Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9858

Search results for: structural parameters

9858 Ranking of Managerial Parameters Impacting upon Performance of Football Referees in Iran

Authors: Mohammad Reza Boromand, Masoud Moradi, Amin Eskandari


The present study attempts to determine ranking of managerial parameters impacting upon performance of football referees in Iran. The population consisted of all referees in Leagues 1, 2 and 3 as well as super league of Iran (N=273), of which we selected 160 referees and assistant referees in 2013-2014. A research-designed questionnaire was used for data collection which was divided into two sections: (1) Demographic details (age range, Marital status, employment, refereeing experience, education level, refereeing level and proficiency) and (2) items related to parameters impacting upon performance of referees (structural parameters, operational parameters, environmental parameters, temporal parameters, economic parameters, facilities and tools, personal performance and performance evaluation). Internal consistency was calculated by Cronbach's alpha (r=0.85). For data analysis, we performed Freedman's Test and used SPSS software (α>0.05), along with descriptive statistics. The findings showed the following ranking for the above-mentioned managerial parameters: Facilities and tools, personal performance, economic parameters, structural parameters, operational parameters, environmental parameters, temporal parameters, and performance evaluation.

Keywords: Iran, football referees, managerial parameters, performance

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9857 Issues on Optimizing the Structural Parameters of the Induction Converter

Authors: Marinka K. Baghdasaryan, Siranush M. Muradyan, Avgen A. Gasparyan


Analytical expressions of the current and angular errors, as well as the frequency characteristics of an induction converter describing the relation with its structural parameters, the core and winding characteristics are obtained. Based on estimation of the dependences obtained, a mathematical problem of parametric optimization is formulated which can successfully be used for investigation and diagnosing an induction converter.

Keywords: induction converters, magnetic circuit material, current and angular errors, frequency response, mathematical formulation, structural parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
9856 Kalman Filter Design in Structural Identification with Unknown Excitation

Authors: Z. Masoumi, B. Moaveni


This article is about first step of structural health monitoring by identifying structural system in the presence of unknown input. In the structural system identification, identification of structural parameters such as stiffness and damping are considered. In this study, the Kalman filter (KF) design for structural systems with unknown excitation is expressed. External excitations, such as earthquakes, wind or any other forces are not measured or not available. The purpose of this filter is its strengths to estimate the state variables of the system in the presence of unknown input. Also least squares estimation (LSE) method with unknown input is studied. Estimates of parameters have been adopted. Finally, using two examples advantages and drawbacks of both methods are studied.

Keywords: Kalman filter (KF), least square estimation (LSE), structural health monitoring (SHM), structural system identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
9855 Effect of the Structural Parameters on Subbands of Fibonacci AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs Superlattices

Authors: Y. Sefir, Z. Aziz, S. Cherid, Z. F. Meghoufel, F. Bendahama, S. Terkhi, B. Bouadjemi. A. Zitouni S. Bentata


This work is to study the effect of the variation of structural parameters on the band structure in the quasiperiodic Fibonacci superlattices AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs using the formalism of the transfer matrix and Airy function. Our results show that increasing the width of Fibonacci’s wells of allows to the confinement of subminibands with a widening of minigaps, this causes a consistent and coherent fragmentation. The barrier thickness of Fibonacci bf acts on the width of subminibands by controlling the interaction force between neighboring eigenstates. Its increase gives rise to singularly extended states. The barrier height Fibonacci Vf permit to control the degree of structural disorder in these structures. The variation of these parameters permits the design of laser with modulated wavelength.

Keywords: transmission coefficient – Quasiperiodic superlattices- singularly localized and extended states- structural parameters- Laser with modulated wavelength

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9854 Estimation of Structural Parameters in Time Domain Using One Dimensional Piezo Zirconium Titanium Patch Model

Authors: N. Jinesh, K. Shankar


This article presents a method of using the one dimensional piezo-electric patch on beam model for structural identification. A hybrid element constituted of one dimensional beam element and a PZT sensor is used with reduced material properties. This model is convenient and simple for identification of beams. Accuracy of this element is first verified against a corresponding 3D finite element model (FEM). The structural identification is carried out as an inverse problem whereby parameters are identified by minimizing the deviation between the predicted and measured voltage response of the patch, when subjected to excitation. A non-classical optimization algorithm Particle Swarm Optimization is used to minimize this objective function. The signals are polluted with 5% Gaussian noise to simulate experimental noise. The proposed method is applied on beam structure and identified parameters are stiffness and damping. The model is also validated experimentally.

Keywords: inverse problem, particle swarm optimization, PZT patches, structural identification

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9853 Best Combination of Design Parameters for Buildings with Buckling-Restrained Braces

Authors: Ángel de J. López-Pérez, Sonia E. Ruiz, Vanessa A. Segovia


Buildings vulnerability due to seismic activity has been highly studied since the middle of last century. As a solution to the structural and non-structural damage caused by intense ground motions, several seismic energy dissipating devices, such as buckling-restrained braces (BRB), have been proposed. BRB have shown to be effective in concentrating a large portion of the energy transmitted to the structure by the seismic ground motion. A design approach for buildings with BRB elements, which is based on a seismic Displacement-Based formulation, has recently been proposed by the coauthors in this paper. It is a practical and easy design method which simplifies the work of structural engineers. The method is used here for the design of the structure-BRB damper system. The objective of the present study is to extend and apply a methodology to find the best combination of design parameters on multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) structural frame – BRB systems, taking into account simultaneously: 1) initial costs and 2) an adequate engineering demand parameter. The design parameters considered here are: the stiffness ratio (α = Kframe/Ktotal), and the strength ratio (γ = Vdamper/Vtotal); where K represents structural stiffness and V structural strength; and the subscripts "frame", "damper" and "total" represent: the structure without dampers, the BRB dampers and the total frame-damper system, respectively. The selection of the best combination of design parameters α and γ is based on an initial costs analysis and on the structural dynamic response of the structural frame-damper system. The methodology is applied to a 12-story 5-bay steel building with BRB, which is located on the intermediate soil of Mexico City. It is found the best combination of design parameters α and γ for the building with BRB under study.

Keywords: best combination of design parameters, BRB, buildings with energy dissipating devices, buckling-restrained braces, initial costs

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
9852 Sensitivity Analysis of Pile-Founded Fixed Steel Jacket Platforms

Authors: Mohamed Noureldin, Jinkoo Kim


The sensitivity of the seismic response parameters to the uncertain modeling variables of pile-founded fixed steel jacket platforms are investigated using tornado diagram, first-order second-moment, and static pushover analysis techniques. The effects of both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty on seismic response parameters have been investigated for an existing offshore platform. The sources of uncertainty considered in the present study are categorized into three different categories: the uncertainties associated with the soil-pile modeling parameters in clay soil, the platform jacket structure modeling parameters, and the uncertainties related to ground motion excitations. It has been found that the variability in parameters such as yield strength or pile bearing capacity has almost no effect on the seismic response parameters considered, whereas the global structural response is highly affected by the ground motion uncertainty. Also, some uncertainty in soil-pile property such as soil-pile friction capacity has a significant impact on the response parameters and should be carefully modeled. Based on the results, it is highlighted that which uncertain parameters should be considered carefully and which can be assumed with reasonable engineering judgment during the early structural design stage of fixed steel jacket platforms.

Keywords: fixed jacket offshore platform, pile-soil structure interaction, sensitivity analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
9851 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Milled Nickel Powder

Authors: O. M. Lemine


The effect of milling parameters on the structural and magnetic properties of nickel powder was investigated. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results did not reveal any phase change of nickel during the milling. The average crystallite size decreases with a prolongation of milling times, whereas the lattice parameters increase. The hysteresis loop reveals the intrinsic magnetic behaviour. It was observed an increase in the magnetization which can be correlated to the volume expansion showed by XRD results.

Keywords: nickel powders, nanocrystallines, XRD, VSM

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
9850 Modelling Structural Breaks in Stock Price Time Series Using Stochastic Differential Equations

Authors: Daniil Karzanov


This paper studies the effect of quarterly earnings reports on the stock price. The profitability of the stock is modeled by geometric Brownian diffusion and the Constant Elasticity of Variance model. We fit several variations of stochastic differential equations to the pre-and after-report period using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Grid Search of parameters method. By examining the change in the model parameters after reports’ publication, the study reveals that the reports have enough evidence to be a structural breakpoint, meaning that all the forecast models exploited are not applicable for forecasting and should be refitted shortly.

Keywords: stock market, earnings reports, financial time series, structural breaks, stochastic differential equations

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9849 Optimal Design of Submersible Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor Based Design of Experiment and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Xiao Zhang, Wensheng Xiao, Junguo Cui, Hongmin Wang


Submersible permanent magnet linear synchronous motors (SPMLSMs) are electromagnetic devices, which can directly drive plunger pump to obtain the crude oil. Those motors have been gradually applied in oil fields due to high thrust force density and high efficiency. Since the force performance closely depends on the concrete structural parameters, the seven different structural parameters are investigated in detail. This paper presents an optimum design of an SPMLSM to minimize the detent force and maximize the thrust by using design of experiment (DOE) and genetic algorithm (GA). The three significant structural parameters (air-gap length, slot width, pole-arc coefficient) are separately screened using 27 1/16 fractional factorial design (FFD) to investigate the significant effect of seven parameters used in this research on the force performance. Response surface methodology (RSM) is well adapted to make analytical model of thrust and detent force with constraints of corresponding significant parameters and enable objective function to be easily created, respectively. GA is performed as a searching tool to search for the Pareto-optimal solutions. By finite element analysis, the proposed PMLSM shows merits in improving thrust and reducing the detent force dramatically.

Keywords: optimization, force performance, design of experiment (DOE), genetic algorithm (GA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
9848 Model Updating Based on Modal Parameters Using Hybrid Pattern Search Technique

Authors: N. Guo, C. Xu, Z. C. Yang


In order to ensure the high reliability of an aircraft, the accurate structural dynamics analysis has become an indispensable part in the design of an aircraft structure. Therefore, the structural finite element model which can be used to accurately calculate the structural dynamics and their transfer relations is the prerequisite in structural dynamic design. A dynamic finite element model updating method is presented to correct the uncertain parameters of the finite element model of a structure using measured modal parameters. The coordinate modal assurance criterion is used to evaluate the correlation level at each coordinate over the experimental and the analytical mode shapes. Then, the weighted summation of the natural frequency residual and the coordinate modal assurance criterion residual is used as the objective function. Moreover, the hybrid pattern search (HPS) optimization technique, which synthesizes the advantages of pattern search (PS) optimization technique and genetic algorithm (GA), is introduced to solve the dynamic FE model updating problem. A numerical simulation and a model updating experiment for GARTEUR aircraft model are performed to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the present dynamic model updating method, respectively. The updated results show that the proposed method can be successfully used to modify the incorrect parameters with good robustness.

Keywords: model updating, modal parameter, coordinate modal assurance criterion, hybrid genetic/pattern search

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9847 Moment Estimators of the Parameters of Zero-One Inflated Negative Binomial Distribution

Authors: Rafid Saeed Abdulrazak Alshkaki


In this paper, zero-one inflated negative binomial distribution is considered, along with some of its structural properties, then its parameters were estimated using the method of moments. It is found that the method of moments to estimate the parameters of the zero-one inflated negative binomial models is not a proper method and may give incorrect conclusions.

Keywords: zero one inflated models, negative binomial distribution, moments estimator, non negative integer sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
9846 Fluid Structure Interaction Study between Ahead and Angled Impact of AGM 88 Missile Entering Relatively High Viscous Fluid for K-Omega Turbulence Model

Authors: Abu Afree Andalib, Rafiur Rahman, Md Mezbah Uddin


The main objective of this work is to anatomize on the various parameters of AGM 88 missile anatomized using FSI module in Ansys. Computational fluid dynamics is used for the study of fluid flow pattern and fluidic phenomenon such as drag, pressure force, energy dissipation and shockwave distribution in water. Using finite element analysis module of Ansys, structural parameters such as stress and stress density, localization point, deflection, force propagation is determined. Separate analysis on structural parameters is done on Abacus. State of the art coupling module is used for FSI analysis. Fine mesh is considered in every case for better result during simulation according to computational machine power. The result of the above-mentioned parameters is analyzed and compared for two phases using graphical representation. The result of Ansys and Abaqus are also showed. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Finite Element analyses and subsequently the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) technique is being considered. Finite volume method and finite element method are being considered for modelling fluid flow and structural parameters analysis. Feasible boundary conditions are also utilized in the research. Significant change in the interaction and interference pattern while the impact was found. Theoretically as well as according to simulation angled condition was found with higher impact.

Keywords: FSI (Fluid Surface Interaction), impact, missile, high viscous fluid, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), FEM (Finite Element Analysis), FVM (Finite Volume Method), fluid flow, fluid pattern, structural analysis, AGM-88, Ansys, Abaqus, meshing, k-omega, turbulence model

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9845 Structural, Elastic, Vibrational and Thermal Properties of Perovskites AHfO3 (a=Ba,Sr,Eu)

Authors: H. Krarcha


The structural, elastic, vibrational and thermal properties of AHfO3 compounds with the cubic perovskites structure have been investigated, by employing a first principles method, using the plane wave pseudo potential calculations (PP-PW), based on the density functional theory (DFT), within the local density approximation (LDA). The optimized lattice parameters, independent elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44), bulk modulus (B), compressibility (b), shear modulus (G), Young’s modulus (Y ), Poisson’s ratio (n), Lame´’s coefficients (m, l), as well as band structure, density of states and electron density distributions are obtained and analyzed in comparison with the available theoretical and experimental data. For the first time the numerical estimates of elastic parameters of the polycrystalline AHfO3 ceramics (in framework of the VoigteReusseHill approximation) are performed. The quasi-harmonic Debye model, by means of total energy versus volume calculations obtained with the FP-LAPW method, is applied to study the thermal and vibrational effects. Predicted temperature and pressure effects on the structural parameters, thermal expansions, heat capacities, and Debye temperatures are determined from the non-equilibrium Gibbs functions.

Keywords: Hafnium, elastic propreties, first principles calculation, perovskite

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
9844 Effect of Spatially Correlated Disorder on Electronic Transport Properties of Aperiodic Superlattices (GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs)

Authors: F. Bendahma, S. Bentata, S. Cherid, A. Zitouni, S. Terkhi, T. Lantri, Y. Sefir, Z. F. Meghoufel


We examine the electronic transport properties in AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs superlattices. Using the transfer-matrix technique and the exact Airy function formalism, we investigate theoretically the effect of structural parameters on the electronic energy spectra of trimer thickness barrier (TTB). Our numerical calculations showed that the localization length of the states becomes more extended when the disorder is correlated (trimer case). We have also found that the resonant tunneling time (RTT) is of the order of several femtoseconds.

Keywords: electronic transport properties, structural parameters, superlattices, transfer-matrix technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
9843 Damage Identification in Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Modal Parameters and Their Formulation

Authors: Ali Al-Ghalib, Fouad Mohammad


The identification of damage in reinforced concrete structures subjected to incremental cracking performance exploiting vibration data is recognized as a challenging topic in the published and heavily cited literature. Therefore, this paper attempts to shine light on the extent of dynamic methods when applied to reinforced concrete beams simulated with various scenarios of defects. For this purpose, three different reinforced concrete beams are tested through the course of the study. The three beams are loaded statically to failure in incremental successive load cycles and later rehabilitated. After each static load stage, the beams are tested under free-free support condition using experimental modal analysis. The beams were all of the same length and cross-sectional area (2.0x0.14x0.09)m, but they were different in concrete compressive strength and the type of damage presented. The experimental modal parameters as damage identification parameters were showed computationally expensive, time consuming and require substantial inputs and considerable expertise. Nonetheless, they were proved plausible for the condition monitoring of the current case study as well as structural changes in the course of progressive loads. It was accentuated that a satisfactory localization and quantification for structural changes (Level 2 and Level 3 of damage identification problem) can only be achieved reasonably through considering frequencies and mode shapes of a system in a proper analytical model. A convenient post analysis process for various datasets of vibration measurements for the three beams is conducted in order to extract, check and correlate the basic modal parameters; namely, natural frequency, modal damping and mode shapes. The results of the extracted modal parameters and their combination are utilized and discussed in this research as quantification parameters.

Keywords: experimental modal analysis, damage identification, structural health monitoring, reinforced concrete beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
9842 Reliability Estimation of Bridge Structures with Updated Finite Element Models

Authors: Ekin Ozer


Assessment of structural reliability is essential for efficient use of civil infrastructure which is subjected hazardous events. Dynamic analysis of finite element models is a commonly used tool to simulate structural behavior and estimate its performance accordingly. However, theoretical models purely based on preliminary assumptions and design drawings may deviate from the actual behavior of the structure. This study proposes up-to-date reliability estimation procedures which engages actual bridge vibration data modifying finite element models for finite element model updating and performing reliability estimation, accordingly. The proposed method utilizes vibration response measurements of bridge structures to identify modal parameters, then uses these parameters to calibrate finite element models which are originally based on design drawings. The proposed method does not only show that reliability estimation based on updated models differs from the original models, but also infer that non-updated models may overestimate the structural capacity.

Keywords: earthquake engineering, engineering vibrations, reliability estimation, structural health monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
9841 Development and Structural Performance Evaluation on Slit Circular Shear Panel Damper

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi


There are several types of metal-based devices conceived as dampers for the seismic energy absorber whereby damages to the major structural components could be minimized for both new and existing structures. This paper aimed to develop and evaluate structural performance of slit circular shear panel damper for passive seismic energy protection by inelastic deformation. Structural evaluation was done using commercially available nonlinear FE simulation program. The main parameters considered are: diameter-to-thickness (D/t) ratio and slit length-to-width ratio (l/w). Depending on these parameters three different buckling modes and hysteretic behaviors were found: yielding prior to buckling without strength degradation, yielding prior to buckling with strength degradation, and yielding with buckling and strength degradation which forms pinching at initial displacement. The susceptible location at which the possible crack is initiated is also identified for selected specimens using rupture index.

Keywords: slit circular shear panel damper, hysteresis characteristics, slip length-to-width ratio, D/t ratio, FE analysis

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9840 The Realization of a System’s State Space Based on Markov Parameters by Using Flexible Neural Networks

Authors: Ali Isapour, Ramin Nateghi


— Markov parameters are unique parameters of the system and remain unchanged under similarity transformations. Markov parameters from a power series that is convergent only if the system matrix’s eigenvalues are inside the unity circle. Therefore, Markov parameters of a stable discrete-time system are convergent. In this study, we aim to realize the system based on Markov parameters by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), and this end, we use Flexible Neural Networks. Realization means determining the elements of matrices A, B, C, and D.

Keywords: Markov parameters, realization, activation function, flexible neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
9839 Seismic Loss Assessment for Peruvian University Buildings with Simulated Fragility Functions

Authors: Jose Ruiz, Jose Velasquez, Holger Lovon


Peruvian university buildings are critical structures for which very little research about its seismic vulnerability is available. This paper develops a probabilistic methodology that predicts seismic loss for university buildings with simulated fragility functions. Two university buildings located in the city of Cusco were analyzed. Fragility functions were developed considering seismic and structural parameters uncertainty. The fragility functions were generated with the Latin Hypercube technique, an improved Montecarlo-based method, which optimizes the sampling of structural parameters and provides at least 100 reliable samples for every level of seismic demand. Concrete compressive strength, maximum concrete strain and yield stress of the reinforcing steel were considered as the key structural parameters. The seismic demand is defined by synthetic records which are compatible with the elastic Peruvian design spectrum. Acceleration records are scaled based on the peak ground acceleration on rigid soil (PGA) which goes from 0.05g to 1.00g. A total of 2000 structural models were considered to account for both structural and seismic variability. These functions represent the overall building behavior because they give rational information regarding damage ratios for defined levels of seismic demand. The university buildings show an expected Mean Damage Factor of 8.80% and 19.05%, respectively, for the 0.22g-PGA scenario, which was amplified by the soil type coefficient and resulted in 0.26g-PGA. These ratios were computed considering a seismic demand related to 10% of probability of exceedance in 50 years which is a requirement in the Peruvian seismic code. These results show an acceptable seismic performance for both buildings.

Keywords: fragility functions, university buildings, loss assessment, Montecarlo simulation, latin hypercube

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
9838 Optimal Analysis of Structures by Large Wing Panel Using FEM

Authors: Byeong-Sam Kim, Kyeongwoo Park


In this study, induced structural optimization is performed to compare the trade-off between wing weight and induced drag for wing panel extensions, construction of wing panel and winglets. The aerostructural optimization problem consists of parameters with strength condition, and two maneuver conditions using residual stresses in panel production. The results of kinematic motion analysis presented a homogenization based theory for 3D beams and 3D shells for wing panel. This theory uses a kinematic description of the beam based on normalized displacement moments. The displacement of the wing is a significant design consideration as large deflections lead to large stresses and increased fatigue of components cause residual stresses. The stresses in the wing panel are small compared to the yield stress of aluminum alloy. This study describes the implementation of a large wing panel, aerostructural analysis and structural parameters optimization framework that couples a three-dimensional panel method.

Keywords: wing panel, aerostructural optimization, FEM, structural analysis

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9837 Structural Properties of CuCl, CuBr, and CuI Compounds under Hydrostatic Pressure

Authors: S. Louhibi-Fasla, H. Rekab Djabri, H. Achour


The aim of this work is to investigate the structural phase-transitions and electronic properties of copper halides. Our calculations were performed within the PLW extension to the first principle FPLMTO method, which enables an accurate treatment of all kinds of structures including the open ones. Results are given for lattice parameters, bulk modulus and its first derivatives in five different surface phases, and are compared with the available theoretical and experimental data. In the zinc-blende (B3) and PbO (B10) phases, the fundamental gap remains direct with both the top of VB and the bottom of CB located at Γ.

Keywords: FPLMTO, structural properties, Copper halides, phase transitions, ground state phase

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9836 Ultrasonic Investigation as Tool for Study of Molecular Interaction of 2-Hydroxy Substituted Pyrimidine Derivative at Different Concentrations

Authors: Shradha S. Binani, P. S. Bodke, R. V. Joat


Recent decades have witnessed an exponential growth in the field of acoustical parameters and ultrasound on solid, liquid and gases. Ultrasonic propagation parameters yield valuable information regarding the behavior of liquid systems because intra and intermolecular association, dipolar interaction, complex formation and related structural changes affecting the compressibility of the system which in turn produces variations in the ultrasonic velocity. The acoustic and thermo dynamical parameters obtained in ultrasonic study show that ion-solvation is accompanied by the destruction or enhancement of the solvent structure. In the present paper the ultrasonic velocity (v), density (ρ), viscosity(η) have been measured for the pharmacological important compound 2-hydroxy substituted phenyl pyrimidine derivative (2-hydroxy-4-(4’-methoxy phenyl)-6-(2’-hydroxy-4’-methyl-5’-chlorophenyl)pyrimidine) in ethanol as a solvent by using different concentration at constant room temperature. These experimental data have been used to estimate physical parameter like adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, relaxation time, free volume, specific acoustic impedance, relative association, Wada’s constant, Rao’s constant etc. The above parameters provide information in understanding the structural and molecular interaction between solute-solvent in the drug solution with respect to change in concentration.

Keywords: acoustical parameters, ultrasonic velocity, density, viscosity, 2-hydroxy substituted phenyl pyrimidine derivative

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9835 A Computational Study of N–H…O Hydrogen Bonding to Investigate Cooperative Effects

Authors: Setareh Shekarsaraei, Marjan Moridi, Nasser L. Hadipour


In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy parameters of 14N (Nitrogen in imidazole ring) in N–H…O hydrogen bonding for Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate were calculated via density functional theory. We considered a five-molecule model system of Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate. Also, we examined the trends of environmental effect on hydrogen bonds as well as cooperativity. The functional used in this research is M06-2X which is a good functional and the obtained results have shown good agreement with experimental data. This functional was applied to calculate the NMR and NQR parameters. Some correlations among NBO parameters, NMR, and NQR parameters have been studied which have shown the existence of strong correlations among them. Furthermore, the geometry optimization has been performed using M062X/6-31++G(d,p) method. In addition, in order to study cooperativity and changes in structural parameters, along with increase in cluster size, natural bond orbitals have been employed.

Keywords: hydrogen bonding, density functional theory (DFT), natural bond orbitals (NBO), cooperativity effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
9834 Modern Seismic Design Approach for Buildings with Hysteretic Dampers

Authors: Vanessa A. Segovia, Sonia E. Ruiz


The use of energy dissipation systems for seismic applications has increased worldwide, thus it is necessary to develop practical and modern criteria for their optimal design. Here, a direct displacement-based seismic design approach for frame buildings with hysteretic energy dissipation systems (HEDS) is applied. The building is constituted by two individual structural systems consisting of: 1) A main elastic structural frame designed for service loads and 2) A secondary system, corresponding to the HEDS, that controls the effects of lateral loads. The procedure implies to control two design parameters: A) The stiffness ratio (α=K_frame/K_(total system)), and B) The strength ratio (γ= V_damper / V_(total system)). The proposed damage-controlled approach contributes to the design of a more sustainable and resilient building because the structural damage is concentrated on the HEDS. The reduction of the design displacement spectrum is done by means of a damping factor (recently published) for elastic structural systems with HEDS, located in Mexico City. Two limit states are verified: Serviceability and near collapse. Instead of the traditional trial-error approach, a procedure that allows the designer to establish the preliminary sizes of the structural elements of both systems is proposed. The design methodology is applied to an 8-story steel building with buckling restrained braces, located in soft soil of Mexico City. With the aim of choosing the optimal design parameters, a parametric study is developed considering different values of α and γ. The simplified methodology is for preliminary sizing, design, and evaluation of the effectiveness of HEDS, and it constitutes a modern and practical tool that enables the structural designer to select the best design parameters.

Keywords: damage-controlled buildings, direct displacement-based seismic design, optimal hysteretic energy dissipation systems, hysteretic dampers

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9833 Influence of Thickness on Electrical and Structural Properties of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Films Prepared by RF Sputtering Technique

Authors: M. Momoh, S. Abdullahi, A. U. Moreh


Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared on corning (7059) glass substrates at a thickness of 75.5 and 130.5 nm by RF sputtering technique. The deposition was carried out at room temperature after which the samples were annealed in open air at 150°C. The electrical and structural properties of these films were studied. The electrical properties of the films were monitored by four-point probe method while the structural properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the electrical resistance of the films decreases with increase in the thickness of the films. The XRD analysis of the films showed that the films have a peak located at 34.31°-34.35° with hkl (002). Other parameters calculated include the stress (σ) and the grain size (D).

Keywords: electrical properties, film thickness, structural properties, zinc oxide

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9832 Empirical Analytical Modelling of Average Bond Stress and Anchorage of Tensile Bars in Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Maruful H. Mazumder, Raymond I. Gilbert


The design specifications for calculating development and lapped splice lengths of reinforcement in concrete are derived from a conventional empirical modelling approach that correlates experimental test data using a single mathematical equation. This paper describes part of a recently completed experimental research program to assess the effects of different structural parameters on the development length requirements of modern high strength steel reinforcing bars, including the case of lapped splices in large-scale reinforced concrete members. The normalized average bond stresses for the different variations of anchorage lengths are assessed according to the general form of a typical empirical analytical model of bond and anchorage. Improved analytical modelling equations are developed in the paper that better correlate the normalized bond strength parameters with the structural parameters of an empirical model of bond and anchorage.

Keywords: bond stress, development length, lapped splice length, reinforced concrete

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9831 Study Case of Spacecraft Instruments in Structural Modelling with Nastran-Patran

Authors: Francisco Borja de Lara, Ali Ravanbakhsh, Robert F. Wimmer-Schweingruber, Lars Seimetz, Fermín Navarro


The intense structural loads during the launch of a spacecraft represent a challenge for the space structure designers because enough resistance has to be achieved while maintaining at the same time the mass and volume within the allowable margins of the mission requirements and inside the limits of the budget project. In this conference, we present the structural analysis of the Lunar Lander Neutron Dosimetry (LND) experiment on the Chang'E4 mission, the first probe to land on the moon’s far side included in the Chinese’ Moon Exploration Program by the Chinese National Space Administration. To this target, the software Nastran/Patran has been used: a structural model in Patran and a structural analysis through Nastran have been realized. Next, the results obtained are used both for the optimization process of the spacecraft structure, and as input parameters for the model structural test campaign. In this way, the feasibility of the lunar instrument structure is demonstrated in terms of the modal modes, stresses, and random vibration and a better understanding of the structural tests design is provided by our results.

Keywords: Chang’E4, Chinese national space administration, lunar lander neutron dosimetry, nastran-patran, structural analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
9830 Second Order Statistics of Dynamic Response of Structures Using Gamma Distributed Damping Parameters

Authors: Badreddine Chemali, Boualem Tiliouine


This article presents the main results of a numerical investigation on the uncertainty of dynamic response of structures with statistically correlated random damping Gamma distributed. A computational method based on a Linear Statistical Model (LSM) is implemented to predict second order statistics for the response of a typical industrial building structure. The significance of random damping with correlated parameters and its implications on the sensitivity of structural peak response in the neighborhood of a resonant frequency are discussed in light of considerable ranges of damping uncertainties and correlation coefficients. The results are compared to those generated using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The numerical results obtained show the importance of damping uncertainty and statistical correlation of damping coefficients when obtaining accurate probabilistic estimates of dynamic response of structures. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the LSM model to efficiently predict uncertainty propagation for structural dynamic problems with correlated damping parameters is demonstrated.

Keywords: correlated random damping, linear statistical model, Monte Carlo simulation, uncertainty of dynamic response

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
9829 System Identification of Building Structures with Continuous Modeling

Authors: Ruichong Zhang, Fadi Sawaged, Lotfi Gargab


This paper introduces a wave-based approach for system identification of high-rise building structures with a pair of seismic recordings, which can be used to evaluate structural integrity and detect damage in post-earthquake structural condition assessment. The fundamental of the approach is based on wave features of generalized impulse and frequency response functions (GIRF and GFRF), i.e., wave responses at one structural location to an impulsive motion at another reference location in time and frequency domains respectively. With a pair of seismic recordings at the two locations, GFRF is obtainable as Fourier spectral ratio of the two recordings, and GIRF is then found with the inverse Fourier transformation of GFRF. With an appropriate continuous model for the structure, a closed-form solution of GFRF, and subsequent GIRF, can also be found in terms of wave transmission and reflection coefficients, which are related to structural physical properties above the impulse location. Matching the two sets of GFRF and/or GIRF from recordings and the model helps identify structural parameters such as wave velocity or shear modulus. For illustration, this study examines ten-story Millikan Library in Pasadena, California with recordings of Yorba Linda earthquake of September 3, 2002. The building is modelled as piecewise continuous layers, with which GFRF is derived as function of such building parameters as impedance, cross-sectional area, and damping. GIRF can then be found in closed form for some special cases and numerically in general. Not only does this study reveal the influential factors of building parameters in wave features of GIRF and GRFR, it also shows some system-identification results, which are consistent with other vibration- and wave-based results. Finally, this paper discusses the effectiveness of the proposed model in system identification.

Keywords: wave-based approach, seismic responses of buildings, wave propagation in structures, construction

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