Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5279

Search results for: belief about EFL out-of-class learning

5279 Gender Recognition with Deep Belief Networks

Authors: Xiaoqi Jia, Qing Zhu, Hao Zhang, Su Yang

Abstract:

A gender recognition system is able to tell the gender of the given person through a few of frontal facial images. An effective gender recognition approach enables to improve the performance of many other applications, including security monitoring, human-computer interaction, image or video retrieval and so on. In this paper, we present an effective method for gender classification task in frontal facial images based on deep belief networks (DBNs), which can pre-train model and improve accuracy a little bit. Our experiments have shown that the pre-training method with DBNs for gender classification task is feasible and achieves a little improvement of accuracy on FERET and CAS-PEAL-R1 facial datasets.

Keywords: gender recognition, beep belief net-works, semi-supervised learning, greedy-layer wise RBMs

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
5278 Inferential Reasoning for Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Mission

Authors: Sagir M. Yusuf, Chris Baber

Abstract:

We describe issues bedeviling the coordination of heterogeneous (different sensors carrying agents) multi-agent missions such as belief conflict, situation reasoning, etc. We applied Bayesian and agents' presumptions inferential reasoning to solve the outlined issues with the heterogeneous multi-agent belief variation and situational-base reasoning. Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) was used in modeling the agents' belief conflict due to sensor variations. Simulation experiments were designed, and cases from agents’ missions were used in training the BBN using gradient descent and expectation-maximization algorithms. The output network is a well-trained BBN for making inferences for both agents and human experts. We claim that the Bayesian learning algorithm prediction capacity improves by the number of training data and argue that it enhances multi-agents robustness and solve agents’ sensor conflicts.

Keywords: distributed constraint optimization problem, multi-agent system, multi-robot coordination, autonomous system, swarm intelligence

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5277 A Critical Analysis of Cognitive Explanations of Afterlife Belief

Authors: Mahdi Biabanaki

Abstract:

Religion is present in all human societies and has been for tens of thousands of years. What is noteworthy is that although religious traditions vary in different societies, there are considerable similarities in their religious beliefs. In all human cultures, for example, there is a widespread belief in the afterlife. Cognitive science of Religion (CSR), an emerging branch of cognitive science, searches for the root of these widespread similarities and the widespread prevalence of beliefs such as beliefs in the afterlife in common mental structures among humans. Accordingly, the cognitive architecture of the human mind has evolved to produce such beliefs automatically and non-reflectively. For CSR researchers, belief in the afterlife is an intuitive belief resulting from the functioning of mental tools. Our purpose in this article is to extract and evaluate the cognitive explanations presented in the CSR field for explaining beliefs in the afterlife. Our research shows that there are two basic theories in this area of CSR, namely "intuitive dualism" and "simulation constraint" theory. We show that these two theories face four major challenges and limitations in explaining belief in the afterlife: inability to provide a causal explanation, inability to explain cultural/religious differences in afterlife belief, the lack of distinction between the natural and the rational foundations of belief in the afterlife and disregarding the supernatural foundations of the afterlife belief.

Keywords: afterlife, cognitive science of religion, intuitive dualism, simulation constraint

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5276 e-Learning Security: A Distributed Incident Response Generator

Authors: Bel G Raggad

Abstract:

An e-Learning setting is a distributed computing environment where information resources can be connected to any public network. Public networks are very unsecure which can compromise the reliability of an e-Learning environment. This study is only concerned with the intrusion detection aspect of e-Learning security and how incident responses are planned. The literature reported great advances in intrusion detection system (ids) but neglected to study an important ids weakness: suspected events are detected but an intrusion is not determined because it is not defined in ids databases. We propose an incident response generator (DIRG) that produces incident responses when the working ids system suspects an event that does not correspond to a known intrusion. Data involved in intrusion detection when ample uncertainty is present is often not suitable to formal statistical models including Bayesian. We instead adopt Dempster and Shafer theory to process intrusion data for the unknown event. The DIRG engine transforms data into a belief structure using incident scenarios deduced by the security administrator. Belief values associated with various incident scenarios are then derived and evaluated to choose the most appropriate scenario for which an automatic incident response is generated. This article provides a numerical example demonstrating the working of the DIRG system.

Keywords: decision support system, distributed computing, e-Learning security, incident response, intrusion detection, security risk, statefull inspection

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5275 Influences Driving the Teachers’ Adoption of Mobile Learning

Authors: L. A. Alfarani, M. McPherson, N. Morris

Abstract:

The growth of mobile learning depends primarily on the participation of teachers and their belief in the possibilities that this technology has for enhancing learning. The need to integrate technology into education seems clear-cut, however, its acceptance in Saudi higher education remains low. Thus, determining the particular factors that affect faculty acceptance of technology is vital. This paper focuses on TAM which depends on two factors: perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, this theory are used to predict faculty members’ behavioural intentions towards using mobile learning technology. 279 faculty members in one Saudi university have responded to the online questionnaire. The findings have revealed that there is a statistically significant difference in both usefulness and ease of using m-learning factors.

Keywords: TAM theory, mobile learning technology acceptance, usefulness, ease of use

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5274 Reflections of AB English Students on Their English Language Experiences

Authors: Roger G. Pagente Jr.

Abstract:

This study seeks to investigate the language learning experiences of the thirty-nine AB-English majors who were selected through fish-bowl technique from the 157 students enrolled in the AB-English program. Findings taken from the diary, questionnaire and unstructured interview revealed that motivation, learners’ belief, self-monitoring, language anxiety, activities and strategies were the prevailing factors that influenced the learning of English of the participants.

Keywords: diary, English language learning experiences, self-monitoring, language anxiety

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5273 Changes in Religious Belief after Flood Disasters

Authors: Sapora Sipon, Mohd Fo’ad Sakdan, Che Su Mustaffa, Najib Ahmad Marzuki, Mohamad Sukeri Khalid, Mohd Taib Ariffin, Husni Mohd Radzi, Salhah Abdullah

Abstract:

Flood disasters occur throughout the world including Malaysia. The major flood disaster that hit Malaysia in the 2014-2015 episodes proved the psychosocial and mental health consequences such as vivid images of destruction, upheaval, death and loss of lives. Flood, flood survivors reported that flood has changed one looks at their religious belief. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the changes in religious belief after the 2014-2015 Malaysia flood disaster. The total population of 1300 respondents who experienced the 2014-2015 Malaysia flood were surveyed a month after the disaster. The questionnaires were used to measure religiosity and stress. The results provide compelling evidence that religion played an important role in the lives of Malaysia flood disasters’ survivor where more than half of the respondents (>75%) experiencing the strengthening of their religious belief. It was also reported the victims’ strengthening of their religious belief proved to be a powerful factor in reducing stress in the aftermath of the flood.

Keywords: religious belief, flood disaster, humanity, society

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5272 A PROMETHEE-BELIEF Approach for Multi-Criteria Decision Making Problems with Incomplete Information

Authors: H. Moalla, A. Frikha

Abstract:

Multi-criteria decision aid methods consider decision problems where numerous alternatives are evaluated on several criteria. These methods are used to deal with perfect information. However, in practice, it is obvious that this information requirement is too much strict. In fact, the imperfect data provided by more or less reliable decision makers usually affect decision results since any decision is closely linked to the quality and availability of information. In this paper, a PROMETHEE-BELIEF approach is proposed to help multi-criteria decisions based on incomplete information. This approach solves problems with incomplete decision matrix and unknown weights within PROMETHEE method. On the base of belief function theory, our approach first determines the distributions of belief masses based on PROMETHEE’s net flows and then calculates weights. Subsequently, it aggregates the distribution masses associated to each criterion using Murphy’s modified combination rule in order to infer a global belief structure. The final action ranking is obtained via pignistic probability transformation. A case study of real-world application concerning the location of a waste treatment center from healthcare activities with infectious risk in the center of Tunisia is studied to illustrate the detailed process of the BELIEF-PROMETHEE approach.

Keywords: belief function theory, incomplete information, multiple criteria analysis, PROMETHEE method

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5271 Impact of VARK Learning Model at Tertiary Level Education

Authors: Munazza A. Mirza, Khawar Khurshid

Abstract:

Individuals are generally associated with different learning styles, which have been explored extensively in recent past. The learning styles refer to the potential of an individual by which s/he can easily comprehend and retain information. Among various learning style models, VARK is the most accepted model which categorizes the learners with respect to their sensory characteristics. Based on the number of preferred learning modes, the learners can be categorized as uni-modal, bi-modal, tri-modal, or quad/multi-modal. Although there is a prevalent belief in the learning styles, however, the model is not being frequently and effectively utilized in the higher education. This research describes the identification model to validate teacher’s didactic practice and student’s performance linkage with the learning styles. The identification model is recommended to check the effective application and evaluation of the various learning styles. The proposed model is a guideline to effectively implement learning styles inventory in order to ensure that it will validate performance linkage with learning styles. If performance is linked with learning styles, this may help eradicate the distrust on learning style theory. For this purpose, a comprehensive study was conducted to compare and understand how VARK inventory model is being used to identify learning preferences and their correlation with learner’s performance. A comparative analysis of the findings of these studies is presented to understand the learning styles of tertiary students in various disciplines. It is concluded with confidence that the learning styles of students cannot be associated with any specific discipline. Furthermore, there is not enough empirical proof to link performance with learning styles.

Keywords: learning style, VARK, sensory preferences, identification model, didactic practices

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
5270 Health Trajectory Clustering Using Deep Belief Networks

Authors: Farshid Hajati, Federico Girosi, Shima Ghassempour

Abstract:

We present a Deep Belief Network (DBN) method for clustering health trajectories. Deep Belief Network (DBN) is a deep architecture that consists of a stack of Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBM). In a deep architecture, each layer learns more complex features than the past layers. The proposed method depends on DBN in clustering without using back propagation learning algorithm. The proposed DBN has a better a performance compared to the deep neural network due the initialization of the connecting weights. We use Contrastive Divergence (CD) method for training the RBMs which increases the performance of the network. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated extensively on the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) database. The University of Michigan Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a nationally representative longitudinal study that has surveyed more than 27,000 elderly and near-elderly Americans since its inception in 1992. Participants are interviewed every two years and they collect data on physical and mental health, insurance coverage, financial status, family support systems, labor market status, and retirement planning. The dataset is publicly available and we use the RAND HRS version L, which is easy to use and cleaned up version of the data. The size of sample data set is 268 and the length of the trajectories is equal to 10. The trajectories do not stop when the patient dies and represent 10 different interviews of live patients. Compared to the state-of-the-art benchmarks, the experimental results show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method in clustering health trajectories.

Keywords: health trajectory, clustering, deep learning, DBN

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5269 Enhanced Image Representation for Deep Belief Network Classification of Hyperspectral Images

Authors: Khitem Amiri, Mohamed Farah

Abstract:

Image classification is a challenging task and is gaining lots of interest since it helps us to understand the content of images. Recently Deep Learning (DL) based methods gave very interesting results on several benchmarks. For Hyperspectral images (HSI), the application of DL techniques is still challenging due to the scarcity of labeled data and to the curse of dimensionality. Among other approaches, Deep Belief Network (DBN) based approaches gave a fair classification accuracy. In this paper, we address the problem of the curse of dimensionality by reducing the number of bands and replacing the HSI channels by the channels representing radiometric indices. Therefore, instead of using all the HSI bands, we compute the radiometric indices such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index), etc, and we use the combination of these indices as input for the Deep Belief Network (DBN) based classification model. Thus, we keep almost all the pertinent spectral information while reducing considerably the size of the image. In order to test our image representation, we applied our method on several HSI datasets including the Indian pines dataset, Jasper Ridge data and it gave comparable results to the state of the art methods while reducing considerably the time of training and testing.

Keywords: hyperspectral images, deep belief network, radiometric indices, image classification

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5268 Hyperspectral Data Classification Algorithm Based on the Deep Belief and Self-Organizing Neural Network

Authors: Li Qingjian, Li Ke, He Chun, Huang Yong

Abstract:

In this paper, the method of combining the Pohl Seidman's deep belief network with the self-organizing neural network is proposed to classify the target. This method is mainly aimed at the high nonlinearity of the hyperspectral image, the high sample dimension and the difficulty in designing the classifier. The main feature of original data is extracted by deep belief network. In the process of extracting features, adding known labels samples to fine tune the network, enriching the main characteristics. Then, the extracted feature vectors are classified into the self-organizing neural network. This method can effectively reduce the dimensions of data in the spectrum dimension in the preservation of large amounts of raw data information, to solve the traditional clustering and the long training time when labeled samples less deep learning algorithm for training problems, improve the classification accuracy and robustness. Through the data simulation, the results show that the proposed network structure can get a higher classification precision in the case of a small number of known label samples.

Keywords: DBN, SOM, pattern classification, hyperspectral, data compression

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5267 Belief-Based Games: An Appropriate Tool for Uncertain Strategic Situation

Authors: Saied Farham-Nia, Alireza Ghaffari-Hadigheh

Abstract:

Game theory is a mathematical tool to study the behaviors of a rational and strategic decision-makers, that analyze existing equilibrium in interest conflict situation and provides an appropriate mechanisms for cooperation between two or more player. Game theory is applicable for any strategic and interest conflict situation in politics, management and economics, sociology and etc. Real worlds’ decisions are usually made in the state of indeterminacy and the players often are lack of the information about the other players’ payoffs or even his own, which leads to the games in uncertain environments. When historical data for decision parameters distribution estimation is unavailable, we may have no choice but to use expertise belief degree, which represents the strength with that we believe the event will happen. To deal with belief degrees, we have use uncertainty theory which is introduced and developed by Liu based on normality, duality, subadditivity and product axioms to modeling personal belief degree. As we know, the personal belief degree heavily depends on the personal knowledge concerning the event and when personal knowledge changes, cause changes in the belief degree too. Uncertainty theory not only theoretically is self-consistent but also is the best among other theories for modeling belief degree on practical problem. In this attempt, we primarily reintroduced Expected Utility Function in uncertainty environment according to uncertainty theory axioms to extract payoffs. Then, we employed Nash Equilibrium to investigate the solutions. For more practical issues, Stackelberg leader-follower Game and Bertrand Game, as a benchmark models are discussed. Compared to existing articles in the similar topics, the game models and solution concepts introduced in this article can be a framework for problems in an uncertain competitive situation based on experienced expert’s belief degree.

Keywords: game theory, uncertainty theory, belief degree, uncertain expected value, Nash equilibrium

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5266 Evil Eye's Effects on Individual's Mental Health

Authors: Nikolaos Souvlakis

Abstract:

One of the prominent phenomena that have survived even in the 21st century, when science is gaining more and more space in the scientific world, is the evil eye within non-Westernized societies and more specifically in Greek culture. The presentation is based on the Christian Orthodox beliefs and folklore about the evil eye. Evil eye occupies an important role in individuals' everyday life and it is fuelled by Satanic powers. Satanic powers and the belief on them have an immense effect on individual's well-being and mental health causing spiritual suffering. The present paper examines the psychological manifestations of the belief of evil eye in individuals' mental health and the ways to protect from it according to the Greek Orthodox tradition.

Keywords: spirituality, belief, evil eye, mental health, well-being, healing

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5265 Assessing the Attitude and Belief towards Online Advertisement in Pakistan and China Mainland

Authors: Prih Bukhari

Abstract:

The purpose of the proposed paper is to determine if the perception of online advertisement formed due to attitude and belief vary among two different countries or not. Specifically, it seeks to find out how people from China and Pakistan perceive online advertisement. Public attitude and belief towards advertising have been a focus of attention to explore a path to a better strategy of advertising. The ‘belief’ factor was analyzed through 4 items, i.e., product information, entertainment, and increase in economy’ whereas, the ‘attitude’ factor was analyzed thorough questions based on 4 items, i.e. ‘overall, I consider online advertising a good thing’; 'overall, I like online advertising’; ‘'I consider online advertising very essential’; and 'I would describe my overall attitude toward online advertising very favorably’. As such, it provides theoretical basis to explain similarities and differences of beliefs and attitude towards advertising across the two countries. Given its mixed method approach, both quantitative and qualitative method is used to carry out research. A questionnaire-based survey and focus group interviews were conducted. The sample size was of 500 participants. For analysis survey copies were then collected from which 497 were received whereas focus group interviews were collected from both nations. The findings showed that the belief factor among both countries had no significant relation with the perception of online advertisement. However, the attitude had a significant relation with the perception about online advertisement. Also it was observed that despite of different backgrounds, perception about online advertisement based on beliefs and attitude were found largely to be similar. Implications and future studies are provided.

Keywords: attitude, belief, online advertisement, perception

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5264 A Survey of Sentiment Analysis Based on Deep Learning

Authors: Pingping Lin, Xudong Luo, Yifan Fan

Abstract:

Sentiment analysis is a very active research topic. Every day, Facebook, Twitter, Weibo, and other social media, as well as significant e-commerce websites, generate a massive amount of comments, which can be used to analyse peoples opinions or emotions. The existing methods for sentiment analysis are based mainly on sentiment dictionaries, machine learning, and deep learning. The first two kinds of methods rely on heavily sentiment dictionaries or large amounts of labelled data. The third one overcomes these two problems. So, in this paper, we focus on the third one. Specifically, we survey various sentiment analysis methods based on convolutional neural network, recurrent neural network, long short-term memory, deep neural network, deep belief network, and memory network. We compare their futures, advantages, and disadvantages. Also, we point out the main problems of these methods, which may be worthy of careful studies in the future. Finally, we also examine the application of deep learning in multimodal sentiment analysis and aspect-level sentiment analysis.

Keywords: document analysis, deep learning, multimodal sentiment analysis, natural language processing

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5263 Performance Enrichment of Deep Feed Forward Neural Network and Deep Belief Neural Networks for Fault Detection of Automobile Gearbox Using Vibration Signal

Authors: T. Praveenkumar, Kulpreet Singh, Divy Bhanpuriya, M. Saimurugan

Abstract:

This study analysed the classification accuracy for gearbox faults using Machine Learning Techniques. Gearboxes are widely used for mechanical power transmission in rotating machines. Its rotating components such as bearings, gears, and shafts tend to wear due to prolonged usage, causing fluctuating vibrations. Increasing the dependability of mechanical components like a gearbox is hampered by their sealed design, which makes visual inspection difficult. One way of detecting impending failure is to detect a change in the vibration signature. The current study proposes various machine learning algorithms, with aid of these vibration signals for obtaining the fault classification accuracy of an automotive 4-Speed synchromesh gearbox. Experimental data in the form of vibration signals were acquired from a 4-Speed synchromesh gearbox using Data Acquisition System (DAQs). Statistical features were extracted from the acquired vibration signal under various operating conditions. Then the extracted features were given as input to the algorithms for fault classification. Supervised Machine Learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) and unsupervised algorithms such as Deep Feed Forward Neural Network (DFFNN), Deep Belief Networks (DBN) algorithms are used for fault classification. The fusion of DBN & DFFNN classifiers were architected to further enhance the classification accuracy and to reduce the computational complexity. The fault classification accuracy for each algorithm was thoroughly studied, tabulated, and graphically analysed for fused and individual algorithms. In conclusion, the fusion of DBN and DFFNN algorithm yielded the better classification accuracy and was selected for fault detection due to its faster computational processing and greater efficiency.

Keywords: deep belief networks, DBN, deep feed forward neural network, DFFNN, fault diagnosis, fusion of algorithm, vibration signal

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5262 A Review of Machine Learning for Big Data

Authors: Devatha Kalyan Kumar, Aravindraj D., Sadathulla A.

Abstract:

Big data are now rapidly expanding in all engineering and science and many other domains. The potential of large or massive data is undoubtedly significant, make sense to require new ways of thinking and learning techniques to address the various big data challenges. Machine learning is continuously unleashing its power in a wide range of applications. In this paper, the latest advances and advancements in the researches on machine learning for big data processing. First, the machine learning techniques methods in recent studies, such as deep learning, representation learning, transfer learning, active learning and distributed and parallel learning. Then focus on the challenges and possible solutions of machine learning for big data.

Keywords: active learning, big data, deep learning, machine learning

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5261 Social Semiotics in the Selected Films of Chito S. Roño

Authors: Hannah Jennica P. Ello, Regina Via G. Garcia

Abstract:

Films are famous expressions of art in the country. As an expression of art, it serves as a medium in which a culture is reflected. This paper studied how films reflected the Filipino culture. In this study, social semiotics was used to analyze the semiotic resources identified in the film. The films studied were 'Feng Shui', 'Sukob', and 'The Healing', which were three of the highest grossing horror films of Chito S. Roño. The objectives of the paper were (1) to identify the semiotic resources in the film, (2) to extract their meanings, and (3) to determine how these resources were perceived in the Filipino culture. The semiotic resources identified in each film are organized into three categories: color, practices and supernatural occurrences. Each semiotic resource is analyzed through the four dimensions of social semiotics, genre, style, modality, and discourse. For color, some of the semiotic resources identified are red, white and blue; for practices, Hagiolatry, and Mariolatry, faith healing and the belief in superstitions; and for supernatural occurrences, haunting ghosts, doppelganger attacks and returning from the dead were identified. The practices that are prominent in the films are Hagiolatry and Mariolatry, belief in feng shui and belief in faith healers and albularyos. The belief of these practices shows that Filipinos have a dual faith; belief in religion and a belief in superstitions. In short, Filipinos highly practice folk Catholicism and because of this, a mixture of different cultures can be seen, as having molded the Filipino culture to what it is today.

Keywords: culture, film, semiotics, social semiotics

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5260 Psychometric Examination of the QUEST-25: An Online Assessment of Intellectual Curiosity and Scientific Epistemology

Authors: Matthew J. Zagumny

Abstract:

The current study reports an examination of the QUEST-25 (Q-Assessment of Undergraduate Epistemology and Scientific Thinking) online version for assessing the dispositional attitudes toward scientific thinking and intellectual curiosity among undergraduate students. The QUEST-25 consists of scientific thinking (SIQ-25) and intellectual curiosity (ICIQ-25), which were correlated in hypothesized directions with the Religious Commitment Inventory, Curiosity and Exploration Inventory, Belief in Science scale, and measures of academic self-efficacy. Additionally, concurrent validity was established by the resulting significant differences between those identifying the centrality of religious belief in their lives and those who do not self-identify as being guided daily by religious beliefs. This study demonstrates the utility of the QUEST-25 for research, evaluation, and theory development.

Keywords: guided-inquiry learning, intellectual curiosity, psychometric assessment, scientific thinking

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5259 Connecting Lives Inside and Outside the Classroom: Why and How to Implement Technology in the Language Learning Classroom

Authors: Geoffrey Sinha

Abstract:

This paper is primarily addressed to teachers who stand on the threshold of bringing technology and new media into their classrooms. Technology and new media, such as smart phones and tablets have changed the face of communication in general and of language teaching more specifically. New media has widespread appeal among young people in particular, so it is in the teacher’s best interests to bring new media into their lessons. It is the author’s firm belief that technology will never replace the teacher, but it is without question that the twenty-first century teacher must employ technology and new media in some form, or run the risk of failure. The level that one chooses to incorporate new media within their class is entirely in their hands.

Keywords: new media, social media, technology, education, language learning

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5258 Leveraging Learning Analytics to Inform Learning Design in Higher Education

Authors: Mingming Jiang

Abstract:

This literature review aims to offer an overview of existing research on learning analytics and learning design, the alignment between the two, and how learning analytics has been leveraged to inform learning design in higher education. Current research suggests a need to create more alignment and integration between learning analytics and learning design in order to not only ground learning analytics on learning sciences but also enable data-driven decisions in learning design to improve learning outcomes. In addition, multiple conceptual frameworks have been proposed to enhance the synergy and alignment between learning analytics and learning design. Future research should explore this synergy further in the unique context of higher education, identifying learning analytics metrics in higher education that can offer insight into learning processes, evaluating the effect of learning analytics outcomes on learning design decision-making in higher education, and designing learning environments in higher education that make the capturing and deployment of learning analytics outcomes more efficient.

Keywords: learning analytics, learning design, big data in higher education, online learning environments

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5257 Health Belief Model on Smoking Behaviors Causing Lung Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study in Thailand

Authors: Dujrudee Chinwong, Chanida Prompantakorn, Ubonphan Chaichana, Surarong Chinwong

Abstract:

Objective: Understanding the university students’ perceptions on smoking caused lung cancer based on the Health Belief Model should help health care providers in assisting them to quit smoking. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the University students’ health belief in smoking behaviors caused lung cancer, which based on the Health Belief Model. Methods: Data were collected from voluntary participants using a self-administered questionnaire. Participants were students studying at a University in northern Thailand who were current smokers; they were selected using snowball sampling. Results: Of 361 students, 84% were males; 78% smoked not more than 10 cigarettes a day; 68% intended to quit smoking. Our findings, based on the health belief model, showed that 1) perceived susceptibility: participants strongly believed that if they did not stop smoking, they were at high risk of lung cancer (88%); 2) perceived severity: they strongly believed that they had a high chance of death from lung cancer if they continued smoking (84%); 3) perceived benefits: they strongly believed that quitting smoking could reduce the chance of developing lung cancer; 4) perceived barriers of quitting smoking: they strongly believed in the difficulty of quitting smoking because it needed a high effort and strong intention (69%); 5) perceived self-efficacy: however, they strongly believed that they can quit smoking right away if they had a strong intention to quit smoking (70%); 6) cues to action: they strongly believed in the support of parents (85%) and lovers (78%) in helping them to quit smoking. Further, they believed that limitation on smoking area in the University and smoking cessation services provided by the University can assist them to quit smoking. Conclusion: The Health Belief Model helps us to understand students’ smoking behaviors caused lung cancer. This could lead to designing a smoking cessation program to assist students to quit smoking.

Keywords: health belief model, lung cancer, smoking, Thailand

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5256 Factors Related with Self-Care Behaviors among Iranian Type 2 Diabetic Patients: An Application of Health Belief Model

Authors: Ali Soroush, Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh, Touraj Ahmadi Jouybari, Fazel Zinat-Motlagh, Abbas Aghaei, Mari Ataee

Abstract:

Diabetes is a disease with long cardiovascular, renal, ophthalmic and neural complications. It is prevalent all around the world including Iran, and its prevalence is increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to self-care behavior based on health belief model among sample of Iranian diabetic patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 301 type 2 diabetic patients in Gachsaran, Iran. Data collection was based on an interview and the data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 using ANOVA, t-tests, Pearson correlation, and linear regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. Linear regression analyses showed the health belief model variables accounted for 29% of the variation in self-care behavior; and perceived severity and perceived self-efficacy are more influential predictors on self-care behavior among diabetic patients.

Keywords: diabetes, patients, self-care behaviors, health belief model

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5255 Incarcerated Students' Participation Rates in Open Distance Education: Exploring the Role of South African Universities

Authors: Veisiwe Gasa

Abstract:

Many higher institutions of education that offer Open Distance Learning (ODL) and e-Learning have opened their doors to accommodate prisoners who want to further their studies. The provision of education for prisoners in South Africa emanates from a number of reasons. The alarmingly high numbers of the prison population in South Africa has called for the government to provide desperate measures. It is on these premises that the provision of higher education in prison is recommended. Higher education is recommended because of the belief that it creates employability and thereby reduces recidivism. Using targeted sampling, 5 universities were required to elaborate on their awareness strategies, how they ensure that Distance Education is accessible to the prisoners and also the ways in which they cater to the needs of incarcerated students. The research findings reveal that there is so little that has been done by these particular institutions to cater for prisoners. This raises a concern and indicates a need to raise awareness of the value of higher and distance education among prisoners. It also calls for higher education institutions to make prisons aware of their course offerings.

Keywords: e-Learning, incarcerated students, open distance learning, recidivism

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5254 How to Guide Students from Surface to Deep Learning: Applied Philosophy in Management Education

Authors: Lihong Wu, Raymond Young

Abstract:

The ability to learn is one of the most critical skills in the information age. However, many students do not have a clear understanding of what learning is, what they are learning, and why they are learning. Many students study simply to pass rather than to learn something useful for their career and their life. They have a misconception about learning and a wrong attitude towards learning. This research explores student attitudes to study in management education and explores how to intercede to lead students from shallow to deeper modes of learning.

Keywords: knowledge, surface learning, deep learning, education

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5253 Improving Medication Understanding, Use and Self-Efficacy among Stroke Patients: A Randomised Controlled Trial; Study Protocol

Authors: Jamunarani Appalasamy, Tha Kyi Kyi, Quek Kia Fatt, Joyce Pauline Joseph, Anuar Zaini M. Zain

Abstract:

Background: The Health Belief Theory had always been associated with chronic disease management. Various health behaviour concepts and perception branching from this Health Belief Theory had involved with medication understanding, use, and self-efficacy which directly link to medication adherence. In a previous quantitative and qualitative study, stroke patients in Malaysia were found to be strongly believing information obtained by various sources such as the internet and social communication. This action leads to lower perception of their stroke preventative medication benefit which in long-term creates non-adherence. Hence, this study intends to pilot an intervention which uses audio-visual concept incorporated with mHealth service to enhance learning and self-reflection among stroke patients to manage their disease. Methods/Design: Twenty patients will be allocated to a proposed intervention whereas another twenty patients are allocated to the usual treatment. The intervention involves a series of developed audio-visual videos sent via mobile phone which later await for responses and feedback from the receiver (patient) via SMS or recorded calls. The primary outcome would be the medication understanding, use and self-efficacy measured over two months pre and post intervention. Secondary outcome is measured from changes of blood parameters and other self-reported questionnaires. Discussion: This study shall also assess uptake/attrition, feasibility, and acceptability of this intervention. Trial Registration: NMRR-15-851-24737 (IIR)

Keywords: health belief, medication understanding, medication use, self-efficacy

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5252 The Role of Instruction in Knowledge Construction in Online Learning

Authors: Soo Hyung Kim

Abstract:

Two different learning approaches were suggested: focusing on factual knowledge or focusing on the embedded meaning in the statements. Each way of learning has positive effects on different question categories, where factual knowledge helps more with simple fact questions, and searching for meaning in given information helps learn causal relationship and the embedded meaning. To test this belief, two groups of learners (12 male and 39 female adults aged 18-37) watched a ten-minute long Youtube video about various factual events of American history, their meaning, and the causal relations of the events. The fact group was asked to focus on factual knowledge in the video, and the meaning group was asked to focus on the embedded meaning in the video. After watching the video, both groups took multiple-choice questions, which consisted of 10 questions asking the factual knowledge addressed in the video and 10 questions asking embedded meaning in the video, such as the causal relationship between historical events and the significance of the event. From ANCOVA analysis, it was found that the factual knowledge showed higher performance on the factual questions than the meaning group, although there was no group difference on the questions about the meaning between the two groups. The finding suggests that teacher instruction plays an important role in learners constructing a different type of knowledge in online learning.

Keywords: factual knowledge, instruction, meaning-based knowledge, online learning

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5251 Blended Learning through Google Classroom

Authors: Lee Bih Ni

Abstract:

This paper discusses that good learning involves all academic groups in the school. Blended learning is learning outside the classroom. Google Classroom is a free service learning app for schools, non-profit organizations and anyone with a personal Google account. Facilities accessed through computers and mobile phones are very useful for school teachers and students. Blended learning classrooms using both traditional and technology-based methods for teaching have become the norm for many educators. Using Google Classroom gives students access to online learning. Even if the teacher is not in the classroom, the teacher can provide learning. This is the supervision of the form of the teacher when the student is outside the school.

Keywords: blended learning, learning app, google classroom, schools

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5250 The Design of the Blended Learning System via E-Media and Online Learning for the Asynchronous Learning: Case Study of Process Management Subject

Authors: Pimploi Tirastittam, Suppara Charoenpoom

Abstract:

Nowadays the asynchronous learning has granted the permission to the anywhere and anything learning via the technology and E-media which give the learner more convenient. This research is about the design of the blended and online learning for the asynchronous learning of the process management subject in order to create the prototype of this subject asynchronous learning which will create the easiness and increase capability in the learning. The pattern of learning is the integration between the in-class learning and online learning via the internet. This research is mainly focused on the online learning and the online learning can be divided into 5 parts which are virtual classroom, online content, collaboration, assessment and reference material. After the system design was finished, it was evaluated and tested by 5 experts in blended learning design and 10 students which the user’s satisfaction level is good. The result is as good as the assumption so the system can be used in the process management subject for a real usage.

Keywords: blended learning, asynchronous learning, design, process management

Procedia PDF Downloads 278