applied to collect data which were analyzed using a thematic analysis. Basic level students, science teachers, and parents reported having wonderful experiences such as active and meaningful engagement in school gardening activities for science learning as well as science teachers’ motivation in activity-based science learning. Overall, teachers, students, and parents reported that the school gardening activities have been found to have had positive effects on students’ science learning as they develop basic scientific concepts by connecting community wisdom as a contextual scaffold. It is recommended that the establishment of a school garden is important for science learning in community schools throughout Nepal.

Keywords: contextual scaffold, community wisdom, science and health learning, school garden

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3532 The Effect of Teaching Science Strategies Curriculum and Evaluating on Developing the Efficiency of Academic Self in Science and the Teaching Motivation for the Student Teachers of the Primary Years

Authors: Amani M. Al-Hussan

Abstract:

The current study aimed to explore the effects of science teaching strategies course (CURR422) on developing academic self efficacy and motivation towards teaching it in female primary classroom teachers in College of Education in Princess Nora Bint AbdulRahman University. The study sample consisted (48) female student teachers. To achieve the study aims, the researcher designed two instruments: Academic Self Efficacy Scale & Motivation towards Teaching Science Scale while maintaining the validity and reliability of these instruments.. Several statistical procedures were conducted i.e. Independent Sample T-test, Eta Square, Cohen D effect size. The results reveal that there were statistically significant differences between means of pre and post test for the sample in favor of post test. For academic self efficacy scale, Eta square was 0.99 and the effect size was 27.26. While for the motivation towards teaching science scale, Eta was 0.99 and the effect size was 51.72. These results indicated high effects of independent variable on the dependent variable.

Keywords: academic self efficiency, achievement, motivation, primary classroom teacher, science teaching strategies course, evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 416