Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 110

Search results for: football referees

110 Ranking of Managerial Parameters Impacting upon Performance of Football Referees in Iran

Authors: Mohammad Reza Boromand, Masoud Moradi, Amin Eskandari

Abstract:

The present study attempts to determine ranking of managerial parameters impacting upon performance of football referees in Iran. The population consisted of all referees in Leagues 1, 2 and 3 as well as super league of Iran (N=273), of which we selected 160 referees and assistant referees in 2013-2014. A research-designed questionnaire was used for data collection which was divided into two sections: (1) Demographic details (age range, Marital status, employment, refereeing experience, education level, refereeing level and proficiency) and (2) items related to parameters impacting upon performance of referees (structural parameters, operational parameters, environmental parameters, temporal parameters, economic parameters, facilities and tools, personal performance and performance evaluation). Internal consistency was calculated by Cronbach's alpha (r=0.85). For data analysis, we performed Freedman's Test and used SPSS software (α>0.05), along with descriptive statistics. The findings showed the following ranking for the above-mentioned managerial parameters: Facilities and tools, personal performance, economic parameters, structural parameters, operational parameters, environmental parameters, temporal parameters, and performance evaluation.

Keywords: Iran, football referees, managerial parameters, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 468
109 The Video Database for Teaching and Learning in Football Refereeing

Authors: M. Armenteros, A. Domínguez, M. Fernández, A. J. Benítez

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The following paper describes the video database tool used by the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) as part of the research project developed in collaboration with the Carlos III University of Madrid. The database project began in 2012, with the aim of creating an educational tool for the training of instructors, referees and assistant referees, and it has been used in all FUTURO III courses since 2013. The platform now contains 3,135 video clips of different match situations from FIFA competitions. It has 1,835 users (FIFA instructors, referees and assistant referees). In this work, the main features of the database are described, such as the use of a search tool and the creation of multimedia presentations and video quizzes. The database has been developed in MySQL, ActionScript, Ruby on Rails and HTML. This tool has been rated by users as "very good" in all courses, which prompt us to introduce it as an ideal tool for any other sport that requires the use of video analysis.

Keywords: assistants referees, cloud computing, e-learning, instructors, FIFA, referees, soccer, video database

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
108 Analysis of Football Fans Perception of the Video Assistant Referee System

Authors: David Yartel, Johnmark Ampomah Mensah Fobi, Ernest Yeboah Acheampong, Sintim Musah

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Football has gone through a series of technological reforms targeted at improving the game for its audience. Yet, promote sanity of the game led to the introduction of the video assistant referee (VAR) to ‘check’ or ‘review’ an incident to clarify incidents and communicate the outcome to the referee and the fans. This is to reduce controversies regarding incidents on the pitch of play. In this study, we seek to survey the views of football fans to understand their perception of the video assistant referee, whether it has brought sanity or reduce the uncertainty regarding the decisions after reviews. The exploratory study focuses on 420 fans arbitrarily sampled on the university campuses to answer questionnaires based on the introduction of the video assistant referee. Results show that the VAR has interrupted the flow of the game, dropping passion, increased controversies including decisions from the referees’ call room leading to ensuing fans conflict, especially when it is against their team and vice versa. The study concludes by addressing some of their concerns as the VAR has come to minimise perceptions of incidents and engender fairness for teams.

Keywords: football fans, football incidents, football match, video assistant referee, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
107 Video Processing of a Football Game: Detecting Features of a Football Match for Automated Calculation of Statistics

Authors: Rishabh Beri, Sahil Shah

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We have applied a range of filters and processing in order to extract out the various features of the football game, like the field lines of a football field. Another important aspect was the detection of the players in the field and tagging them according to their teams distinguished by their jersey colours. This extracted information combined about the players and field helped us to create a virtual field that consists of the playing field and the players mapped to their locations in it.

Keywords: Detect, Football, Players, Virtual

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
106 A Test to Express Diagnostic Cohesion of Football Team

Authors: Alexandra O. Savinkina

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We proposed to assess the cohesion of a football team by its subject-goal and subject-value unity according to the A.V. Petrovsky theory. Goal unity was measured by the degree of compliance of the priority targets for various players in the team. Values were estimated by the coincidence of the ideas about a perfect football player. On the basis of the provisional diagnosis of the six teams, we had made the lists of goals and values. The tests were piloted on 35 football teams. The results allowed not only to compare quantitatively the cohesion of the different teams, but also to identify subgroups within the team.

Keywords: cohesion, football, psychodiagnostic, soccer, sports team, value-orientation unity

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
105 The Trend of Competitive Balance in Turkish Football Super League

Authors: Tugbay Inan

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Competitive balance is known to have an important effect in determining the result of football matches. The degree of competitiveness is referred as competitive balance in football. Sports economics are the extent to which overall league attendances will be raised by measures, such as media effect, home advantage, revenue sharing, which aim to improve competitive balance. The purpose of present study was to measure the competitive balance in the football league of Turkey. In this study, by using long term competitive balance analysis, some facing problems and precautions were discussed through the seasons (1987-2014) in Turkish Football Super League (TSL). Within the practice of this study, The way that competitive balance level followed was determined in the history of super league (27 years). Based on this purpose, C5 Competitive Balance Index (C5CBI) and a Herfindahl index of competitive balance (HICB) were used. Finally, it is seen that in Super League, competitive balance factor took place time to time, however in total, a view apart from competitive balance is obviously seen.

Keywords: competitive balance, turkish football, c5 competitive balance index, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index

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104 Comparison of Aggression Amount among Athletic Students of Different Sports

Authors: Seyed Hossein Alavi, Farshad Ghazalian, Soghra Jamshidi

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Nowadays, athletic aggression discussion is considered as an important issue in sports psychology and sports effects have been noted by researchers from a long time ago. In this research, the amount of aggression among athletic students of different sport courses will be surveyed and compared. Statistics society in this research consists of all of boy athletic students in wrestling, taekwondo, football, and basketball of Mahmoudabad City that are 200 persons and the limitation of their ages are between 12-15 years old. Among all athletic students of different sport courses, 40 persons were chosen randomly for the sample. The method of research is a descriptive-comparative type that has been done according to field study and for measurement of examinations aggression amount, we have used Ayzank exam. In analysis step of foundations, for comparison of aggression of examined group, we have used Varian’s analysis exam. Research results show that among aggression amounts of athletic students of wrestling, taekwondo, football and basketball, there is no fundamental difference (p < 0.05). Stimulation of guest team with the host team fans, referees performance, exhaustion, physical confrontations, team position in the tournament table, and so on. There is no significant difference among aggression amount of selected sport athletic students.

Keywords: aggression, athletic, student, sports

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103 Analysis of the Current and Ideal Situation of Iran’s Football Talent Management Process from the Perspective of the Elites

Authors: Mehran Nasiri, Ardeshir Poornemat

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The aim of this study was to investigate the current and ideal situations of the process of talent identification in Iranian football from the point of view of Iranian instructors of the Asian Football Confederation (AFC). This research was a descriptive-analytical study; in data collection phase a questionnaire was used, whose face validity was confirmed by experts of Physical Education and Sports Science. The reliability of questionnaire was estimated through the use of Cronbach's alpha method (0.91). This study involved 122 participants of Iranian instructors of the AFC who were selected based on stratified random sampling method. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the variables and inferential statistics (Chi-square) were used to test the hypotheses of the study at significant level (p ≤ 0.05). The results of Chi-square test related to the point of view of Iranian instructors of the AFC showed that the grass-roots scientific method was the best way to identify football players (0.001), less than 10 years old were the best ages for talent identification (0.001), the Football Federation was revealed to be the most important organization in talent identification (0.002), clubs were shown to be the most important institution in developing talents (0.001), trained scouts of Football Federation were demonstrated to be the best and most appropriate group for talent identification (0.001), and being referred by the football academy coaches was shown to be the best way to attract talented football players in Iran (0.001). It was also found that there was a huge difference between the current and ideal situation of the process of talent identification in Iranian football from the point of view of Iranian instructors of the AFC. Hence, it is recommended that the policy makers of talent identification for Iranian football provide a comprehensive, clear and systematic model of talent identification and development processes for the clubs and football teams, so that the talent identification process helps to nurture football talents more efficiently.

Keywords: current situation, talent finding, ideal situation, instructors (AFC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
102 Communication through Offline and Online Social Network of Thai Football Premier League Supporters

Authors: Krisana Chueachainat

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The study is about the identity, typology and symbol using in communication through offline and online social network of each Thai football Premier League supporters. Also, study is about the factors that affected the sport to become the growing business and the communication factors that play the important role in the growth of the sport business. The Thai Premier League communicated with supporters in order to show the identity of each supporter and club in different ways. The expression of the identity was shown through online social network and offline told other people who they were. The study also about the factor that impacted the roles and communication factors that make football become the growing business. The factor that impact to the growth of football to the business, if clubs can action, the sport business would be to higher level and also push Thailand’s football to be effective and equal to other countries.

Keywords: online social network, offline social network, Thai football, supporters

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
101 Comparison of Isokinetic Powers (Flexion and Knee Extension) of Basketball and Football Players (Age 17–20)

Authors: Ugur Senturk, Ibrahım Erdemır, Faruk Guven, Cuma Ece

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The objective of this study is to compare flexion and extension movements in knee-joint group by measuring isokinetic knee power of amateur basketball and football players. For this purpose, total 21 players were included, which consist of football players (n=12) and basketball players (n=9), within the age range of 17–20. After receiving the age, length, body weight, vertical jump, and BMI measurements of all subjects, the measurement of lower extremity knee-joint movement (Flexion-Extension) was made with isokinetic dynamometer (isomed 2000) at 60 o/sec. and 240 o/sec. angular velocity. After arrangement and grouping of collected information forms and knee flexion and extension parameters, all data were analyzed with SPSS for Windows. Descriptive analyses of the parameters were made. Non-parametric t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the parameters of football players and basketball players and to find the inter-group differences. The comparisons and relations in the range p<0.05 and p<0.01 between the groups were surveyed. As a conclusion, no statistical differences were found between isokinetic knee flexion and extension parameters of football and basketball players. However, it was found that the football players were older than the basketball players. In addition to this, the average values of the basketball players in the highest torque and the highest torque average curve were found higher than football players in comparisons of left knee extension. However, it was found that fat levels of the basketball players were found to be higher than the football players.

Keywords: isokinetic contraction, isokinetic dynamometer, peak torque, flexion, extension, football, basketball

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
100 Characteristics of Football Spectators Using Second Screen

Authors: Florian Pfeffel, Christoph A. Kexel, Peter Kexel, Maria Ratz

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The parallel usage of different media channels has increased recently owing to technological advances. Second Screen describes the use of a second device by television viewers to consume further content which is related to the program they are watching. This study analysed the characteristics of football spectators regarding their media consumption in relation to Second Screen usage while watching a football match on TV. The existing literature on Second Screen usage is still very limited, especially in the context of particular broadcasting settings such as sport or even more specific such as football matches. Therefore, the primary research objective was to reveal first insights into the user behaviour of football spectators regarding Second Screen services. The survey, which was conducted among German football supporters in 2015, revealed some characteristics such as the identification and involvement into the sports which are related to an increased use of Second Screen services. One important finding for football supporters was that at the time of a match they have a lower parallel media usage compared to other TV broadcastings. Nevertheless, if supporters used a second device while watching a match on TV, then they were using specific Second Screen services. This means they searched for more content related information. The findings on the habits and characteristics of people who are using Second Screen services are relevant for future developments in that area as well as for marketing decisions.

Keywords: media consumption, second screen, sport marketing, user behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
99 Correlation between Sprint Performance and Vertical Jump Height in Elite Female Football Players

Authors: Svetlana Missina, Anatoliy Shipilov, Alexandr Vavaev

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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sprint and vertical jump performance in elite female football players. Twenty four professional female football players (age, 18.6±3.1 years; height, 168.3±6.3 cm, body mass 61.6±7.4 kg; mean±SD) were tested for 30-m sprint time, 10-m sprint time and vertical countermovement (CMJ) and squat (SJ) jumps height. Participants performed three countermovement jumps and three squat jumps for maximal height on a force platform. Mean values of three trials were used in statistical analysis. The displacement of center of mass (COM) during flight phase (e.g. jump height) was calculated using the vertical velocity of the COM at the moment of take-off. 30-m and 10-m sprint time were measured using OptoGait optical system. The best of three trials were used for analysis. A significant negative correlation was found between 30-m sprint time and CMJ, SJ height (r = -0.85, r = -0.79 respectively), between 10-m sprint time and CMJ, SJ height (r = -0.73, r = -0.8 respectively), and step frequency was significantly related to CMJ peak power (r = -0.57). Our study indicates that there is strong correlation between sprint and jump performance in elite female football players, thus vertical jump test can be considered as a good sprint and agility predictor in female football.

Keywords: agility, female football players, sprint performance, vertical jump height

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
98 Contribution of Football Club Jerseys towards English Premier League Fans’ Loyalty in Nigeria

Authors: B. O. Diyaolu

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The globalization of football especially among youth over the decade is uprising. Nigeria youth displaying football jerseys at every opportunity is an acceptance of football globalization. The Love for English Premier League (EPL) football jersey is very strong among Nigeria fans. Football club jerseys of the EPL are a common sports product among fans in Nigeria. This study investigates the contribution of football club jerseys towards EPL fans’ loyalty in Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The population consists of EPL fans in Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique (fish bowl without replacement) was used to select two states from the six geo-political zones. Purposive sampling technique was used to pick eight viewing centres while accidental sampling technique was used to pick five vendor stands from each State. An average of 250 respondents was selected from each state. A total of 3,200 respondents participated in the research. Two research instruments were used. A self-developed structured questionnaire on Football Jersey Scale (FJS): The instrument consists of 10 items. Fans Loyalty Scale (FLS): The instrument was modified from the psychological commitment to team (PCT) scale, and consists of 20 items. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficient of 0.72 and 0.75 was obtained, respectively. The hypothesis was tested at 0.05 significant levels. Data were analysed using frequency, percentages count, pie chart and multiple regressions. The result showed that the b-value of football club jersey is 0.148 also the standard regression coefficient (Beta) is 0.089. The t = 4.759 is statistically significant at p = 0.000. This signified a relative contribution of football club jersey on EPL fans loyalty in Nigeria. Club jersey, which is the most outstanding identifier of every club, was found to significantly predict loyalty. The jersey on the body of the fan has become the site for a declaration of loyalty which becomes available for social interaction and negotiation. The Nigerian local league clubs in an attempt to keep Nigerian fans loyal must borrow a leaf from their European counterparts.

Keywords: club Jerseys, English Premier League, football fans, Nigeria youth

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
97 Psychological Compatibility of Football Players According to Success Achievement and Failure Avoidance Motivation

Authors: Konstantin A. Bochaver, Alexandra O. Savinkina

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The study analyzed the relationship between the homogeneity-heterogeneity of players in a football team and their efficiency. Compatible players were examined in terms of level of socio-psychological development of the team for which they act. It was shown that in teams of high level of socio-psychological development more compatible were athletes with different levels of failure avoidance motivation. But in low-level teams – bucking the trend. The homogeneity of success achievement motivation was not a factor in the effectiveness of the football team.

Keywords: compatibility, failure avoidance motivation, football, heterogeneity, homogeneity, soccer, sport team, success achievement motivation

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
96 Sport Motivation and the Control Center of Football Players of Iran

Authors: Khaidan Hatami, Mehran Nasiri

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The aim of following research was the analysis between sport motivation and control center of football players of Iran. All the players employed in Iran’s football league are included in the population of the research. So, 360 players, every level 120 players ( Youth, U-21 and adults ) playing in Guilan, Kurdistan and Kermanshah province having professional football league in first and second level league were randomly and selectively taken and included the population. The current research is of descriptive and solidarity types. Instruments of measurement are three personal questionnaires, sport motivation (SMS) of Politer and partners (1995), control center of Berger (1986) which their valid content were confirmed by experts in sport management field. The internal stability of questions were analyzed by Alfa Cronbach respectively for sport obligation questionnaire (0.82) and control center (0.86) to analysis and evaluate data, Kolmogrouf-Smirnov, Spearman Correlation, Kruskal-Wallis test, Whitney U, Freedman and T-Wilcoxon were used in a meaningful level (P ≤ 0/05). The results showed positive and meaningful relation between control center of football players in youth, U-21 and adults and sport motivation of football players. So, it can be concluded, people with internal control against those with external one have more internal sport motivation and follow the team goals with more mental power. So, it’s recommended to coaches to use sport psychologist in their teams to internalize the people’s needs by scientific method by taking the mental issues and the type of control in people on life events.

Keywords: sport motivation, control center, internal, external football players

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
95 Influence of Security on Fan Attendance during Nigeria Professional Football League Matches

Authors: B. O. Diyaolu

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The stadium transcends a field of play to cultural heritage of a club especially when there is security of life and property and a conducive environment with exciting media facilities, CCTV and adequate field of play. Football fans love watching their clubs’ matches especially when nothing discourages their presence in the stadium. This study investigated the influence of security on fans’ attendance during Nigeria Professional Football League matches. Descriptive survey research design was used and the population consists of all Nigeria Professional Football League fans. Simple random sampling technique was used to pick a state from the six geo-political zones. 600 respondents comprising male and female fans were sampled from the ten selected vendors’ stands in each selected state. A structured questionnaire on Security and Fan attendance scale (SFAS) was used. The instrument consists of two sections. Section A seeks information on demographic data of the respondents, while section B was used to elicit information on security and fans’ attendance. The modified instrument which consists of 20 items has a reliability coefficient of 0.73. The hypothesis was tested at 0.05 significance level. The completed questionnaire was collated, coded and analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentage and inferential statistics of chi-square (X2). Findings of this study revealed that adequate security significantly influences fan attendance during Nigeria Professional Football League matches. There is no sport that can develop if the facilities in use are inadequate. Improving the condition of the stadium in Nigeria is paramount to the development of the Nigeria Professional Football League. All stakeholders in the organization of the League must put into consideration the need to improve the standard of the stadium as it will help to increase the attendance of fans during matches. Only the standard ones should be used during matches.

Keywords: adequate security, fans attendance, football fans, football stadium, Nigeria professional football league

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
94 The Business of American Football: The Kicker Position and Performance to Salary Correlation

Authors: James R. Ogden, Denise T. Ogden

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The National Football League (USA) is the largest sporting business in the United States. In order to generate revenue, it is important that NFL teams win. Coaches, owners and general managers of the NFL teams want to create powerful teams with reliable players and they are willing to spend large amounts of money in order to do so. This research looks at one of the National Football League’s key players, the kicker. It would be intuitively obvious to suggest that those kickers who perform the best get paid the most. In this paper the researchers performed a correlation and regression analysis to determine if there is a correlation between an NFL kicker’s field goal percentage and salary. The research proposition was that higher performing kickers receive higher salaries. The data suggest that there is no correlation between salary and on-field performance.

Keywords: business management, sports marketing, tourism, American football

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
93 Effect of Playing Football or Body Building on Measurements of Forward Head Posture

Authors: Mohamed Gomaa Mohamed

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Type of study: Observational cross section study. Background and purpose: Forward head posture (FHP) is a common sagittal faulty posture with anterior head translation relative to vertical posture line. FHP related to temporomandibular joint dysfunctions, neck pain and headache. Sports persons usually overuse one side of the body in training and playing leading to postural imbalance, yet the effect of playing football or bodybuilding on measurements of FHP has never been studied. Participants: Thirty six subjects divided into 3 groups of 12 football players, 12 body builders and 12 students. Method: FHP severity was assessed by measuring the craniovertebral (CVA) and gaze angles, using the photogrammetric method. Photos were taken from right side of subjects while assuming standing position. Analysis of variance was used to assess angles difference between the three groups. Results: No significant differences were found in CVA and gaze angles between the three groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Playing football or body building doesn't impose significant FHP.

Keywords: craniovertebral angle, gaze angle, football, body building

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
92 Sport and Religion, the Specificity of Polish Stadiums

Authors: Michal Mazurkiewicz

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It would seem at first glance that sport and religion are totally separate spheres. Yet, as a matter of fact, sport exists in religion (for example, In the teachings of John Paul II) and religion exists in sport (not only in religious rituals of players and fans). In this paper, the author examining the specific behaviours of Polish football fans and players analyses the question of religion in sport, mostly football. Like in the case of other countries, football holds a special place in Polish sporting history which constitutes an interesting subject of scientific research. It is a great identity builder and it influences culture which manifests itself in many ways (films, music, literature, etc.). Football is definitely a fascinating and colourful discipline pervaded with miscellaneous phenomena worth analysing. The aim of the paper is to show the "religious" uniqueness of Polish football fandom –namely, religious choreographies, participation in masses and pilgrimages to the Jasna Gora Shrine in Częstochowa. The peculiar combination of sport and religion visible at the stadiums and during the pilgrimages is analysed by the author. This mixture definitely adds colour to Polish sport and makes it intriguing to people from other countries. Religious rituals of the players are also examined here. The methods of the research included: Observations of numerous matches, looking through sports books, newspapers and magazines, interviews with the fans. The conclusions corroborate the thesis that sport may be and often is an important element of sporting contests. The main reasons and justifications are given in this analysis.

Keywords: football, religion, sport, colourful, newspapers

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91 The Comparison of Forward Head Posture Measurements between Dominant and Non-Dominant Sides in Male Football Players and Non-Athletes

Authors: Mohamed Gomaa Mohamed

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Background and purpose: Ideal posture involves a minimal amount of stress or strain on various body segments which are aligned and worked in harmony to protect the body from injury or progressive deformity. One of most common faulty posture encountered in clinical setting is forward head posture (FHP) that was considered one of the main predictors for neck pain. Furthermore, FHP may predispose to thoracic outlet syndrome, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, shoulder pain and headache. The large financial burden related to neck disorders management raises the need to improve the quality of assessment and rehabilitation of FHP. So, the purpose of the study is to compare between measurements of FHP as indicated with craniovertebral (CVA) and gaze angles assessed from dominant and non-dominant sides in football players who extensively use their dominant side and non-athletic subjects. Participants: Twenty-four subjects were divided into 12 football players and 12 non-athletic subjects. Methods: CVA and gaze angles were assessed through photogrammetric method. Photos were taken from dominant and non-dominant sides of the subjects while assuming standing position. Paired t-test was used to assess angles differences between dominant and non-dominant sides of the subjects. Since there were no statistical differences between CVA and gaze angles measured from dominant and non-dominant sides in each group, we pooled data together to become 24 measurements for each group (12 from dominant and 12 from non-dominant). Independent t-test was used to assess angles differences between football players and non-athletic subjects. Results: No significant differences were found between CVA and gaze angles measured from dominant and non-dominant sides of both groups (P>0.05). Also, there were no significant differences between CVA and gaze angles measured from football players and non-athletic subjects (P>0.05). Conclusion: FHP can be assessed from dominant or non-dominant sides interchangeably either in football players or non-athletic subjects. Furthermore, playing football has no impact on measurements of FHP when compared to non-athletic subjects.

Keywords: dominant side, forward head posture, football players, non-dominant side

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
90 Experimental Study on the Effectiveness of Extracurricular Football Training for Improving Primary Students Physical Fitness

Authors: Yizhi Zhang, Xiaozan Wang, Mingming Guo, Pengpeng Li

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Introduction: The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of after-school football training in improving the physical fitness of primary school students, so as to provide corresponding suggestions for carrying out after-school football training in primary schools. Methods: A total of 72 students from the experimental primary school of Mouping district, Yantai city, Shandong province, participated in this experiment. The experiment was conducted for two semesters. During the experiment period, the experimental group conducted one-hour football training after school from Monday to Thursday afternoon every week, and two hours of football training on Saturday morning every week. The control group conducted sports teaching and extracurricular activities as usual without other intervention. Before and after the experiment, both the experimental group and the control group underwent physical fitness tests according to the physical fitness test standards of Chinese students, including lung capacity, 50-meter run, one-minute skipping rope, sitting forward flexor, and one-minute sit-ups. The test results were all converted to the 100-point system according to the scoring standards. Results: (1) Before the experiment, there was no significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in various physical fitness indicators (p > 0.05). (2) After the experiment, the lung capacity score (T = 3.108, p < 0.05), the 50-meter run score (T = 6.593, p < 0.05), the skipping score (T = 9.227, p < 0.05), the sitting forward flexor score (T = 3.742, p < 0.05), and the sit-up score (T = 5.210, p < 0.05) of the experimental group were significantly higher than that of the control group. Conclusion: This study shows that the physical fitness of primary school students can be improved by football training in their spare time. It is suggested to carry out after-school football training activities in primary schools so as to effectively improve the physical fitness of pupils.

Keywords: after-school football training, physical fitness, primary school students, school sports

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89 Quo Vadis, European Football: An Analysis of the Impact of Over-The-Top Services in the Sports Rights Market

Authors: Farangiz Davranbekova

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Subject: The study explores the impact of Over-the-Top services in the sports rights market, focusing on football games. This impact is analysed in the big five European football markets. The research entails how the pay-TV market is combating the disruptors' entry, how the fans are adjusting to these changes and how leagues and football clubs are orienting in the transitional period of more choice. Aims and methods: The research aims to offer a general overview of the impact of OTT players in the football rights market. A theoretical framework of Jenkins’ five layers of convergence is implemented to analyse the transition the sports rights market is witnessing from various angles. The empirical analysis consists of secondary research data as and seven expert interviews from three different clusters. The findings are bound by the combination of the two methods offering general statements. Findings: The combined secondary data as well as expert interviews, conducted on five layers of convergence found: 1. Technological convergence presents that football content is accessible through various devices with innovative digital features, unlike the traditional TV set box. 2. Social convergence demonstrates that football fans multitask using various devices on social media when watching the games. These activities are complementary to traditional TV viewing. 3. Cultural convergence points that football fans have a new layer of fan engagement with leagues, clubs and other fans using social media. Additionally, production and consumption lines are blurred. 4. Economic convergence finds that content distribution is diversifying and/or eroding. Consumers now have more choices, albeit this can be harmful to them. Entry barriers are decreased, and bigger clubs feel more powerful. 5. Global convergence shows that football fans are engaging with not only local fans but with fans around the world that social media sites enable. Recommendation: A study on smaller markets such as Belgium or the Netherlands would benefit the study on the impact of OTT. Additionally, examination of other sports will shed light on this matter. Lastly, once the direct-to-consumer model is fully taken off in Europe, it will be of importance to examine the impact of such transformation in the market.

Keywords: sports rights, OTT, pay TV, football

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
88 Assessment and Evaluation of Football Performance

Authors: Bulus Kpame, Mukhtar Mohammed Alhaji, Garba Jibril

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In any team sport, the most important variables that should be used to measure performance are physical condition, and technical and tactical performance. In a complex game like football, it is extremely difficult to measure the relative importance of each of these variables. However, physical fitness itself has been shown to consist of several components, like endurance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination and speed. Each of these components has been shown to consist of several subcomponents. This paper attempts to describe a test battery to assess and evaluate physical performance in football players. This battery comprises a functional, structured training session of about 2.5hrs. it consists of quality rating of the warm-up procedure, tests of flexibility, football skills, power, speed, and endurance. Acceptable values for performance in each of the tests are also presented under each test. It is hoped that this battery of tests will be helpful to the coach in determining the effect of a specific training program. It would also be helpful to train physician and trainer, to monitor progress during rehabilitation after sustaining any injury.

Keywords: assessment, evaluation, performance, programs

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87 An Empirical Analysis on the Evolution Characteristics and Textual Content of Campus Football Policy in China

Authors: Shangjun Zou, Zhiyuan Wang, Songhui You

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Introduction In recent years, the Chinese government has issued several policies to promote the institutional reform and innovation of the development of campus football, but many problems have been exposed in the process of policy implementation. Therefore, this paper attempts to conduct an empirical analysis of the campus football policy texts to reveal the dynamic development of the microsystem in the process of policy evolution. Methods The selected policy contents are coded by constructing a two-dimensional analysis framework of campus football policy tool-policy objective. Specifically, the X dimension consists of three oriented policy tools: environment, supply and demand, while the Y dimension is divided into six aspects of policy objectives, including institution, competition, player teaching, coach training, resource guarantee and popularization. And the distribution differences of textual analysis units on X and Y dimensions are tested by using SPSS22.0 so as to evaluate the characteristics and development trend of campus football policy on respective subjects. Results 1) In the policy evolution process of campus football stepping into the 2.0 Era, there were no significant differences in the frequency distribution of policy tools(p=0.582) and policy objectives(p=0.603). The collaborative governance of multiple participants has become the primary trend, and the guiding role of Chinese Football Association has gradually become prominent. 2) There were significant differences in the distribution of policy tools before the evolution at a 95% confidence level(p=0.041). With environmental tools always maintaining the dominant position, the overall synergy of policy tools increased slightly. 3) There were significant differences in the distribution of policy objectives after the evolution at a 90% confidence level(p=0.069). The competition system of policy objective has not received enough attention while the construction of institution and resource guarantee system has been strengthened. Conclusion The upgraded version of campus football should adhere to the education concept of health first, promote the coordinated development of youth cultural learning and football skills, and strive to achieve more solid popularization, more scientific institution, more comprehensive resource guarantee and adequate integration. At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen the collaborative allocation of policy tools and reasonable planning of policy objectives so as to promote the high quality and sustainable development of campus football in the New Era. Endnote The policy texts selected in this paper are “Implementation Opinions on Accelerating the Development of Youth Campus Football” and “Action Plans for the Construction of Eight Systems of National Youth Campus Football”, which were promulgated on August 13, 2015 and September 25, 2020 respectively.

Keywords: campus football, content analysis, evolution characteristics, policy objective, policy tool

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86 Football Chants in Israel: Persistent Values and Changing Trends

Authors: Ilan Tamir

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Fans’ chants in sports stadium have, over the years, become an integral part of the spectator experience. While chants add color, atmosphere, and a demonstration of fans’ support for their team, chants also play a significant role in defining fans’ perceptions of their team’s identity and its differentiation from other teams. An analysis of football chants may therefore shed light on fans’ deep-seated worldviews of their own role, their team, the sport in general, and even life itself. This study, based on an analysis of Israeli football chants over years, identifies key changing and stable perceptions of football fans. Overall 94 chants collected, over a period of five decades. After a pilot study, the chants organized in two groups (one covering 1970-1999 and the other 2000-2016). The chants analyzed through qualitative content analysis in order to understand fans values as a reflection of the society. Findings point to several values that have remained stable over years, including fans’ attitudes toward their team and its rivals, and their attitude toward God. On the other hand, recently emerging phenomena such as radicalization of hatred toward the commercialization of sport reflect social and cultural changes, both in and outside the world of sport.

Keywords: sport, fans, chants, soccer

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85 Female Fans in Global Football Governance: A Call for Change

Authors: Yaron Covo, Tamar Kofman, Shira Palti

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Over the recent decades, debates about the engagement of fans in football governance have focused on the club level and national level, emphasizing the significance of fans’ involvement in increasing the connection of clubs with the community, and in safeguarding the transparency, accountability, and clubs’ financial stability. This paper will offer a different conceptual justification for providing fans with access to decision-making processes in football. First, it will suggest that the participation of fans is necessary for addressing discriminatory practices against women in football stadiums. Second, it will argue that fans’ involvement in football governance is important not only at the club and national level but also at the global level, relying on the principles of Global Administrative Law. In contemporary men’s football, female fans face different forms of discrimination. Iranian women are still prohibited from attending football games at the domestic level; In Saudi Arabia, female fans are only permitted to enter designated family areas; Qatar – the host of the 2022 FIFA world cup – requires women to attend matches wearing modest clothing. Similarly, in Turkey, Lebanon, UAE, and Algeria, women face cultural barriers when attending men’s football games. In other countries, female fans suffer from subtle discrimination, including micro-aggressions, misogyny, sexism, and noninstitutionalized exclusion. Despite the vital role of fans in world football and the importance of football for many women’s lives, little has been done to address this problem. While FIFA recognizes that these discriminatory practices contradict its statutes, this recognition fails to materialize into meaningful change. This paper will argue that FIFA’s omission stems from two interrelated characteristics of world football: (1) the ultra-masculine nature of the game; (2) the insufficient recognition of fans’ significance. While fans have been given a voice in various football bodies on the domestic level, FIFA has yet to allow the representation of fans as stakeholders in world football governance. Since fans are a more heterogeneous group than players, the voices of those fans who do not fit the ultra-masculine model are not heard. Thus, by focusing mainly on male players, FIFA reproduces the hegemonic masculinity that feeds back into fan dynamics and marginalizes female fans. To rectify this problem, we will call on FIFA to provide fans and female fans in particular, with voice mechanisms and access to decision-making processes. In addition to its impact on the formation of fans’ identities, such a move will allow fans to demand better enforcement of existing anti-discrimination norms and new regulations to address their needs. The literature has yet to address the relationship between fans’ gender discrimination and global football governance. Building on Global Administrative Law scholarship and feminist theories, this paper will aim to fill this gap.

Keywords: fans, FIFA, football governance, gender discrimination, global administrative law, human rights

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84 Evaluation of Football Forecasting Models: 2021 Brazilian Championship Case Study

Authors: Flavio Cordeiro Fontanella, Asla Medeiros e Sá, Moacyr Alvim Horta Barbosa da Silva

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In the present work, we analyse the performance of football results forecasting models. In order to do so, we have performed the data collection from eight different forecasting models during the 2021 Brazilian football season. First, we guide the analysis through visual representations of the data, designed to highlight the most prominent features and enhance the interpretation of differences and similarities between the models. We propose using a 2-simplex triangle to investigate visual patterns from the results forecasting models. Next, we compute the expected points for every team playing in the championship and compare them to the final league standings, revealing interesting contrasts between actual to expected performances. Then, we evaluate forecasts’ accuracy using the Ranked Probability Score (RPS); models comparison accounts for tiny scale differences that may become consistent in time. Finally, we observe that the Wisdom of Crowds principle can be appropriately applied in the context, driving into a discussion of results forecasts usage in practice. This paper’s primary goal is to encourage football forecasts’ performance discussion. We hope to accomplish it by presenting appropriate criteria and easy-to-understand visual representations that can point out the relevant factors of the subject.

Keywords: accuracy evaluation, Brazilian championship, football results forecasts, forecasting models, visual analysis

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83 Nigerian Football System: Examining Meso-Level Practices against a Global Model for Integrated Development of Mass and Elite Sport

Authors: I. Derek Kaka’an, P. Smolianov, D. Koh Choon Lian, S. Dion, C. Schoen, J. Norberg

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This study was designed to examine mass participation and elite football performance in Nigeria with reference to advance international football management practices. Over 200 sources of literature on sport delivery systems were analyzed to construct a globally applicable model of elite football integrated with mass participation, comprising of the following three levels: macro- (socio-economic, cultural, legislative, and organizational), meso- (infrastructures, personnel, and services enabling sport programs) and micro-level (operations, processes, and methodologies for development of individual athletes). The model has received scholarly validation and showed to be a framework for program analysis that is not culturally bound. The Smolianov and Zakus model has been employed for further understanding of sport systems such as US soccer, US Rugby, swimming, tennis, and volleyball as well as Russian and Dutch swimming. A questionnaire was developed using the above-mentioned model. Survey questions were validated by 12 experts including academicians, executives from sport governing bodies, football coaches, and administrators. To identify best practices and determine areas for improvement of football in Nigeria, 120 coaches completed the questionnaire. Useful exemplars and possible improvements were further identified through semi-structured discussions with 10 Nigerian football administrators and experts. Finally, content analysis of Nigeria Football Federation’s website and organizational documentation was conducted. This paper focuses on the meso-level of Nigerian football delivery, particularly infrastructures, personnel, and services enabling sport programs. This includes training centers, competition systems, and intellectual services. Results identified remarkable achievements coupled with great potential to further develop football in different types of public and private organizations in Nigeria. These include: assimilating football competitions with other cultural and educational activities, providing favorable conditions for employees of all possible organizations to partake and help in managing football programs and events, providing football coaching integrated with counseling for prevention of antisocial conduct, and improving cooperation between football programs and organizations for peace-making and advancement of international relations, tourism, and socio-economic development. Accurate reporting of the sports programs from the media should be encouraged through staff training for better awareness of various events. The systematic integration of these meso-level practices into the balanced development of mass and high-performance football will contribute to international sport success as well as national health, education, and social harmony.

Keywords: football, high performance, mass participation, Nigeria, sport development

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82 Pursuing Professional Status in Women’s Football: A Qualitative Analysis of Empowerment and Social Independence

Authors: G. Obrentri, C. Whajah, E. Yeboah Acheampong

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Professional status for African male players guarantees them socioeconomic benefits that may not necessarily be the case for female footballers. The study’s rationale is to understand how female footballers achieve professional status abroad. That contributes to analyzing how female players from Africa especially, Ghana, manage their professional status to improve their family’s social welfare and the community. Relying on football migration and feminization, we identify their migration process and its relevance to their social mobility in society. Analysis through interviews with some female footballers revealed the importance of playing professional abroad that goes to increase their social status and national identity. Findings show that some female footballers with secondary education achieved career empowerment and social independence via their profession. Thus becoming medical doctors and nurses, sports administrators, football coaches and welfare officers for clubs. These achievements of the female footballers can provide useful information and lessons for young female African players aspiring to play professionally abroad.

Keywords: empowerment, female footballers, football migration, professional status, social independence

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81 Anthropometry in Macedonian Senior Football and Basketball Players

Authors: L. Todorovska, E. Sivevska, B. Dejanova, J. Pluncevic, S. Petrovska, V. Antevska, S. Mancevska, I. Karadjozova

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Objective: The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe anthropometric and performance characteristics and to explore their differences between senior football (F) and basketball (B) players. Subjects and methods: 25 F (aged 23±2.5 y) and 25 B (aged 22±4.2 y) from Macedonian national teams and elite sport clubs were annually tested during 2 consecutive years. Full anthropometric profiles (stature, weight, five circumferences, four bone diameters, seven skin-folds and nine calculated parameters with standard formulas) were collected. Body composition was determined with InBody720 System. Physical capacity was tested with ergo metric test of Bruce (Custo med GmbH, Germany). Results: B were taller (p<0.001) and heavier (p<0.01), but leaner (p<0.001). F had higher percentage of muscle mass (p<0.01) and body fat (p< 0.001). F had higher VO2max (p<0.05) and lower hard rate (p<0.01). The differences in physical performance were not significant (p>0.05) within the groups during the 2-years period. Conclusions: These results suggest that there are distinct differences in anthropometric profile between Macedonian senior football and basketball players during the two competitive seasons.

Keywords: anthropometry, basketball players, football players, Macedonia

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