Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5786

Search results for: traffic density measurement

5786 Traffic Density Measurement by Automatic Detection of the Vehicles Using Gradient Vectors from Aerial Images

Authors: Saman Ghaffarian, Ilgin Gökaşar

Abstract:

This paper presents a new automatic vehicle detection method from very high resolution aerial images to measure traffic density. The proposed method starts by extracting road regions from image using road vector data. Then, the road image is divided into equal sections considering resolution of the images. Gradient vectors of the road image are computed from edge map of the corresponding image. Gradient vectors on the each boundary of the sections are divided where the gradient vectors significantly change their directions. Finally, number of vehicles in each section is carried out by calculating the standard deviation of the gradient vectors in each group and accepting the group as vehicle that has standard deviation above predefined threshold value. The proposed method was tested in four very high resolution aerial images acquired from Istanbul, Turkey which illustrate roads and vehicles with diverse characteristics. The results show the reliability of the proposed method in detecting vehicles by producing 86% overall F1 accuracy value.

Keywords: aerial images, intelligent transportation systems, traffic density measurement, vehicle detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
5785 Density Based Traffic System Using Pic Microcontroller

Authors: Tatipamula Samiksha Goud, .A.Naveena, M.sresta

Abstract:

Traffic congestion is a major issue in many cities throughout the world, particularly in urban areas, and it is past time to switch from a fixed timer mode to an automated system. The current traffic signalling system is a fixed-time system that is inefficient if one lane is more functional than the others. A structure for an intelligent traffic control system is being designed to address this issue. When traffic density is higher on one side of a junction, the signal's green time is extended in comparison to the regular time. This study suggests a technique in which the signal's time duration is assigned based on the amount of traffic present at the time. Infrared sensors can be used to do this.

Keywords: infrared sensors, micro-controllers, LEDs, oscillators

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
5784 Field Saturation Flow Measurement Using Dynamic Passenger Car Unit under Mixed Traffic Condition

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Majhi

Abstract:

Saturation flow is a very important input variable for the design of signalized intersections. Saturation flow measurement is well established for homogeneous traffic. However, saturation flow measurement and modeling is a challenging task in heterogeneous characterized by multiple vehicle types and non-lane based movement. Present study focuses on proposing a field procedure for Saturation flow measurement and the effect of typical mixed traffic behavior at the signal as far as non-lane based traffic movement is concerned. Data collected during peak and off-peak hour from five intersections with varying approach width is used for validating the saturation flow model. The insights from the study can be used for modeling saturation flow and delay at signalized intersection in heterogeneous traffic conditions.

Keywords: optimization, passenger car unit, saturation flow, signalized intersection

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
5783 Mathematical Study for Traffic Flow and Traffic Density in Kigali Roads

Authors: Kayijuka Idrissa

Abstract:

This work investigates a mathematical study for traffic flow and traffic density in Kigali city roads and the data collected from the national police of Rwanda in 2012. While working on this topic, some mathematical models were used in order to analyze and compare traffic variables. This work has been carried out on Kigali roads specifically at roundabouts from Kigali Business Center (KBC) to Prince House as our study sites. In this project, we used some mathematical tools to analyze the data collected and to understand the relationship between traffic variables. We applied the Poisson distribution method to analyze and to know the number of accidents occurred in this section of the road which is from KBC to Prince House. The results show that the accidents that occurred in 2012 were at very high rates due to the fact that this section has a very narrow single lane on each side which leads to high congestion of vehicles, and consequently, accidents occur very frequently. Using the data of speeds and densities collected from this section of road, we found that the increment of the density results in a decrement of the speed of the vehicle. At the point where the density is equal to the jam density the speed becomes zero. The approach is promising in capturing sudden changes on flow patterns and is open to be utilized in a series of intelligent management strategies and especially in noncurrent congestion effect detection and control.

Keywords: statistical methods, traffic flow, Poisson distribution, car moving technics

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
5782 A Monocular Measurement for 3D Objects Based on Distance Area Number and New Minimize Projection Error Optimization Algorithms

Authors: Feixiang Zhao, Shuangcheng Jia, Qian Li

Abstract:

High-precision measurement of the target’s position and size is one of the hotspots in the field of vision inspection. This paper proposes a three-dimensional object positioning and measurement method using a monocular camera and GPS, namely the Distance Area Number-New Minimize Projection Error (DAN-NMPE). Our algorithm contains two parts: DAN and NMPE; specifically, DAN is a picture sequence algorithm, NMPE is a relatively positive optimization algorithm, which greatly improves the measurement accuracy of the target’s position and size. Comprehensive experiments validate the effectiveness of our proposed method on a self-made traffic sign dataset. The results show that with the laser point cloud as the ground truth, the size and position errors of the traffic sign measured by this method are ± 5% and 0.48 ± 0.3m, respectively. In addition, we also compared it with the current mainstream method, which uses a monocular camera to locate and measure traffic signs. DAN-NMPE attains significant improvements compared to existing state-of-the-art methods, which improves the measurement accuracy of size and position by 50% and 15.8%, respectively.

Keywords: monocular camera, GPS, positioning, measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
5781 Robust and Real-Time Traffic Counting System

Authors: Hossam M. Moftah, Aboul Ella Hassanien

Abstract:

In the recent years the importance of automatic traffic control has increased due to the traffic jams problem especially in big cities for signal control and efficient traffic management. Traffic counting as a kind of traffic control is important to know the road traffic density in real time. This paper presents a fast and robust traffic counting system using different image processing techniques. The proposed system is composed of the following four fundamental building phases: image acquisition, pre-processing, object detection, and finally counting the connected objects. The object detection phase is comprised of the following five steps: subtracting the background, converting the image to binary, closing gaps and connecting nearby blobs, image smoothing to remove noises and very small objects, and detecting the connected objects. Experimental results show the great success of the proposed approach.

Keywords: traffic counting, traffic management, image processing, object detection, computer vision

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
5780 Indian Road Traffic Flow Analysis Using Blob Tracking from Video Sequences

Authors: Balaji Ganesh Rajagopal, Subramanian Appavu alias Balamurugan, Ayyalraj Midhun Kumar, Krishnan Nallaperumal

Abstract:

Intelligent Transportation System is an Emerging area to solve multiple transportation problems. Several forms of inputs are needed in order to solve ITS problems. Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) is a core and important ITS area of this modern era. This involves travel time forecasting, efficient road map analysis and cost based path selection, Detection of the vehicle in the dynamic conditions and Traffic congestion state forecasting. This Article designs and provides an algorithm for traffic data generation which can be used for the above said ATIS application. By inputting the real world traffic situation in the form of video sequences, the algorithm determines the Traffic density in terms of congestion, number of vehicles in a given path which can be fed for various ATIS applications. The Algorithm deduces the key frame from the video sequences and follows the Blob detection, Identification and Tracking using connected components algorithm to determine the correlation between the vehicles moving in the real road scene.

Keywords: traffic transportation, traffic density estimation, blob identification and tracking, relative velocity of vehicles, correlation between vehicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
5779 A POX Controller Module to Collect Web Traffic Statistics in SDN Environment

Authors: Wisam H. Muragaa, Kamaruzzaman Seman, Mohd Fadzli Marhusin

Abstract:

Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a new norm of networks. It is designed to facilitate the way of managing, measuring, debugging and controlling the network dynamically, and to make it suitable for the modern applications. Generally, measurement methods can be divided into two categories: Active and passive methods. Active measurement method is employed to inject test packets into the network in order to monitor their behaviour (ping tool as an example). Meanwhile the passive measurement method is used to monitor the traffic for the purpose of deriving measurement values. The measurement methods, both active and passive, are useful for the collection of traffic statistics, and monitoring of the network traffic. Although there has been a work focusing on measuring traffic statistics in SDN environment, it was only meant for measuring packets and bytes rates for non-web traffic. In this study, a feasible method will be designed to measure the number of packets and bytes in a certain time, and facilitate obtaining statistics for both web traffic and non-web traffic. Web traffic refers to HTTP requests that use application layer; while non-web traffic refers to ICMP and TCP requests. Thus, this work is going to be more comprehensive than previous works. With a developed module on POX OpenFlow controller, information will be collected from each active flow in the OpenFlow switch, and presented on Command Line Interface (CLI) and wireshark interface. Obviously, statistics that will be displayed on CLI and on wireshark interfaces include type of protocol, number of bytes and number of packets, among others. Besides, this module will show the number of flows added to the switch whenever traffic is generated from and to hosts in the same statistics list. In order to carry out this work effectively, our Python module will send a statistics request message to the switch requesting its current ports and flows statistics in every five seconds; while the switch will reply with the required information in a message called statistics reply message. Thus, POX controller will be notified and updated with any changes could happen in the entire network in a very short time. Therefore, our aim of this study is to prepare a list for the important statistics elements that are collected from the whole network, to be used for any further researches; particularly, those that are dealing with the detection of the network attacks that cause a sudden rise in the number of packets and bytes like Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS).

Keywords: mininet, OpenFlow, POX controller, SDN

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
5778 Is It Important to Measure the Volumetric Mass Density of Nanofluids?

Authors: Z. Haddad, C. Abid, O. Rahli, O. Margeat, W. Dachraoui, A. Mataoui

Abstract:

The present study aims to measure the volumetric mass density of NiPd-heptane nanofluids synthesized using a one-step method known as thermal decomposition of metal-surfactant complexes. The particle concentration is up to 7.55 g/l and the temperature range of the experiment is from 20°C to 50°C. The measured values were compared with the mixture theory and good agreement between the theoretical equation and measurement were obtained. Moreover, the available nanofluids volumetric mass density data in the literature is reviewed.

Keywords: NiPd nanoparticles, nanofluids, volumetric mass density, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
5777 Analysis on Urban Form and Evolution Mechanism of High-Density City: Case Study of Hong Kong

Authors: Yuan Zhang

Abstract:

Along with large population and great demands for urban development, Hong Kong serves as a typical high-density city with multiple altitudes, advanced three-dimensional traffic system, rich city open space, etc. This paper contributes to analyzing its complex urban form and evolution mechanism from three aspects of view, separately as time, space and buildings. Taking both horizontal and vertical dimension into consideration, this paper provides a perspective to explore the fascinating process of growing and space folding in the urban form of high-density city, also as a research reference for related high-density urban design.

Keywords: evolution mechanism, high-density city, Hong Kong, urban form

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
5776 A Proposed Algorithm for Obtaining the Map of Subscribers’ Density Distribution for a Mobile Wireless Communication Network

Authors: C. Temaneh-Nyah, F. A. Phiri, D. Karegeya

Abstract:

This paper presents an algorithm for obtaining the map of subscriber’s density distribution for a mobile wireless communication network based on the actual subscriber's traffic data obtained from the base station. This is useful in statistical characterization of the mobile wireless network.

Keywords: electromagnetic compatibility, statistical analysis, simulation of communication network, subscriber density

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
5775 Possibilities, Challenges and the State of the Art of Automatic Speech Recognition in Air Traffic Control

Authors: Van Nhan Nguyen, Harald Holone

Abstract:

Over the past few years, a lot of research has been conducted to bring Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) into various areas of Air Traffic Control (ATC), such as air traffic control simulation and training, monitoring live operators for with the aim of safety improvements, air traffic controller workload measurement and conducting analysis on large quantities controller-pilot speech. Due to the high accuracy requirements of the ATC context and its unique challenges, automatic speech recognition has not been widely adopted in this field. With the aim of providing a good starting point for researchers who are interested bringing automatic speech recognition into ATC, this paper gives an overview of possibilities and challenges of applying automatic speech recognition in air traffic control. To provide this overview, we present an updated literature review of speech recognition technologies in general, as well as specific approaches relevant to the ATC context. Based on this literature review, criteria for selecting speech recognition approaches for the ATC domain are presented, and remaining challenges and possible solutions are discussed.

Keywords: automatic speech recognition, asr, air traffic control, atc

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
5774 Density Measurement of Mixed Refrigerants R32+R1234yf and R125+R290 from 0°C to 100°C and at Pressures up to 10 MPa

Authors: Xiaoci Li, Yonghua Huang, Hui Lin

Abstract:

Optimization of the concentration of components in mixed refrigerants leads to potential improvement of either thermodynamic cycle performance or safety performance of heat pumps and refrigerators. R32+R1234yf and R125+R290 are two promising binary mixed refrigerants for the application of heat pumps working in the cold areas. The p-ρ-T data of these mixtures are one of the fundamental and necessary properties for design and evaluation of the performance of the heat pumps. Although the property data of mixtures can be predicted by the mixing models based on the pure substances incorporated in programs such as the NIST database Refprop, direct property measurement will still be helpful to reveal the true state behaviors and verify the models. Densities of the mixtures of R32+R1234yf an d R125+R290 are measured by an Anton Paar U shape oscillating tube digital densimeter DMA-4500 in the range of temperatures from 0°C to 100 °C and pressures up to 10 MPa. The accuracy of the measurement reaches 0.00005 g/cm³. The experimental data are compared with the predictions by Refprop in the corresponding range of pressure and temperature.

Keywords: mixed refrigerant, density measurement, densimeter, thermodynamic property

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
5773 A Hybrid Traffic Model for Smoothing Traffic Near Merges

Authors: Shiri Elisheva Decktor, Sharon Hornstein

Abstract:

Highway merges and unmarked junctions are key components in any urban road network, which can act as bottlenecks and create traffic disruption. Inefficient highway merges may trigger traffic instabilities such as stop-and-go waves, pose safety conditions and lead to longer journey times. These phenomena occur spontaneously if the average vehicle density exceeds a certain critical value. This study focuses on modeling the traffic using a microscopic traffic flow model. A hybrid traffic model, which combines human-driven and controlled vehicles is assumed. The controlled vehicles obey different driving policies when approaching the merge, or in the vicinity of other vehicles. We developed a co-simulation model in SUMO (Simulation of Urban Mobility), in which the human-driven cars are modeled using the IDM model, and the controlled cars are modeled using a dedicated controller. The scenario chosen for this study is a closed track with one merge and one exit, which could be later implemented using a scaled infrastructure on our lab setup. This will enable us to benchmark the results of this study obtained in simulation, to comparable results in similar conditions in the lab. The metrics chosen for the comparison of the performance of our algorithm on the overall traffic conditions include the average speed, wait time near the merge, and throughput after the merge, measured under different travel demand conditions (low, medium, and heavy traffic).

Keywords: highway merges, traffic modeling, SUMO, driving policy

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5772 Effect of Traffic Volume and Its Composition on Vehicular Speed under Mixed Traffic Conditions: A Kriging Based Approach

Authors: Subhadip Biswas, Shivendra Maurya, Satish Chandra, Indrajit Ghosh

Abstract:

Use of speed prediction models sometimes appears as a feasible alternative to laborious field measurement particularly, in case when field data cannot fulfill designer’s requirements. However, developing speed models is a challenging task specifically in the context of developing countries like India where vehicles with diverse static and dynamic characteristics use the same right of way without any segregation. Here the traffic composition plays a significant role in determining the vehicular speed. The present research was carried out to examine the effects of traffic volume and its composition on vehicular speed under mixed traffic conditions. Classified traffic volume and speed data were collected from different geometrically identical six lane divided arterials in New Delhi. Based on these field data, speed prediction models were developed for individual vehicle category adopting Kriging approximation technique, an alternative for commonly used regression. These models are validated with the data set kept aside earlier for validation purpose. The predicted speeds showed a great deal of agreement with the observed values and also the model outperforms all other existing speed models. Finally, the proposed models were utilized to evaluate the effect of traffic volume and its composition on speed.

Keywords: speed, Kriging, arterial, traffic volume

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
5771 Design of Traffic Counting Android Application with Database Management System and Its Comparative Analysis with Traditional Counting Methods

Authors: Muhammad Nouman, Fahad Tiwana, Muhammad Irfan, Mohsin Tiwana

Abstract:

Traffic congestion has been increasing significantly in major metropolitan areas as a result of increased motorization, urbanization, population growth and changes in the urban density. Traffic congestion compromises efficiency of transport infrastructure and causes multiple traffic concerns; including but not limited to increase of travel time, safety hazards, air pollution, and fuel consumption. Traffic management has become a serious challenge for federal and provincial governments, as well as exasperated commuters. Effective, flexible, efficient and user-friendly traffic information/database management systems characterize traffic conditions by making use of traffic counts for storage, processing, and visualization. While, the emerging data collection technologies continue to proliferate, its accuracy can be guaranteed through the comparison of observed data with the manual handheld counters. This paper presents the design of tablet based manual traffic counting application and framework for development of traffic database management system for Pakistan. The database management system comprises of three components including traffic counting android application; establishing online database and its visualization using Google maps. Oracle relational database was chosen to develop the data structure whereas structured query language (SQL) was adopted to program the system architecture. The GIS application links the data from the database and projects it onto a dynamic map for traffic conditions visualization. The traffic counting device and example of a database application in the real-world problem provided a creative outlet to visualize the uses and advantages of a database management system in real time. Also, traffic data counts by means of handheld tablet/ mobile application can be used for transportation planning and forecasting.

Keywords: manual count, emerging data sources, traffic information quality, traffic surveillance, traffic counting device, android; data visualization, traffic management

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
5770 Roadway Infrastructure and Bus Safety

Authors: Richard J. Hanowski, Rebecca L. Hammond

Abstract:

Very few studies have been conducted to investigate safety issues associated with motorcoach/bus operations. The current study investigates the impact that roadway infrastructure, including locality, roadway grade, traffic flow and traffic density, have on bus safety. A naturalistic driving study was conducted in the U.S.A that involved 43 motorcoaches. Two fleets participated in the study and over 600,000 miles of naturalistic driving data were collected. Sixty-five bus drivers participated in this study; 48 male and 17 female. The average age of the drivers was 49 years. A sophisticated data acquisition system (DAS) was installed on each of the 43 motorcoaches and a variety of kinematic and video data were continuously recorded. The data were analyzed by identifying safety critical events (SCEs), which included crashes, near-crashes, crash-relevant conflicts, and unintentional lane deviations. Additionally, baseline (normative driving) segments were also identified and analyzed for comparison to the SCEs. This presentation highlights the need for bus safety research and the methods used in this data collection effort. With respect to elements of roadway infrastructure, this study highlights the methods used to assess locality, roadway grade, traffic flow, and traffic density. Locality was determined by manual review of the recorded video for each event and baseline and was characterized in terms of open country, residential, business/industrial, church, playground, school, urban, airport, interstate, and other. Roadway grade was similarly determined through video review and characterized in terms of level, grade up, grade down, hillcrest, and dip. The video was also used to make a determination of the traffic flow and traffic density at the time of the event or baseline segment. For traffic flow, video was used to assess which of the following best characterized the event or baseline: not divided (2-way traffic), not divided (center 2-way left turn lane), divided (median or barrier), one-way traffic, or no lanes. In terms of traffic density, level-of-service categories were used: A1, A2, B, C, D, E, and F. Highlighted in this abstract are only a few of the many roadway elements that were coded in this study. Other elements included lighting levels, weather conditions, roadway surface conditions, relation to junction, and roadway alignment. Note that a key component of this study was to assess the impact that driver distraction and fatigue have on bus operations. In this regard, once the roadway elements had been coded, the primary research questions that were addressed were (i) “What environmental condition are associated with driver choice of engagement in tasks?”, and (ii) “what are the odds of being in a SCE while engaging in tasks while encountering these conditions?”. The study may be of interest to researchers and traffic engineers that are interested in the relationship between roadway infrastructure elements and safety events in motorcoach bus operations.

Keywords: bus safety, motorcoach, naturalistic driving, roadway infrastructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
5769 Perception of Risk toward Traffic Violence among Road Users in Makassar, Indonesia

Authors: Sulasmi Sudirman, Rachmadanty Mujah Hartika

Abstract:

Traffic violence is currently a big issue in Indonesia. However, the road users perceived risk that is caused by traffic violence is low. The lack of safety driving awareness is one of the factors that road users committed to traffic violence. There are several lists of common traffic violence in Indonesia such as lack of physical fitness, not wearing helmet, unfasten seatbelt, breaking through the traffic light, not holding a driving license, and some more violence. This research sought to explore the perception of road users toward traffic violence. The participants were road users in Makassar, Indonesia who were using cars and motorbikes. The method of the research was a qualitative approach by using a personal interview to collect data. The research showed that there three main ideas of perceiving traffic violence which are motives, environment that supported traffic violence, and reinforcement. The road users committed traffic violence had particular motive, for example, rushing. The road users committed to traffic violence when other road users and significant other did the same. The road users committed traffic violence when the police were not there to give a ticket. It can be concluded that the perception of road users toward traffic violence determined by internal aspect, the social aspect, and regulation.

Keywords: perception, road users, traffic, violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
5768 Implementation of Traffic Engineering Using MPLS Technology

Authors: Vishal H. Shukla, Sanjay B. Deshmukh

Abstract:

Traffic engineering, at its center, is the ability of moving traffic approximately so that traffic from a congested link is moved onto the unused capacity on another link. Traffic Engineering ensures the best possible use of the resources. Now to support traffic engineering in the today’s network, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is being used which is very helpful for reliable packets delivery in an ongoing internet services. Here a topology is been implemented on GNS3 to focus on the analysis of the communication take place from one site to other through the ISP. The comparison is made between the IP network & MPLS network based on Bandwidth & Jitter which are one of the performance parameters using JPERF simulator.

Keywords: GNS3, JPERF, MPLS, traffic engineering, VMware

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
5767 Pavement Management for a Metropolitan Area: A Case Study of Montreal

Authors: Luis Amador Jimenez, Md. Shohel Amin

Abstract:

Pavement performance models are based on projections of observed traffic loads, which makes uncertain to study funding strategies in the long run if history does not repeat. Neural networks can be used to estimate deterioration rates but the learning rate and momentum have not been properly investigated, in addition, economic evolvement could change traffic flows. This study addresses both issues through a case study for roads of Montreal that simulates traffic for a period of 50 years and deals with the measurement error of the pavement deterioration model. Travel demand models are applied to simulate annual average daily traffic (AADT) every 5 years. Accumulated equivalent single axle loads (ESALs) are calculated from the predicted AADT and locally observed truck distributions combined with truck factors. A back propagation Neural Network (BPN) method with a Generalized Delta Rule (GDR) learning algorithm is applied to estimate pavement deterioration models capable of overcoming measurement errors. Linear programming of lifecycle optimization is applied to identify M&R strategies that ensure good pavement condition while minimizing the budget. It was found that CAD 150 million is the minimum annual budget to good condition for arterial and local roads in Montreal. Montreal drivers prefer the use of public transportation for work and education purposes. Vehicle traffic is expected to double within 50 years, ESALS are expected to double the number of ESALs every 15 years. Roads in the island of Montreal need to undergo a stabilization period for about 25 years, a steady state seems to be reached after.

Keywords: pavement management system, traffic simulation, backpropagation neural network, performance modeling, measurement errors, linear programming, lifecycle optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
5766 Proposed Alternative System for Existing Traffic Signal System

Authors: Alluri Swaroopa, L. V. N. Prasad

Abstract:

Alone with fast urbanization in world, traffic control problem became a big issue in urban construction. Having an efficient and reliable traffic control system is crucial to macro-traffic control. Traffic signal is used to manage conflicting requirement by allocating different sets of mutually compatible traffic movement during distinct time interval. Many approaches have been made proposed to solve this discrete stochastic problem. Recognizing the need to minimize right-of-way impacts while efficiently handling the anticipated high traffic volumes, the proposed alternative system gives effective design. This model allows for increased traffic capacity and reduces delays by eliminating a step in maneuvering through the freeway interchange. The concept proposed in this paper involves construction of bridges and ramps at intersection of four roads to control the vehicular congestion and to prevent traffic breakdown.

Keywords: bridges, junctions, ramps, urban traffic control

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
5765 Comparison of Noise Emissions in the Interior of Passenger Cars

Authors: Martin Kendra, Tomas Skrucany, Jaroslav Masek

Abstract:

The noise is one of the negative elements influencing the human health. This article is due to the measurement of noise emitted by road vehicle and its parts during the operation. Measurement was done in the interior of common passenger cars with a digital sound meter. The results compare the noise value in different cars with different body shape, which influences the driver’s health. Transport has considerable ecological effects, many of them detrimental to environmental sustainability. Roads and traffic exert a variety of direct and mostly detrimental effects on nature.

Keywords: driver, noise measurement, passenger road vehicle, road transport

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
5764 About Some Results of the Determination of Alcohol in Moroccan Gasoline-Alcohol Mixtures

Authors: Mahacine Amrani

Abstract:

A simple and rapid method for the determination of alcohol in gasoline-alcohol mixtures using density measurements is described. The method can determine a minimum of 1% of alcohol by volume. The precision of the method is ± 3%.The method is more useful for field test in the quality assessment of alcohol blended fuels.

Keywords: gasoline-alcohol, mixture, alcohol determination, density, measurement, Morocco

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
5763 Identifying and Quantifying Factors Affecting Traffic Crash Severity under Heterogeneous Traffic Flow

Authors: Praveen Vayalamkuzhi, Veeraragavan Amirthalingam

Abstract:

Studies on safety on highways are becoming the need of the hour as over 400 lives are lost every day in India due to road crashes. In order to evaluate the factors that lead to different levels of crash severity, it is necessary to investigate the level of safety of highways and their relation to crashes. In the present study, an attempt is made to identify the factors that contribute to road crashes and to quantify their effect on the severity of road crashes. The study was carried out on a four-lane divided rural highway in India. The variables considered in the analysis includes components of horizontal alignment of highway, viz., straight or curve section; time of day, driveway density, presence of median; median opening; gradient; operating speed; and annual average daily traffic. These variables were considered after a preliminary analysis. The major complexities in the study are the heterogeneous traffic and the speed variation between different classes of vehicles along the highway. To quantify the impact of each of these factors, statistical analyses were carried out using Logit model and also negative binomial regression. The output from the statistical models proved that the variables viz., horizontal components of the highway alignment; driveway density; time of day; operating speed as well as annual average daily traffic show significant relation with the severity of crashes viz., fatal as well as injury crashes. Further, the annual average daily traffic has significant effect on the severity compared to other variables. The contribution of highway horizontal components on crash severity is also significant. Logit models can predict crashes better than the negative binomial regression models. The results of the study will help the transport planners to look into these aspects at the planning stage itself in the case of highways operated under heterogeneous traffic flow condition.

Keywords: geometric design, heterogeneous traffic, road crash, statistical analysis, level of safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
5762 Influence of Driving Speed on Bearing Capacity Measurement of Intra-Urban Roads with the Traffic Speed Deflectometer(Tsd)

Authors: Pahirangan Sivapatham, Barbara Esser, Andreas Grimmel

Abstract:

In times of limited public funds and, in particular, an increased social, environmental awareness, as well as the limited availability of construction materials, sustainable and resource-saving pavement management system, is becoming more and more important. Therefore, the knowledge about the condition of the structural substances, particularly bearing capacity and its consideration while planning the maintenance measures of the subordinate network, i.e., state and municipal roads unavoidable. According to the experience, the recommended ride speed of the Traffic Speed Deflectometer (TSD) shall be higher than 40 km/h. Holding of this speed on the intra-urban roads is nearly not possible because of intersections and traffic lights as well as the speed limit. A sufficient background of experience for the evaluation of bearing capacity measurements with TSD in the range of lower speeds is not available yet. The aim of this study is to determine the possible lowest ride speed of the TSD while the bearing capacity measurement on the intra-urban roads. The manufacturer of the TSD used in this study states that the measurements can be conducted at a ride speed of higher than 5 km/h. It is well known that with decreasing ride speed, the viscous fractions in the response of the asphalt pavement increase. This must be taken into account when evaluating the bearing capacity data. In the scope of this study, several measurements were carried out at different speeds between 10 km/h and 60 km/h on the selected intra-urban roads with Pavement-Scanner of the University of Wuppertal, which is equipped with TSD. Pavement-Scanner is able to continuously determine the deflections of asphalt roads in flowing traffic at speeds of up to 80 km/h. The raw data is then aggregated to 10 m mean values so that, as a rule, a bearing capacity characteristic value can be determined for each 10 m road section. By means of analysing of obtained test results, the quality and validity of the determined data rate subject to the riding speed of TSD have been determined. Moreover, the data and pictures of the additional measuring systems of Pavement-Scanners such as High-Speed Road Monitor, Ground Penetration Radar and front cameras can be used to determine and eliminate irregularities in the pavement, which could influence the bearing capacity.

Keywords: bearing capacity measurement, traffic speed deflectometer, inter-urban roads, Pavement-Scanner, structural substance

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
5761 The Effect of User Comments on Traffic Application Usage

Authors: I. Gokasar, G. Bakioglu

Abstract:

With the unprecedented rates of technological improvements, people start to solve their problems with the help of technological tools. According to application stores and websites in which people evaluate and comment on the traffic apps, there are more than 100 traffic applications which have different features with respect to their purpose of usage ranging from the features of traffic apps for public transit modes to the features of traffic apps for private cars. This study focuses on the top 30 traffic applications which were chosen with respect to their download counts. All data about the traffic applications were obtained from related websites. The purpose of this study is to analyze traffic applications in terms of their categorical attributes with the help of developing a regression model. The analysis results suggest that negative interpretations (e.g., being deficient) does not lead to lower star ratings of the applications. However, those negative interpretations result in a smaller increase in star rate. In addition, women use higher star rates than men for the evaluation of traffic applications.

Keywords: traffic app, real–time information, traffic congestion, regression analysis, dummy variables

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
5760 Modeling of Wind Loads on Heliostats Installed in South Algeria of Various Pylon Height

Authors: Hakim Merarda, Mounir Aksas, Toufik Arrif, Abd Elfateh Belaid, Amor Gama, Reski Khelifi

Abstract:

Knowledge of wind loads is important to develop a heliostat with good performance. These loads can be calculated by mathematical equations based on several parameters: the density, wind velocity, the aspect ratio of the mirror (height/width) and the coefficient of the height of the tower. Measurement data of the wind velocity and the density of the air are used in a numerical simulation of wind profile that was performed on heliostats with different pylon heights, with 1m^2 mirror areas and with aspect ratio of mirror equal to 1. These measurement data are taken from the meteorological station installed in Ghardaia, Algeria. The main aim of this work is to find a mathematical correlation between the wind loads and the height of the tower.

Keywords: heliostat, solar tower power, wind loads simulation, South Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 465
5759 Estimation of Uncertainty of Thermal Conductivity Measurement with Single Laboratory Validation Approach

Authors: Saowaluck Ukrisdawithid

Abstract:

The thermal conductivity of thermal insulation materials are measured by Heat Flow Meter (HFM) apparatus. The components of uncertainty are complex and difficult on routine measurement by modelling approach. In this study, uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement was estimated by single laboratory validation approach. The within-laboratory reproducibility was 1.1%. The standard uncertainty of method and laboratory bias by using SRM1453 expanded polystyrene board was dominant at 1.4%. However, it was assessed that there was no significant bias. For sample measurement, the sources of uncertainty were repeatability, density of sample and thermal conductivity resolution of HFM. From this approach to sample measurements, the combined uncertainty was calculated. In summary, the thermal conductivity of sample, polystyrene foam, was reported as 0.03367 W/m·K ± 3.5% (k = 2) at mean temperature 23.5 °C. The single laboratory validation approach is simple key of routine testing laboratory for estimation uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement by using HFM, according to ISO/IEC 17025-2017 requirements. These are meaningful for laboratory competent improvement, quality control on products, and conformity assessment.

Keywords: single laboratory validation approach, within-laboratory reproducibility, method and laboratory bias, certified reference material

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5758 The Kidney-Spine Traffic System: Future Cities, Ensuring World Class Civic Amenities in Urban India

Authors: Abhishek Srivastava, Jeevesh Nandan, Manish Kumar

Abstract:

The study was taken to analyse the alternative source of traffic system for effective and more convenient traffic flow by reducing points of conflicts as well as angle of conflict and keeping in view to minimize the problem of unnecessarily long waiting time, delays, congestion, traffic jam and geometric delays due to intersection between circular and straight lanes. It is a twin kidney-spine type structure system with special allowance for Highway users for quicker passes. Thus reduction in number and intensity of accidents, significance reduction in traffic jam, conservation of valuable time.

Keywords: traffic system, collision reduction of vehicles, smooth flow of vehicles, traffic jam

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
5757 Closed Loop Traffic Control System Using PLC

Authors: Chinmay Shah

Abstract:

The project is all about development of a close loop traffic light control system using PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). This project is divided into two parts which are hardware and software. The hardware part for this project is a model of four way junction of a traffic light. Three indicator lamps (Red, Yellow and Green) are installed at each lane for represents as traffic light signal. This traffic control model is a replica of actuated traffic control. Actuated traffic control system is a close loop traffic control system which controls the timing of the indicator lamps depending on the fluidity of traffic for a particular lane. To make it autonomous, in each lane three IR sensors are placed which helps to sense the percentage of traffic present on any particular lane. The IR Sensors and Indicator lamps are connected to LG PLC XGB series. The PLC controls every signal which is coming from the inputs (IR Sensors) to software and display to the outputs (Indicator lamps). Default timing for the indicator lamps is 30 seconds for each lane. But depending on the percentage of traffic present, if the traffic is nearly 30-35%, green lamp will be on for 10 seconds, for 65-70% traffic it will be 20 seconds, for full 100% traffic it will be on for full 30 seconds. The software part that operates with LG PLC is “XG 5000” Programmer. Using this software, the ladder logic diagram is programmed to control the traffic light base on the flow chart. At the end of this project, the traffic light system is actuated successfully by PLC.

Keywords: close loop, IR sensor, PLC, light control system

Procedia PDF Downloads 447