Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2372

Search results for: political beliefs

2372 The Effect of Taxpayer Political Beliefs on Tax Evasion Behavior: An Empirical Study Applied to Tunisian Case

Authors: Nadia Elouaer

Abstract:

Tax revenue is the main state resource and one of the important variables in tax policy. Nevertheless, this resource is continually decreasing, so it is important to focus on the reasons for this decline. Several studies show that the taxpayer is reluctant to pay taxes, especially in countries at risk or in countries in transition, including Tunisia. This study focuses on the tax evasion behavior of a Tunisian taxpayer under the influence of his political beliefs, as well as the influence of different tax compliance variables. Using a questionnaire, a sample of 500 Tunisian taxpayers is used to examine the relationship between political beliefs and taxpayer affiliations and tax compliance variables, as well as the study of the causal link between political beliefs and fraudulent behavior. The data were examined using correlation, factor, and regression analysis and found a positive and statistically significant relationship between the different tax compliance variables and the tax evasion behavior. There is also a positive and statistically significant relationship between tax evasion and political beliefs and affiliations. The study of the relationship between political beliefs and compliance variables shows that they are closely related. The conclusion is to admit that tax evasion and political beliefs are closely linked, and the government should update its tax policy and modernize its administration in order to strengthen the credibility and disclosure of information in order to restore a relationship of trust between public authorities and the taxpayer.

Keywords: fiscal policy, political beliefs, tax evasion, taxpayer behavior

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2371 Estimating the Relationship between Education and Political Polarization over Immigration across Europe

Authors: Ben Tappin, Ryan McKay

Abstract:

The political left and right appear to disagree not only over questions of value but, also, over questions of fact—over what is true “out there” in society and the world. Alarmingly, a large body of survey data collected during the past decade suggests that this disagreement tends to be greatest among the most educated and most cognitively sophisticated opposing partisans. In other words, the data show that these individuals display the widest political polarization in their reported factual beliefs. Explanations of this polarization pattern draw heavily on cultural and political factors; yet, the large majority of the evidence originates from one cultural and political context—the United States, a country with a rather unique cultural and political history. One consequence is that widening political polarization conditional on education and cognitive sophistication may be due to idiosyncratic cultural, political or historical factors endogenous to US society—rather than a more general, international phenomenon. We examined widening political polarization conditional on education across Europe, over a topic that is culturally and politically contested; immigration. To do so, we analyzed data from the European Social Survey, a premier survey of countries in and around the European area conducted biennially since 2002. Our main results are threefold. First, we see widening political polarization conditional on education over beliefs about the economic impact of immigration. The foremost countries showing this pattern are the most influential in Europe: Germany and France. However, we also see heterogeneity across countries, with some—such as Belgium—showing no evidence of such polarization. Second, we find that widening political polarization conditional on education is a product of sorting. That is, highly educated partisans exhibit stronger within-group consensus in their beliefs about immigration—the data do not support the view that the more educated partisans are more polarized simply because the less educated fail to adopt a position on the question. Third, and finally, we find some evidence that shocks to the political climate of countries in the European area—for example, the “refugee crisis” of summer 2015—were associated with a subsequent increase in political polarization over immigration conditional on education. The largest increase was observed in Germany, which was at the centre of the so-called refugee crisis in 2015. These results reveal numerous insights: they show that widening political polarization conditional on education is not restricted to the US or native English-speaking culture; that such polarization emerges in the domain of immigration; that it is a product of within-group consensus among the more educated; and, finally, that exogenous shocks to the political climate may be associated with subsequent increases in political polarization conditional on education.

Keywords: beliefs, Europe, immigration, political polarization

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2370 Irbid National University Students’ Beliefs about English Language Learning

Authors: Khaleel Bader Bataineh

Abstract:

Past studies have maintained that the Arab learners' beliefs about language learning hold vital effects on their performance. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the language learning beliefs of Irbid National University students. It aimed at identifying the language learning beliefs according to gender. This study is a descriptive design that employed survey questionnaire of Language Learning Beliefs Inventory (BALLI). The data were elicited from 83 English major students during the class sessions. The data were analyzed using an SPSS program in which frequency analysis and t-test were performed to examine the students’ responses. Thus, the major findings of this research indicated that there is a variation in responses with regards to the subjects’ beliefs about English learning. Also, the findings show significant differences in four questionnaire items according to gender. It is hoped that the findings provide valuable insights to educators about the learners’ beliefs which assist them to develop the teaching and learning English language process in Jordan universities.

Keywords: foreign language, students’ beliefs, language learning, Arab students

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2369 Emergence and Manifestation of Ismaili Shiite Beliefs and Rituals in the Fatimid Rule

Authors: Hosein Rahmati

Abstract:

The Fatimid government was one of the powerful Shiite governments that was formed in 297 AH in the Islamic Maghreb based on Ismaili ideas and played an important role in promoting the culture and civilization of the Islamic world. Ismaili is one of the Shiite sects that has its own beliefs and teachings. This research seeks to find out which of the Ismaili beliefs and teachings were considered by the Fatimid political government and which the Fatimid government paid serious attention to highlighting. The present study, based on library sources and descriptive-analytical method, has concluded that the Ismaili doctrinal foundations, especially the doctrine of Imamate, are essential elements in the formation and continuation of the Fatimid rule. Their goals were approaching.

Keywords: Fatimid rule, The Ismaili, The Islamic Maghreb, Imamate

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2368 Mathematical Beliefs, Attitudes, and Performance of Freshman College Students

Authors: Johna Bernice Ablaza, Bryan Lim Corpuz, Joanna Marie Estrada, Mary Ann Cristine Olgado, Rhina Recato

Abstract:

This study aimed to describe the mathematical beliefs and attitudes in relation to the mathematics performance of freshman college students. The descriptive design using the correlational study was used to describe the relationship among mathematical beliefs, attitudes, and performance of freshman college students. This study involved one hundred fifty (150) freshman college students of Philippine Normal University during the third trimester of school year 2015-2016. The research instruments used to gather the information needed in the study are the beliefs about Mathematics Questionnaire, the KIM-Project Questionnaire, and the ACT Compass Mathematics Test. The data gathered were analyzed using the percentages, mean, standard deviation, and Pearson r-moment correlation. The results of this study have shown that although students believe that Mathematics is significant in their lives, the overall result on their beliefs and attitudes are positively low. There is a significant relationship between the students’ mathematical beliefs and mathematics performance. Likewise, their attitudes in mathematics have significant relationship to mathematics performance.

Keywords: attitudes, diligence, interest, mathematical beliefs, mathematical performance, self-confidence

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2367 Influence of Causal beliefs on self-management in Korean patients with hypertension

Authors: Hyun-E Yeom

Abstract:

Patients’ views about the cause of hypertension may influence their present and proactive behaviors to regulate high blood pressure. This study aimed to examine the internal structure underlying the causal beliefs about hypertension and the influence of causal beliefs on self-care intention and medical compliance in Korean patients with hypertension. The causal beliefs of 145 patients (M age = 57.7) were assessed using the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised. An exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the factor structure of the causal beliefs, and the factors’ influence on self-care intention and medication compliance was analyzed using multiple and logistic regression analyses. The four-factor structure including psychological, fate-related, risk and habitual factors was identified and the psychological factor was the most representative component of causal beliefs. The risk and fate-related factors were significant factors affecting lower intention to engage in self-care and poor compliance with medication regimens, respectively. The findings support the critical role of causal beliefs about hypertension in driving patients’ current and future self-care behaviors. This study highlights the importance of educational interventions corresponding to patients’ awareness of hypertension for improving their adherence to a healthy lifestyle and medication regimens.

Keywords: hypertension, self-care, beliefs, medication compliance

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2366 Teachers' Beliefs About the Environment: The Case of Azerbaijan

Authors: Aysel Mehdiyeva

Abstract:

As a driving force of society, the role of teachers is important in inspiring, motivating, and encouraging the younger generation to protect the environment. In light of these, the study aims to explore teachers’ beliefs to understand teachers’ engagement with teaching about the environment. Though teachers’ beliefs about the environment have been explored by a number of researchers, the influence of these beliefs in their professional lives and in shaping their classroom instructions has not been widely investigated in Azerbaijan. To this end, this study aims to reveal the beliefs of secondary school geography teachers about the environment and find out the ways teachers’ beliefs of the environment are enacted in their classroom practice in Azerbaijan. Different frameworks have been suggested for measuring environmental beliefs stemming from well-known anthropocentric and biocentric worldviews. The study addresses New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) by Dunlap to formulate the interview questions as discussion with teachers around these questions aligns with the research aims serving to well-capture the beliefs of teachers about the environment. Despite the extensive applicability of the NEP scale, it has not been used to explore in-service teachers’ beliefs about the environment. Besides, it has been used as a tool for quantitative measurement; however, the study addresses the scale within the framework of the qualitative study. The research population for semi-structured interviews and observations was recruited via purposeful sampling. Teachers’ being a unit of analysis is related to the gap in the literature as to how teachers’ beliefs are related to their classroom instructions within the environmental context, as well as teachers’ beliefs about the environment in Azerbaijan have not been well researched. 6 geography teachers from 4 different schools were involved in the research process. The schools are located in one of the most polluted parts of the capital city Baku where the first oil well in the world was drilled in 1848 and is called “Black City” due to the black smoke and smell that covered that part of the city. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the teachers to reveal their stated beliefs. Later, teachers were observed during geography classes to understand the overlap between teachers’ ideas presented during the interview and their teaching practice. Research findings aim to indicate teachers’ ecological beliefs and practice, as well as elaborate on possible causes of compatibility/incompatibility between teachers’ stated and observed beliefs.

Keywords: environmental education, anthropocentric beliefs, biocentric beliefs, new ecological paradigm

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2365 Beliefs and Rituals among the Urak Lawoi Sea Gypsies in the Bulon Archipelago, Satun Province

Authors: Srisuporn Piyaratanawong, Suchai Assawapantanakul

Abstract:

This study aims to reflect changes in beliefs and rituals among the Urak Lawoi sea gypsies on the Bulon archipelago of Satun Province that are related to changes of society according to each dimension of time. The historical study was conducted using an oral history approach. The study found that the traditional way of life as itinerants who moved seasonally resulted in their dependence on nature and beliefs in supernatural power, and mysterious powers and superstitions in the belief of ghosts, ancestors, guardian spirits, large banyan trees, life and living, treatment of diseases, king of nagas, and other beliefs. They displayed their respect to supernatural powers through rituals by worshiping, making offerings to spirits and performing Rongeng dance for spirits in return for fulfilling their vows. After World War II (1945), the Urak Lawoi sea gypsies on Bulon archipelago changed their itinerant way of life to permanent settlements. However, their beliefs in supernatural powers and ritual performances remained in existence. Until 1987, when tourism began to spread to the archipelago, some of them gradually turned to make a living with tourism. Moreover, during the last 20 years (from around 1994), Islam has spread among the people. With this social context, the traditional beliefs in supernatural powers have changed to beliefs according to the religion and the way of life that has changed. Thus, when the traditional beliefs and rituals can no longer fulfil the new way of life, they slowly disappear, such as the floating the boat ceremony that has been replaced with new beliefs and rituals according to Islam. Nevertheless, some beliefs and rituals still exist, such as beliefs about treatment of diseases and Rongeng dance for spirits in return for vow fulfilling. In conclusion, the traditional beliefs and rituals of the Urak Lawoi sea gypsies on the Bulon archipelago cannot fulfil the new way of life, and have, thus, brought about changes in beliefs and rituals that are congruent with the current society.

Keywords: belief, ritual, Urak Lawoi, sea gypsy, Bulon Archipelago

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2364 Subjective Well-being, Beliefs, and Lifestyles of First Year University Students in the UK

Authors: Kaili C. Zhang

Abstract:

Mental well-being is an integral part of university students’ overall well-being and has been a matter of increasing concern in the UK. This study addressed the impact of university experience on students by investigating the changes students experience in their beliefs, lifestyles, and well-being during their first year of study, as well as the factors contributing to such changes. Using a longitudinal two-wave mixed method design, this project identified importantfactors that contribute to or inhibit these changes. Implications for universities across the UK are discussed.

Keywords: subjective well-being, beliefs, lifestyles, university students

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2363 Iranian Students’ and Teachers’ Perceptions of Effective Foreign Language Teaching

Authors: Mehrnoush Tajnia, Simin Sadeghi-Saeb

Abstract:

Students and teachers have different perceptions of effectiveness of instruction. Comparing students’ and teachers’ beliefs and finding the mismatches between them can increase L2 students’ satisfaction. Few studies have taken into account the beliefs of both students and teachers on different aspects of pedagogy and the effect of learners’ level of education and contexts on effective foreign language teacher practices. Therefore, the present study was conducted to compare students’ and teachers’ perceptions on effective foreign language teaching. A sample of 303 learners and 54 instructors from different private language institutes and universities participated in the study. A questionnaire was developed to elicit participants’ beliefs on effective foreign language teaching and learning. The analysis of the results revealed that: a) there is significant difference between the students’ beliefs about effective teacher practices and teachers’ belief, b) Class level influences students’ perception of effective foreign language teacher, d) There is a significant difference of opinion between those learners who study foreign languages at university and those who study foreign language in private institutes with respect to effective teacher practices. The present paper concludes that finding the gap between students’ and teachers’ beliefs would help both of the groups to enhance their learning and teaching.

Keywords: effective teacher, effective teaching, students’ beliefs, teachers’ beliefs

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2362 Relationship Between Family Factors and Tendency to Addiction

Authors: Farzaneh Golshekoh

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between religious beliefs, family responsibility and emotional atmosphere with a tendency to addiction in high school female students in Ahwaz. The sample consisted of 250 students who were selected by cluster random sampling from among all high school female students in Ahvaz. Measuring tools were Iranian tendency towards addiction (IAPS), responsibility California Psychological Inventory (CPI), emotional family atmosphere (AFC) and religious beliefs. The simple correlation coefficient at α=0/05 showed that there is a significant negative relationship between religious beliefs, family responsibility and emotional atmosphere with a tendency to abuse female students. The regression analysis showed that the variables of the emotional atmosphere of the family and religious beliefs as predictors of female students have a tendency to addiction.

Keywords: emotional atmosphere, family responsibility, religious beliefs, tendency to addiction

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2361 Predicting Marital Burnout Based on Irrational Beliefs and Sexual Dysfunction of Couples

Authors: Elnaz Bandeh

Abstract:

This study aimed to predict marital burnout based on irrational beliefs and sexual dysfunction of couples. The research method was descriptive-correlational, and the statistical population included all couples who consulted to counseling clinics in the fall of 2016. The sample consisted of 200 people who were selected by convenience sampling and answered the Ahwaz Irrational Beliefs Questionnaire, Pines Couple Burnout, and Hudson Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using regression coefficient. The results of regression analysis showed that there was a linear relationship between irrational beliefs and couple burnout and dimensions of helplessness toward change, expectation of approval from others, and emotional irresponsibility were positive and significant predictors of couple burnout. However, after avoiding the problem of power, it was not a significant predictor of marital dissatisfaction. There was also a linear relationship between sexual dysfunction and couple burnout, and sexual dysfunction was a positive and significant predictor of couple burnout. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that irrational beliefs and sexual dysfunction play a role in couple dysfunction.

Keywords: couple burnout, irrational beliefs, sexual dysfunction, marital relationship

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2360 A Consensus Approach to the Formulation of a School ICT Policy: A Q-Methodology Case Study

Authors: Thiru Vandeyar

Abstract:

This study sets out to explore how teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about ICT policy influence a consensus approach to the formulation of a school ICT policy. This case study proposes Q- methodology as an innovative method to facilitate a school’s capacity to develop policy reflecting teacher beliefs and attitudes. Q-methodology is used as a constructivist approach to the formulation of an ICT policy. Data capture was a mix of Q-methodology and qualitative principles. Data was analyzed by means of document, content and cluster analysis methods. Findings were threefold: First, teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about ICT policy influenced a consensus approach by including teachers as policy decision-makers. Second, given the opportunity, teachers have the inherent ability to deconstruct and critically engage with policy statements according to their own professional beliefs and attitudes. And third, an inclusive approach to policy formulation may inform the practice of school leaders and policymakers alike on how schools may develop their own policy.

Keywords: ICT, policy, teacher beliefs, consensus

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2359 Drawings Reveal Beliefs of Japanese University Students

Authors: Sakae Suzuki

Abstract:

Although Japanese students study English for six years in secondary schools, they demonstrate little success with it when they enter higher education. Learners’ beliefs can predict the future behavior of students, so it may be effective to investigate how learners’ beliefs limit their success and how beliefs might be nudged in a positive direction. While many researchers still depend on a questionnaire called BALLI to reveal explicit beliefs, alternative approaches, especially those designed to reveal implicit beliefs, might be helpful for promoting learning. The present study seeks to identify beliefs with a discursive approach using visual metaphors and narratives. Employing a sociocultural framework, this study investigates how students’ beliefs are revealed by drawings of themselves and their surrounding environments and artifacts while they are engaged in language learning. Research questions are: (1) Can we identify beliefs through an analysis of students’ visual narratives? (2) What environments and artifacts can be found in students’ drawings, and what do they mean? (3) To what extent do students see language learning as a solitary, rather than a social, activity? Participants are university students majoring in science and technology in Japan. The questionnaire was administered to 70 entering students in April, 2014. Data included students drawings of themselves as learners of English as well as written descriptions of students’ backgrounds, English-learning experiences, and analogies and metaphors that they used in written descriptions of themselves as learners. Data will be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Anticipated results include students’ perceptions of themselves as language learners, including their sense of agency, awareness of artifacts, and social contexts of language learning. Comments will be made on implications for teaching, as well as the use of visual narratives as research tools, and recommended further research.

Keywords: drawings, learners' beliefs, metaphors, BALLI

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2358 Inequalities in Higher Education and Students’ Perceptions of Factors Influencing Academic Performance

Authors: Violetta Parutis

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This qualitative study aims to answer the following research questions: i) What are the factors that students perceive as relevant to a) promoting and b) preventing good grades? ii) How does socio-economic status (SES) feature in those beliefs? We conducted in-depth interviews with 19 first- and second-year undergraduates of varying SES at a research-intensive university in the UK. The interviews yielded eight factors that students perceived as promoting and six perceived as preventing good grades. The findings suggested one significant difference between the beliefs of low and high SES students in that low SES students perceive themselves to be at a greater disadvantage to their peers while high SES students do not have such beliefs. This could have knock-on effects on their performance.

Keywords: social class, education, academic performance, students’ beliefs

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2357 For Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Counselors in China, the United States, and around the Globe, Cultural Beliefs Offer Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Anne Giles

Abstract:

Trauma is generally defined as an experience, or multiple experiences, overwhelming a person's ability to cope. Over time, many people recover from the neurobiological, physical, and emotional effects of trauma on their own. For some people, however, troubling symptoms develop over time that can result in distress and disability. This cluster of symptoms is classified as Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). People who meet the criteria for PTSD and other trauma-related disorder diagnoses often hold a set of understandable but unfounded beliefs about traumatic events that cause undue suffering. Becoming aware of unhelpful beliefs—termed "cognitive distortions"—and challenging them is the realm of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). A form of CBT found by researchers to be especially effective for PTSD is Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT). Through the compassionate use of CPT, people identify, examine, challenge, and relinquish unhelpful beliefs, thereby reducing symptoms and suffering. Widely-held cultural beliefs can interfere with the progress of recovery from trauma-related disorders. Although highly revered, largely unquestioned, and often stabilizing, cultural beliefs can be founded in simplistic, dichotomous thinking, i.e., things are all right, or all wrong, all good, or all bad. The reality, however, is nuanced and complex. After studying examples of cultural beliefs from China and the United States and how these might interfere with trauma recovery, trauma counselors can help clients derive criteria for preserving helpful beliefs, discover, examine, and jettison unhelpful beliefs, reduce trauma symptoms, and live their lives more freely and fully.

Keywords: cognitive processing therapy (CPT), cultural beliefs, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), trauma recovery

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2356 What are Parents of Teacher Candidates’ Belief Towards Teaching as a Profession?

Authors: Chua Lee Chuan

Abstract:

This study was conducted to explore parents’ beliefs towards the teaching profession. This survey was conducted on 51 parents of teacher candidates in a teacher training institute. A research instrument, using questionnaires, adapted from FIT-Choice scale developed by Richardson and Watt (2006) was used to collect data from the population. The findings showed that parents, in general, have positive attitudes towards the teaching profession. They perceived teaching as a career highly valued by the society. Though the teaching job was viewed as difficult and requiring high expertise, the salary received commensurate their hard work and heavy workload. In terms of gender, male and female parents did not differ in their beliefs about the teaching profession. However, results indicated that educational attainment and income level had significant effect on parents’ beliefs on teaching as a profession. Implications and recommendations in relation to the findings are also included.

Keywords: beliefs, teaching profession, parents, teacher candidates

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2355 Digital Dialogue Game, Epistemic Beliefs, Argumentation and Learning

Authors: Omid Noroozi, Martin Mulder

Abstract:

The motivational potential of educational games is undeniable especially for teaching topics and skills that are difficult to deal with in traditional educational situations such as argumentation competence. Willingness to argue has an association with student epistemic beliefs, which can influence whether, and the way in which students engage in argumentative discourse activities and critical discussion. The goal of this study was to explore how undergraduate students engage with argumentative discourse activities which have been designed to intensify debate, and whether epistemic beliefs are significant to the outcomes. A pre-test, post-test design was used with students who were assigned to groups of four. They were asked to argue a controversial topic with the aim of exploring various perspectives, and the 'pros and cons' on the topic of 'Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)'. The results show that the game facilitated argumentative discourse and a willingness to argue and challenged peers, regardless of students’ epistemic beliefs. Furthermore, the game was evaluated positively in terms of students’ motivation and satisfaction with the learning experience.

Keywords: argumentation, attitudinal change, epistemic beliefs, dialogue, digital game objectives and theoretical

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2354 Evaluation Practices in Colombia: Between Beliefs and National Exams

Authors: Danilsa Lorduy, Liliana Valle

Abstract:

Assessment and evaluation are inextricable parts of the teaching learning process. Evaluation practices concerns are gaining popularity among curriculum developers an educational researchers, particularly in Colombian regions where English language is taught as a foreign language EFL. This study addressed one of those issues, which are the unbalanced in –services’ evaluation practices perceived in school classes. They present predominance on the written test among the procedures they use to evaluate; therefore, the purpose of this case study was to explore in-service teachers’ evaluation practices, their beliefs about evaluation and to establish an eventual connection between practices and beliefs. To this end, classroom observations, questionnaires, and a semi structured interview were applied to three in-service English teachers from different schools in a city in Colombia. The findings suggested that teachers’ beliefs indicate a formative inclination and they actually are using a variety of procedures different from test but they seem to have some issues regarding their appropriateness for application Moreover, it was found that teachers’ practices are being influenced by external factors such as school requirements and national policies. It could be concluded that the predominance in using tests is not only elicited by teachers’ beliefs but also by national test results 'Pruebas Saber' and law 115 demanding. It was also suggested that further quantitative research is needed to demonstrate connections between overuse of testing procedures and 'Pruebas Saber' national test.

Keywords: beliefs, evaluation, external factors, national test

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2353 International Conference on Islam and Democracy – Religion and Political Stability in Indonesia

Authors: Mariel Encar H. Uy, Paula Marie G. Pacle

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to present a Single Country Comparative Contextual Description Study of Strong Islamic Influences in Relation to the Politics of Republic of Indonesia. This paper recognizes that even the coalition of secular and moderate Islamic parties protect the minority rights of all the constituents, Islam is still the dominant religion among the other recognized religions in Indonesia (Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism). In this study, it will also detail the involvement on the religions’ beliefs and techniques; participation of political actors, depending on what religion they belong and adhere to; the tensions whenever the government interferes with Islamists and other religions; the government’s solution or public policies implemented to maintain peace and order of Indonesia. This paper will develop a conceptual framework to describe how the Religion and Political Stability is interdependent with each other.

Keywords: diversity of religion in indonesia, secularization in Indonesia, motivations of political actors, voter turnouts based on religion

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2352 How Unpleasant Emotions, Morals and Normative Beliefs of Severity Relate to Cyberbullying Intentions

Authors: Paula C. Ferreira, Ana Margarida Veiga Simão, Nádia Pereira, Aristides Ferreira, Alexandra Marques Pinto, Alexandra Barros, Vitor Martinho

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Cyberbullying is a phenomenon of worldwide concern regarding children and adolescents’ mental health and risk behavior. Bystanders of this phenomenon can help diminish the incidence of this phenomenon if they engage in pro-social behavior. However, different social-cognitive and affective bystander reactions may surface because of the lack of contextual information and emotional cues in cyberbullying situations. Hence, this study investigated how cyberbullying bystanders’ unpleasant emotions could be related to their personal moral beliefs and their behavioral intentions to cyberbully or defend the victim. It also proposed to investigate how their normative beliefs of perceived severity about cyberbullying behavior could be related to their personal moral beliefs and their behavioral intentions. Three groups of adolescents participated in this study, namely a first of group 402 students (5th – 12th graders; Mage = 13.12; SD = 2.19; 55.7% girls) to compute explorative factorial analyses of the instruments used; a second group of 676 students (5th – 12th graders; Mage = 14.10; SD = 2.74; 55.5% were boys) to run confirmatory factor analyses; and a third group (N = 397; 5th – 12th graders; Mage = 13.88 years; SD = 1.45; 55.5% girls) to perform the main analyses to test the research hypotheses. Self-report measures were used, such as the Personal moral beliefs about cyberbullying behavior questionnaire, the Normative beliefs of perceived severity about cyberbullying behavior questionnaire, the Unpleasant emotions about cyberbullying incidents questionnaires, and the Bystanders’ behavioral intentions in cyberbullying situations questionnaires. Path analysis results revealed that unpleasant emotions were mediators of the relationship between adolescent cyberbullying bystanders’ personal moral beliefs and their intentions to help the victims in cyberbullying situations. Moreover, adolescent cyberbullying bystanders’ normative beliefs of gravity were mediators of the relationship between their personal moral beliefs and their intentions to cyberbully others. These findings provide insights for the development of prevention and intervention programs that promote social and emotional learning strategies as a means to prevent and intervene in cyberbullying.

Keywords: cyberbullying, normative beliefs of perceived severity, personal moral beliefs, unpleasant emotions

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2351 Religious Beliefs versus Child’s Rights: Anti-Vaccine Movement in Indonesia

Authors: Ni Luh Bayu PurwaEka Payani, Destin Ristanti

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Every child has the right to be healthy, and it is a parents’ obligation to fulfill their rights. In order to be healthy and prevented from the outbreak of infectious diseases, some vaccines are required. However, there are groups of people, who consider that vaccines consist of religiously forbidden ingredients. The government of Indonesia legally set the rule that all children must be vaccinated. However, merely based on religious beliefs and not supported by scientific evidence, these people ignore the vaccination. As a result, this anti-vaccine movement caused diphtheria outbreak in 2017. Categorized as a vulnerable group, child`s rights must be fulfilled in any forms. This paper tries to analyze the contradiction between religious beliefs and the fulfillment of child`s rights. Furthermore, it tries to identify the anti-vaccine movement as a form of human rights violation, especially regarding child's rights. This has been done by examining the event of the outbreak of diphtheria in 20 provinces of Indonesia. Furthermore, interview and literature reviews have been done to support the analysis. Through this process, it becomes clear that the anti-vaccine movements driven by religious beliefs did influence the outbreak of diphtheria. Hence, the anti-vaccine movements ignore the long-term effects not only on their own children’s health but also others.

Keywords: anti-vaccine movement, child rights, religious beliefs, right to health

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2350 Effectiveness of Metacognitive Therapy in Metacognitive Beliefs, Anxiety and Social Phobia of Male High School Students

Authors: Saba Hasanvandi, Molok Khademi Ashkezari, Niloofar Esmaieli

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The research purpose was to assess the effectiveness of metacognitive therapy in metacognitive beliefs, anxiety and social phobia of male students studying in the high schools of Dargaz City. The sample comprised 30 students who were randomly selected and assigned to the experimental and control groups. The kind of this study was experimental study with pre-ops and follow-up stages. Subjects filled out metacognitive beliefs, anxiety and social phobia questionnaires. The experimental group underwent 10 sessions of therapeutic metacognitive sessions. The group therapy was conducted for ten, weekly, 90-minute sessions. Mankova analysis was utilized to analyze the data. Results revealed that metacognitive group therapy decreased metacognitive beliefs (P=0.007), anxiety (P<0.001) and social phobia (P=<0.017) in the experimental group as compared to the control group. Furthermore, the effectiveness of group metacognitive therapy was stable and consistent after one month of time interval. The results of present study can be effective for mental health professional in reaching a better understanding of anxiety and social phobia.

Keywords: group metacognitive therapy, metacognitive beliefs, anxiety, social phobia, high school students

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2349 Beliefs on Reproduction of Women in Fish Port Community: An Explorative Study on the Beliefs on Conception, Childbirth, and Maternal Care of Women in Navotas Fish Port Community

Authors: Marie Kristel A. Gabawa

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The accessibility of health programs, specifically family planning programs and maternal and child health care (FP/MCH), are generally low in urban poor communities. Moreover, most of FP/MCH programs are directed toward medical terms that are usually not included in ideation of the body of urban poor dwellers. This study aims to explore the beliefs on reproduction that will encompass, but not limited to, beliefs on conception, pregnancy, and maternal and child health care. The site of study will be the 2 barangays of North Bay Boulevard South 1 (NBBS1) and North Bay Boulevard South 2 (NBBS2). These 2 barangays are the nearest residential community within the Navotas Fish Port Complex (NFPC). Data gathered will be analyzed using grounded-theory method of analysis, with the theories of cultural materialism and equity feminism as foundation. Survey questionnaires, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions will be utilized in gathering data. Further, the presentation of data will be recommended to health program initiators and use the data gathered as a tool to customize FP/MCH programs to the perception and beliefs of women residing in NBBS1and NBBS2, and to aid any misinformation for FP/MCH techniques.

Keywords: beliefs on reproduction, fish port community, family planning, maternal and child health care, Navotas

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2348 The effect of Reflective Thinking on Iranian EFL Learners’ Language Learning Strategy Use, L2 Proficiency, and Beliefs about Second Language Learning and Teaching

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Mahmoodi, Mojtaba Farahani

Abstract:

The present study aimed at investigating whether reflective thinking differentiates Iranian EFL learners regarding language learning strategy use, beliefs about language learning and teaching, and L2 proficiency. To this end, the researcher adopted a mixed method approach. First, 94 EFL learners were asked to complete Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (Kember et al., 2000), Beliefs about Language Learning and Teaching Inventory (Horwitz, 1985), Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (Oxford, 1990), and Oxford Quick Placement Test. The results of three separate one-way ANOVAs indicated that reflective thinking significantly differentiates Iranian EFL learners concerning: (a)language learning strategy use, (b) beliefs about language learning and teaching, and (c) general language proficiency. Furthermore, to see where the differences lay, three separate post-hoc Tukey tests were run the results of which showed that learners with different levels of reflectivity (high, mid, and low) were significantly different from each other in all three dependent variables. Finally, to increase the validity of the findings thirty of the participants were interviewed and the results were analyzed through template organizing style method (Crabtree & Miller, 1999). The results of the interview analysis supported the results of quantitative data analysis.

Keywords: reflective thinking, language learning strategy use, beliefs toward language learning and teaching

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2347 Teaching Vietnamese as the Official Language for Indigenous Preschool Children in Lai Chau, Vietnam: Exploring Teachers' Beliefs about Second Language Acquisition

Authors: Thao Thi Vu, Libby Lee-Hammond, Andrew McConney

Abstract:

In Vietnam, the Vietnamese language is normally used as the language of instruction. The dominance of this language places children who have a different first language such as Indigenous children at a disadvantage when commencing school. This study explores preschool teachers’ beliefs about second language acquisition in Lai Chau provinces where is typical of highland provinces of Vietnam and the proportion of Indigenous minority groups in high. Data were collected from surveys with both closed-end questions and opened-end questions. The participants in this study were more than 200 public preschool teachers who come from eight different districts in Lai Chau. An analysis of quantitative data survey is presented to indicate several practical implications, such as the connection between teachers’ knowledge background that gained from their pre-service and in-service teacher education programs regarding second language teaching for Indigenous children and their practice. It also explains some factors that influence teachers’ beliefs and perspective about Indigenous children and pedagogies in their classes.

Keywords: indigenous children, learning Vietnamese, preschool, teachers’ beliefs

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2346 A Critical Analysis of Cognitive Explanations of Afterlife Belief

Authors: Mahdi Biabanaki

Abstract:

Religion is present in all human societies and has been for tens of thousands of years. What is noteworthy is that although religious traditions vary in different societies, there are considerable similarities in their religious beliefs. In all human cultures, for example, there is a widespread belief in the afterlife. Cognitive science of Religion (CSR), an emerging branch of cognitive science, searches for the root of these widespread similarities and the widespread prevalence of beliefs such as beliefs in the afterlife in common mental structures among humans. Accordingly, the cognitive architecture of the human mind has evolved to produce such beliefs automatically and non-reflectively. For CSR researchers, belief in the afterlife is an intuitive belief resulting from the functioning of mental tools. Our purpose in this article is to extract and evaluate the cognitive explanations presented in the CSR field for explaining beliefs in the afterlife. Our research shows that there are two basic theories in this area of CSR, namely "intuitive dualism" and "simulation constraint" theory. We show that these two theories face four major challenges and limitations in explaining belief in the afterlife: inability to provide a causal explanation, inability to explain cultural/religious differences in afterlife belief, the lack of distinction between the natural and the rational foundations of belief in the afterlife and disregarding the supernatural foundations of the afterlife belief.

Keywords: afterlife, cognitive science of religion, intuitive dualism, simulation constraint

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2345 Social Influences on Americans' Mask-Wearing Behavior during COVID-19

Authors: Ruoya Huang, Ruoxian Huang, Edgar Huang

Abstract:

Based on a convenience sample of 2,092 participants from across all 50 states of the United States, a survey was conducted to explore Americans’ mask-wearing behaviors during COVID-19 according to their political convictions, religious beliefs, and ethnic cultures from late July to early September, 2020. The purpose of the study is to provide evidential support for government policymaking so as to drive up more effective public policies by taking into consideration the variance in these social factors. It was found that the respondents’ party affiliation or preference, religious belief, and ethnicity, in addition to their health condition, gender, level of concern of contracting COVID-19, all affected their mask-wearing habits both in March, the initial coronavirus outbreak stage, and in August, when mask-wearing had been made mandatory by state governments. The study concludes that pandemic awareness campaigns must be run among all citizens, especially among African Americans, Muslims, and Republicans, who have the lowest rates of wearing masks, in order to protect themselves and others. It is recommended that complementary cognitive bias awareness programs should be implemented in non-Black and non-Muslim communities to eliminate social concerns that deter them from wearing masks.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, ethnicity, mask-wearing, policymaking implications, political affiliations, religious beliefs, United States

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2344 The Impact of Teachers’ Beliefs and Perceptions about Formative Assessment in the University ESL Class Assistant Lecturer: Barzan Hadi Hama Karim University of Halabja

Authors: Barzan Hadi Hama Karim

Abstract:

The topic of formative assessment and its implementation in Iraqi Kurdistan have not attracted the attention of researchers and educators. Teachers’ beliefs about formative assessment as well as their assessment roles have remained unexplored. This paper reports on the research results of our survey which is conducted in 20014 to examine issues relating to formative assessment in the university ESL classroom settings. The paper portrays the findings of a qualitative study on the formative assessment role and beliefs of a group of teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in the departments of English Languages in Iraqi Kurdistan universities. Participants of the study are 25 Kurdish EFL teachers from different departments of English languages. Close-ended and open-ended questionnaire is used to collect teacher’s beliefs and perceptions about the importance of formative assessment to improve the process of teaching and learning English language. The result of the study shows that teachers do not play a significant role in the assessment process because of top-down managerial approaches and educational system. The results prove that the teachers’ assessment beliefs and their key role in assessment should not be neglected. Our research papers pursued the following questions: What is the nature of formative assessment in a second language classroom setting? Do the teacher’s assessment practices reflect what she thinks about formative assessment? What are the teachers’ perceptions regarding the benefits of formative assessment for teaching and learning English language at the university level?

Keywords: formative assessment, teachers’ beliefs and perceptions, assessment, education reform, ESL

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2343 Understanding Staff Beliefs and Attitudes about Implementation of Restorative Justice Practices for Juvenile Justice Involved Youth

Authors: Lilian Ijomah

Abstract:

Restorative justice practices continue to gain recognition globally in the criminal and juvenile justice systems and schools. Despite considerable research, little is known about how juvenile detention center staff members’ knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes affect implementation. As with many interventions, effective implementation relies on the staff members who must do the daily work. This phenomenological study aimed to add to the existing literature by examining staff knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes on restorative justice practices, barriers to effective implementation, and potential differences in knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes between education staff and juvenile detention officers at the research site. The present study used semi-structured interviews and focus groups of both types of staff members who work with the youth in a juvenile justice facility to answer three research questions: (1) To what extent are staff members knowledgeable about the principles behind restorative approach to discipline and about how the approach should be carried out?; (2) What are staff member beliefs and attitudes toward the restorative justice program and its implementation in a juvenile justice setting?; and (3) What similarities and differences are there between (a) knowledge and (b) beliefs and attitudes of the educators and juvenile detention officers? A total of 28 staff members participated, nine educators, and 19 detention officers. The findings for the first research question indicated that both groups (educators and juvenile detention officers) were knowledgeable about two of the three principles of restorative justice: repairing the harm done by the offender and reducing risks for future occurrence; but did not show clear knowledge of one principle, active involvement from all stakeholders. For research question 2, staff beliefs and attitudes were categorized into two types, positive beliefs and attitudes (e.g., that restorative justice is more appropriate than the use of punitive measures) and negative beliefs and attitudes (e.g., that restorative justice is ‘just another program that creates extra work for staff’). When the two staff groups were compared to answer research question 3, both groups were found to have similar knowledge (showing knowledge of two of the three principles) and somewhat different beliefs and attitudes – both groups showed a mix of positive and negative, but the educators showed somewhat more on the positive side. Both groups also identified barriers to implementation such as the perception of restorative justice as ‘soft’, lack of knowledge and exposure to restorative justice, shortage of resources and staff, and difficulty sustaining the restorative justice approach. The findings of this study are largely consistent with current literature but also extend the literature by studying staff knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs in a juvenile detention center and comparing the two staff groups. Recommendations include assessing staff knowledge and attitudes toward restorative justice during the hiring process, ensuring adequate staff training, communicating clearly to build positive attitudes and beliefs, providing adequate staffing, and building a sense of community.

Keywords: juvenile justice, restorative justice, restorative practices, staff attitudes and beliefs

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