Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 3056

Search results for: wild Australian native plants

3056 In vitro Evaluation of the Anti-Methanogenic Properties of Australian Native and Some Exotic Plants with a View of Their Potential Role in Management of Ruminant Livestock Emissions

Authors: Philip Vercoe, Ali Hardan

Abstract:

Samples of 29 Australian wild natives and exotic plants were tested in vitro batch rumen culture system for their methanogenic characteristics and potential usage as feed or antimicrobial to enhance sustainable livestock ruminant production system. The plants were tested for their in vitro rumen fermentation end products properties which include: methane production, total gas pressure, concentrations of total volatile fatty acids, ammonia, and acetate to propionate ratio. All of the plants were produced less methane than the positive control (i.e., oaten chaff) in vitro. Nearly 50 % of plants inhibiting methane by over 50% in comparison to the control. Eremophila granitica had the strongest inhibitory effect about 92 % on methane production comparing with oaten chaff. The exotic weed Arctotheca calendula (Capeweed) had the highest concentration of volatile fatty acids production as well as the highest in total gas pressure among all plants and the control. Some of the acacia species have the lowest production of total gas pressure. The majority of the plants produced more ammonia than the oaten chaff control. The plant species that produced the most ammonia was Codonocarpus cotinifolius, producing over 3 times as much methane as oaten chaff control while the lowest was Eremophila galeata. There was strong positive correlation between methane production and total gas production as well as between total gas production and the concentration of VFA produced with R² = 0.74, R² = 0.84, respectively. While there was weak positive correlation between methane production and the acetate to propionate ratio as well as between the concentration of VFA produced and methane production with R² = 0.41, R² = 0.52, respectively.

Keywords: in vitro Rumen Fermentation, methane, wild Australian native plants, forages

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3055 Ex Situ Conservation Practices for Rare Plants in Living Collections

Authors: Erika Pénzesné Kónya

Abstract:

The conservation programme of various vascular plant species has been started in the Botanical garden o fEszterházy College in Eger cooperating with two national parks in the Northern mountain region and Botanical garden of Eötvös Lóránd University in Budapest. The seeds of the species were collected in the chosen habitats with the permission determined by the National Parks and the conservation specialists. Now we have different numbers of individuals from mainly endemic and relict species. We took some experiments to know how can we germinate and grow up this species succesfully up to blooming and fruiting. In the temperate zone the majority of species after ripening the seeds or corps get dormancy to avoid the inadequate period to germinate. The seeds of species need variously pre-treatment (for example pre-chill) and suitable environment (for example basic medium) to unlock the seed dormancy and germinate in large scale. This impacts are often similar to in their originally habitat. To bloom the plants need suitable types of soil, but we couldn’t grow them in the most fruitful soil of habitat. Suitable microclimate is usually more important for some relict species than the soil, that’s why should we make experiments to find the suitable essential conditions for different species and know all of fenological states of them. These experiments can start a method for growing common wild native plants as food materials.

Keywords: ex situ conservation, germination success, soil preference Hungary, regionality, native wild plants

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3054 Appraisal of the Nutritional Potential and Safety of Wild Vegetables of South Africa

Authors: Thozama Kwinana-Mandindi

Abstract:

The contribution made by wild edible plants to the livelihoods, food baskets and diets of the indigenous people, particularly among the rural dwellers is invaluable. These wild vegetables are among the non-conventional crops which are widely distributed throughout the wild regions in South Africa, indigenous communities have always exploited for micro-nutrient supply. They also supply significant complex, recently discovered compounds, naturally occurring phytonutrients. In order to protect and promote sustainable use of these plants for household food security, there is a need to better understand them through studies and innovations. Assessment of the wild edible plants’ safety is very key to the promotion as an agricultural product which can be utilised during dry seasons and periods of food scarcity to alleviate nutrient insecurity. Through the use of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), the study is seen as the vital step in taking a holistic view of the value of the four most consumed wild vegetables in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa as they were analysed for safety and appraised for components that can influence utilisation. Results indicate that they can be relied upon and cultivation be promoted.

Keywords: nature’s resource, wild vegetables, appraisal for safety, SEM

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3053 Evaluation of Nutritional Potential of Five Unexplored Wild Edible Food Plants from Eastern Himalayan Biodiversity Hotspot Region (India)

Authors: Pallabi Kalita, Hui Tag, Loxmi Jamoh, H. N. Sarma, A. K. Das

Abstract:

Wild edible food plants contain a number of organic phytochemical that have been linked to the promotion of good health. These plants used by the local people of Arunachal Pradesh (Northeast India) are found to have high nutritional potential to maintain general balance diet. A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional potential of five commonly found, unexplored wild food plants namely, Piper pedicellatum C. DC (leaves), Gonostegia hirta (Blume ex Hassk.) Miq. (leaves), Mussaenda roxburghii Hook. f. (leaves), Solanum spirale Roxb. (leaves and fruits) and Cyathea spinulosa Wall. ex Hook. (pith portion and tender rachis) from East Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh Northeast (India) for ascertaining their suitability for utilization as supplementary food. Results of study revealed that P. pedicellatum, C. spinulosa, and S. spirale (leaves) are the most promising species which have high nutritional content out of the five wild food plants investigated which is required for the normal growth and development of human.

Keywords: wild edible plants, gross energy, Gonostegia hirta, Cyathea spinulosa

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3052 Cutting Propagation Studies in Pennisetum divisum and Tamarix aucheriana as Native Plant Species of Kuwait

Authors: L. Almulla

Abstract:

Native plants are better adapted to the local environment providing a more natural effect on landscape projects; their use will both conserve natural resources and produce sustainable greenery. Continuation of evaluation of additional native plants is essential to increase diversity of plant resources for greenery projects. Therefore, in this project an effort was made to study the mass multiplication of further native plants for greenery applications. Standardization of vegetative propagation methods is essential for conservation and sustainable utilization of native plants in restoration projects. Moreover, these simple propagation methods can be readily adapted by the local nursery sector in Kuwait. In the present study, various treatments were used to mass multiply selected plants using vegetative parts to secure maximum rooting and initial growth. Soft or semi-hardwood cuttings of selected native plants were collected from mother plants and subjected to different treatments. Pennisetum divisum can be vegetatively propagated by cuttings/off-shoots. However, Tamarix aucheriana showed maximum number of rooted cuttings and stronger vigor seedlings with the lowest growth hormone concentration. Standardizing the propagation techniques for the native plant species will add to the rehabilitation and landscape revegetation projects in Kuwait.

Keywords: Kuwait desert, landscape, rooting percentage, vegetative propagation

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3051 Standardization of Propagation Techniques in Selected Native Plants of Kuwait

Authors: Laila Almulla, Narayana Bhat, Majda Suleiman, Sheena Jacob

Abstract:

Biodiversity conservation has become one of the challenging priorities to combat species extinction for many countries, including the state of Kuwait. Since native plants are better adapted to the local environment, can endure long spells of drought, withstand high soil salinity levels and provide a more natural effect to landscape projects, their use will both conserve natural resources and produce sustainable greenery. When native plants are properly blended with naturalized exotic ornamental plants in a landscape, they can improve social and cultural benefits. Screening of exotic and native plants in Kuwait during the past two decades has led to the selection of some very promising plants. Continuation of evaluation of additional native and exotic plants is essential to increase diversity of plant resources for greenery projects. Therefore, an effort was made to evaluate further native plants for their suitability for greenery applications. In the present study, various treatments were used to mass multiply selected plants using seeds to secure maximum germination. Seeds were subjected to nine treatments, and each treatment was replicated five times with ten seeds per treatment unit. After the treatment, the seeds of Zygophyllum qatarense were incubated at 30 °C, three lights for 12 h, at 40% humidity; where as the seeds of Haloxylon salicornicum were incubated at 22 °C with continuous light, at 40% humidity. Soaking in 250-ppm GA3 resulted in highest germination percentage of 20% in Zygophyllum qatarense and, Soaking in 500-ppm GA3 resulted in 6% germination in Haloxylon salicornicum. Germination of the viable seeds is influenced by various external and internal factors, seed must not be in a state of dormancy and the environmental requirements for germination of that seed must be met, before germination can occur.

Keywords: landscape, native plants, revegetation, seed germination

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3050 Clostridium Difficile in Western Australian Native Animals: Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiology

Authors: Karla Cautivo, Thomas Riley, Daniel Knight

Abstract:

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalised humans. C. difficile colonises the gastrointestinal tract, causes disease in a variety of animal species and can persist as a spore in diverse environments. Genetic overlap between C. difficile strains from human, animal and environmental sources suggests CDI has a zoonotic or foodborne aetiology. In Australia, C. difficile PCR ribotype RT014 (MLST clade 1) and several ST11 (MLST clade 5) RTs are found commonly in livestock. The high prevalence and diversity of ST11 strains in Australian production animals indicates Australia might be the ancestral home for this lineage. This project describes for the first time the ecology of C. difficile in Australian native animals, providing insights into the prevalence, molecular epidemiology and evolution of C. difficile in this unique environment and a possible role in CDI in humans and animals in Australia. Faecal samples were collected from wild/captive reptiles (n=37), mammals (n=104) and birds (n=102) in Western Australia in 2020/21. Anaerobic enrichment culture was performed, and C. difficile isolates were characterised by PCR ribotyping and toxin gene profiling. Seventy isolates of C. difficile were recovered (prevalence of C. difficile in faecal samples 28%, n=68/243); 27 unique RTs were identified, 5 were novel. The prevalence of C. difficile was similar for reptiles and mammals, 46% (n=17/37) and 43%(n=45/104), respectively, but significantly lower in birds (7.8%, n=8/102; p<0.00001 for both reptiles and mammals). Of the 57 isolates available for typing, RT237 (clade 5) and RT002 (clade 2) were the most prevalent, 15.8% (n=9/57) and 14% (n=8/57), respectively. The high prevalence of C. difficile in reptiles and mammals, particularly clade 5 strains, supported by previous studies of C. difficile in Australian soils, suggest that Australia might be the ancestral home of MLST clade 5.

Keywords: Clostridium difficile, zoonosis, molecular epidemiology, ecology and evolution

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3049 Nutritional Potential and Traditional Uses of High Altitude Wild Edible Plants in Eastern Himalayas, India

Authors: Hui Tag, Jambey Tsering, Pallabi Kalita Hui, Baikuntha Jyoti Gogoi, Vijay Veer

Abstract:

The food security issues and its relevance in High Mountain regions of the world have been often neglected. Wild edible plants have been playing a major role in livelihood security among the tribal Communities of East Himalayan Region of the world since time immemorial. The Eastern Himalayan Region of India is one of the mega diverse regions of world and rated as top 12th Global Biodiversity Hotspots by IUCN and recognized as one of the 200 significant eco-regions of the Globe. The region supports one of the world’s richest alpine floras and about one-third of them are endemic to the region. There are at least 7,500 flowering plants, 700 orchids, 58 bamboo species, 64 citrus species, 28 conifers, 500 mosses, 700 ferns and 728 lichens. The region is the home of more than three hundred different ethnic communities having diverse knowledge on traditional uses of flora and fauna as food, medicine and beverages. Monpa, Memba and Khamba are among the local communities residing in high altitude region of Eastern Himalaya with rich traditional knowledge related to utilization of wild edible plants. The Monpas, Memba and Khamba are the followers Mahayana sect of Himalayan Buddhism and they are mostly agrarian by primary occupation and also heavily relaying on wild edible plants for their livelihood security during famine since millennia. In the present study, we have reported traditional uses of 40 wild edible plant species and out of which 6 species were analysed at biochemical level for nutrients contents and free radical scavenging activities. The results have shown significant free radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity and nutritional potential of the selected 6 wild edible plants used by the local communities of Eastern Himalayan Region of India.

Keywords: East Himalaya, local community, wild edible plants, nutrition, food security

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3048 Assessment of Cell-Rebuilding Efficacy of Selected Food Plants in the Lungs of Wild Rats Living in a Polluted Environment

Authors: Yahaya Tajudeen, Joy Okpuzor, Tolu Ajayi

Abstract:

The cell-rebuilding efficacy of four food plants eating as vegetables and spices in Nigeria was assessed in the lungs of wild rats (Rattus rattus) living in a polluted environment. The plants are roselle (Hibiscus sabdarrifa), moringa (Moringa oleifera), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and ugwu (Telfairia occidentalis). Sixty rats were caught from the vicinity of a cement factory in Sagamu, Southwestern-Nigeria and grouped into 6. The control group was administered distilled water, while the test groups were given ethanolic extracts of roselle, moringa, ginger, ugwu and the mixture of the extracts for 180 days. The histopathology of the rats was conducted before and at the end of 180 days extracts administration. Before administering the extracts, the lungs of the rats showed vascular congestion, severe fibrosis and congested alveolus; all which were also observed in the lungs of control rats at the end of the treatment. However, the lungs of rats that were treated with the extracts of the plants showed moderate, mild or no histological damage compared to the control rats. The extract of the mixture of the plants performed best, followed by ginger, ugwu and roselle, respectively. These findings suggest that the food plants contain phytonutrients and phytochemicals, which repaired damaged cells and tissues in the exposed rats. Consequently, the plants could play a role in ameliorating health effects of environmental pollution.

Keywords: food plants, wild rats, lung, histopathology, fibrosis, cell-rebuilding

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3047 Documentation of Traditional Knowledge on Wild Medicinal Plants of Egypt

Authors: Nahla S. Abdel-Azim, Khaled A. Shams, Elsayed A. Omer, Mahmoud M. Sakr

Abstract:

Medicinal plants play a significant role in the health care system in Egypt. Knowledge developed over the years by people is mostly unrecorded and orally passes on from one generation to the next. This knowledge is facing the danger of becoming extinct. Therefore there is an urgent need to document the medicinal and aromatic plants associated with traditional knowledge. The Egyptian Encyclopedia of wild medicinal plants (EEWMP) is the first attempt to collect most of the basic elements of the medicinal plant resources of Egypt and their traditional uses. It includes scientific data on about 500 medicinal plants in the form of monographs. Each monograph contains all available information and scientific data on the selected species including the following: names, description, distribution, parts used, habitat, conservational status, active or major chemical constituents, folk medicinal uses and heritage resources, pharmacological and biological activities, authentication, pharmaceutical products, and cultivation. The DNA bar-coding is also included (when available). A brief Arabic summary is given for every monograph. This work revealed the diversity in plant parts used in the treatment of different ailments. In addition, the traditional knowledge gathered can be considered a good starting point for effective in situ and ex-situ conservation of endangered plant species.

Keywords: encyclopedia, medicinal plant, traditional medicine, wild flora

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3046 Efficacy of Three Different Herbicides to the Control of Wild Barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch) in Relation to Plant Growth Stage and Nitrogen Fertilizer Additive

Authors: Sh. Edrisi, M. Moeeni, A. Farahbakhsh

Abstract:

To study the effect of nitrogenous additive spray solution on the efficacy of three herbicides i.e. pinoxaden (Trade name: Axial), sulfosulfuron+metsulfuron-methyl (Trade name: Total) and sulfosulfuron (Trade name: Apirus) in controlling wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch), in different growth stages, a greenhouse experiment as a split plot in a completely randomized design in three replications was conducted. One month after treatments, all plants were harvested and growth parameters were determined. The data were analyzed with computer. The results showed that the herbicide applications with and without nitrogen additive caused significant reductions in growth parameters of wild barley at 2-4 leaf stage. However, the plants were not killed by this herbicide. Plants were killed completely due to applications of the two other herbicides i.e. Apirus and Total at 2-4 leaf. There was no significant difference between the effect of these two herbicides. There was no significant difference between the highest rate of each herbicide used alone and that of the lowest rate with nitrogenous additive.

Keywords: growth stage, herbicide, nitrogen, wild barley

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3045 Comparative Germination Studies in Mature Seeds of Haloxylon Salicornicum

Authors: Laila Almulla

Abstract:

As native plants are better adapted to the local environment, can endure long spells of drought, withstand high soil salinity levels and provide a more natural effect to landscape projects, their use in landscape projects are gaining popularity. Standardization of seed germination methods and raising the hardened plants of selected native plants for their use in landscape projects will both conserve natural resources and produce sustainable greenery. In the present study, Haloxylon salicornicum, a perennial herb with a potential use for urban greenery was selected for seed germination tests as there is an urgent need to mass multiply them for their large-scale use. Among the nine treatments tried with different concentrations of gibberelic acid (GA3) and dry heat, the seeds responded with treatments when the wings were removed. The control as well as 250 GA3 treatments produced the maximum germination of 86%.

Keywords: dormancy, gibberelic acid, germination trays , vigor index

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3044 Forests, the Sanctuaries to Specialist and Rare Wild Native Bees at the Foothills of Western Himalayas

Authors: Preeti Virkar, V. P. Uniyal, Vinod Kumar Bhatt

Abstract:

With 50% decline in managed honey bee hives in the continents of Europe and America, farmers and landscape managers are turning to native wild bees for their essential ecosystem services of pollination. Wild bees population are too under danger due to the rapid land use changes from anthropogenic activities. With an escalating population reaching 9.0 billion by 2050, human-induced land use changes are predicted to further deteriorate the habitats of numerous species by the turn of this century. The status of bees are uncertain, especially in the tropical regions of the world, which also questions the crisis of global pollinator decline and their essential services to wild and managed flora. Our investigation collectively compares wild native bee diversity and their status in forests and agroecosystems in Doon Valley landscape, situated at the foothills of Himalayan ranges, Uttarakhand, India. We seek to ask whether (1) natural habitat are refuge to richer and rarer bees communities than the agroecosystems, (2) Are agroecosystems closer to natural habitats similar to them than agroecosystems farther away; hence support richer bee communities and hence, (3) Do polyculture farms support richer bee communities than monoculture. The data was collected using observation and pantrap sampling form February to May, 2012 to 2014. We recorded 43 species of bees in Doon Valley. They belonged to 5 families; Megachilidae, Apidae, Andrenidae, Halictidae and Collitidae. A multinomial model approach was used to classify the bees into 2 habitats, in which forests demonstrated to support greater number of specialist (26%, n= 11) species than agroecosystems (7%, n= 3). The valley had many species categorized as the rare (58%, n= 25) and very few generalists (9%, n=4). A linear regression model run on our data demonstrated higher bee diversity in agro-ecosystems in close proximity to forests (H’ for < 200 m = 1.60) compared to those further away (H’ for > 600 m = 0.56) (R2=0.782, SE=0.148, p value=0.004). Organic agriculture supported significantly greater species richness in comparison to conventional farms (Mann-Whitney U test, n1 = 33, n2 = 35; P = 0.001). Forests ecosystems are refuge to rare specialist groups and support bee communities in nearby agroecosystems. The findings of our investigation demonstrate the importance of natural habitats as a potential refuge for rare native wild bee pollinators. Polyculture in the valley behaves similar to natural habitats and supports diverse bee communities in comparison to conventional monocultures. Our study suggests that the farming communities adopt diverse organic agriculture systems to attract wild pollinators beneficial for better crop production. Forests are sanctuaries for bees to nest, forage, and breed. Therefore, our outcome also suggests landscape managers not only preserve protected areas but also enhance the floral diversity in semi-natural and urban areas.

Keywords: native bees, pollinators, polyculture, agroecosystem, natural habitat, diversity, monoculture, specialists, generalists

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3043 Synergistic Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Enhance Wheat Grain Yield, Biofortification and Soil Health: A Field Study

Authors: Radheshyam Yadav, Ramakrishna Wusirika

Abstract:

Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Fungi are ubiquitous in soil and often very critical for crop yield and agriculture sustainability, and this has motivated the agricultural practices to support and promote PGPB and AM Fungi in agriculture. PGPB can be involved in a range of processes that affect Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) transformations in soil and thus influence nutrient availability and uptake to the plants. A field study with two wheat cultivars, HD-3086, and HD-2967 was performed in Malwa region, Bathinda of Punjab, India, to evaluate the effect of native and non-native PGPB alone and in combination with AM fungi as an inoculant on wheat grain yield, nutrient uptake and soil health parameters (dehydrogenase, urease, β‐glucosidase). Our results showed that despite an early insignificant increase in shoot length, plants treated with PGPB (Bacillus sp.) and AM Fungi led to a significant increase in shoot growth at maturity, aboveground biomass, nitrogen (45% - 40%) and phosphorus (40% - 34%) content in wheat grains relative to untreated control plants. Similarly, enhanced grain yield and nutrients uptake i.e. copper (27.15% - 36.25%) iron (43% - 53%) and zinc (44% - 47%) was recorded in PGPB and AM Fungi treated plants relative to untreated control. Overall, inoculation with native PGPB alone and in combination with AM Fungi provided benefits to enhance grain yield, wheat biofortification, and improved soil fertility, despite this effect varied depending on different PGPB isolates and wheat cultivars. These field study results provide evidence of the benefits of agricultural practices involving native PGPB and AM Fungi to the plants. These native strains and AM Fungi increased accumulations of copper, iron, and zinc in wheat grains, enhanced grain yield, and soil fertility.

Keywords: AM Fungi, biofortification, PGPB, soil microbial enzymes

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3042 The Introduction of Medicine Plants in Bogor Agricultural University: A Case Study in Cikabayan and Tropical Medicinal Plant Conservation Laboratory

Authors: Eki Devung, Eka Tyastutik, Indha Annisa, Digdaya Anoraga, Jamaluddin Arsyad

Abstract:

Plant medicine is a whole species of plants are known to have medicinal properties. Bogor Agricultural University has high biodiversity, one of which flora potential as a drug. This study was conducted from 19 September to 10 October 2016 at Bogor Agricultural University using literature study and field observation. There are 85 species of medicinal plants which include a medicinal plant cultivation and wild plants. Family herbs most commonly found in Cikabayan that while the Euphorbiaceae, family which is found in the Tropical Medicinal Plant Conservation Laboratory is the family of Achantaceae. Species of medicinal plants is dominated by herbs and shrubs. Part herbs most widely used are the leaves. The diversity of diseases that can be treated with medicine plants include digestive system diseases and metabolic disorder.

Keywords: benefits, biodiversity, Bogor Agricultural University, medicinal plants

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3041 Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on in vitro Biosynthesis of Antioxidative Compounds in Callus Culture and Regenerated Plantlets Derived from Taraxacum officinale

Authors: Neha Sahu, Awantika Singh, Brijesh Kumar, K. R. Arya

Abstract:

Taraxacum officinale Weber or dandelion (Asteraceae) is an important Indian traditional herb used to treat liver detoxification, digestive problems, spleen, hepatic and kidney disorders, etc. The plant is well known to possess important phenolic and flavonoids to serve as a potential source of antioxidative and chemoprotective agents. Biosynthesis of bioactive compounds through in vitro cultures is a requisite for natural resource conservation and to provide an alternative source for pharmaceutical applications. Thus an efficient and reproducible protocol was developed for in vitro biosynthesis of bioactive antioxidative compounds from leaf derived callus and in vitro regenerated cultures of Taraxacum officinale using MS media fortified with various combinations of auxins and cytokinins. MS media containing 0.25 mg/l 2, 4-D (2, 4-Dichloro phenoxyacetic acid) with 0.05 mg/l 2-iP [N6-(2-Isopentenyl adenine)] was found as an effective combination for the establishment of callus with 92 % callus induction frequency. Moreover, 2.5 mg/l NAA (α-Naphthalene acetic acid) with 0.5 mg/l BAP (6-Benzyl aminopurine) and 1.5 mg/l NAA showed the optimal response for in vitro plant regeneration with 80 % regeneration frequency and rooting respectively. In vitro regenerated plantlets were further transferred to soil and acclimatized. Quantitative variability of accumulated bioactive compounds in cultures (in vitro callus, plantlets and acclimatized) were determined through UPLC-MS/MS (ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry) and compared with wild plants. The phytochemical determination of in vitro and wild grown samples showed the accumulation of 6 compounds. In in vitro callus cultures and regenerated plantlets, two major antioxidative compounds i.e. chlorogenic acid (14950.0 µg/g and 4086.67 µg/g) and umbelliferone (10400.00 µg/g and 2541.67 µg/g) were found respectively. Scopoletin was found to be highest in vitro regenerated plants (83.11 µg/g) as compared to wild plants (52.75 µg/g). Notably, scopoletin is not detected in callus and acclimatized plants, but quinic acid (6433.33 µg/g) and protocatechuic acid (92.33 µg/g) were accumulated at the highest level in acclimatized plants as compared to other samples. Wild grown plants contained highest content (948.33 µg/g) of flavonoid glycoside i.e. luteolin-7-O-glucoside. Our data suggests that in vitro callus and regenerated plants biosynthesized higher content of antioxidative compounds in controlled conditions when compared to wild grown plants. These standardized cultural conditions may be explored as a sustainable source of plant materials for enhanced production and adequate supply of oxidative polyphenols.

Keywords: anti-oxidative compounds, in vitro cultures, Taraxacum officinale, UPLC-MS/MS

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3040 Cryptolepis sanguinolenta - A Medicinal Plant Used in the Treatment of Malaria, Cultivate It or Lose It

Authors: J. Naalamle Amissah, Dorcas Osei‐Safo, C. M. Asare, Benjamin Missah‐Assihene, Eric. Y. Danquah, Ivan Addae‐Mensah

Abstract:

Medicinal plants serve as a reservoir of active ingredients for the treatment of common ailments such as cancer, malaria and diabetes. With the recent wave of health consciousness and reliance on plant based medicines, the demand for medicinal plants has increased considerably. This surge in medicinal plant use has raised great concern amongst key players (herbalist, collectors, conservationist and researchers) along the value chain about the sustainability of the raw material. The over reliance on wild crafting as a means to obtain the raw material spells doom for several of Africa’s native medicinal plant species. In this study domestication protocols for the cultivation of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (CS), a medicinal plant used in the treatment of malaria were developed. Initial surveys were conducted, using questionnaires comprising of open and close ended questions, to gather information that would inform the domestication and cultivation of the species. A field study was then conducted to determine the plant’s cropping cycle and the effect of staking and plant age on the active ingredient (cryptolepine) concentration in its roots. Results of the survey confirmed the demand for the raw material and threw more light on the harvesting methods and intensity of CS collection from the wild. Cryptolepine concentration was found to be highest (~1.84 mg/100 mg of root material) at 289 days after planting (DAP) which coincided with the peak of root dry weight (52.8 g), signifying the best time for root harvest. Staking was found to be important for seed production. The first 105 DAP were characterized by low yields of root dry weight (13.5 g), followed by a period of rapid growth in which the root dry weight increased almost linearly until 289 DAP. Although dry matter partitioned to the vines increased towards the end of the experimental period (60%), dry matter partitioned to the roots remained fairly constant (30%) throughout the experimental period. Cryptolepine was found to increase as the plant aged and the practice of staking CS promoted pod formation. A suitable cropping cycle for the cultivation of CS was also developed.

Keywords: domestication, staking, conservation, wild harvesting

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3039 Improving Food Security and Commercial Development through Promotion of High Value Medicinal and Industrial Plants in the Swat Valley of Pakistan

Authors: Hassan Sher

Abstract:

Agriculture has a pivotal role in Pakistan’s economy, accounting for about one-fourth of the GDP and employing almost half the population. However, the competitiveness, productivity, growth, employment potential, export opportunity, and contribution to GDP of the sector is significantly hampered by agriculture marketing laws/regulations at the provincial level that reward rent seeking behavior, promote monopoly power, artificially reduce farmer incomes while inflating prices to consumers, and act as disincentives to investment. Although of more recent vintage than some other provincial agricultural marketing laws, the NWFP Agricultural and Livestock Produce Markets Act, 2007 is a throwback to a colonial paradigm, where restrictions on agricultural produce marketing and Government control of distribution channels is the norm. The Swat Valley (in which we include its tributary valleys) is an area of Pakistan in which there is poverty is both extreme and pervasive. For many, a significant portion of the family’s income comes from selling plants that are used as herbs, medicines, and perfumes. Earlier studies have shown that the benefit they derive from this work is less than they might because of: Lack of knowledge concerning which plants and which plant parts are valuable, Lack of knowledge concerning optimal preservation and storage of material, illiteracy. Another concern that much of the plant material sold from the valley is collected in the wild, without an appreciation of the negative impact continued collecting has on wild populations. We propose: Creating colored cards to help inhabitants recognize the 25 most valuable plants in their area; Developing and sharing protocols for growing the 25 most valuable plants in a home garden; Developing and sharing efficient mechanisms for drying plants so they do not lose value; Encouraging increased literacy by incorporating numbers and a few words in the handouts.

Keywords: food security, medicinal plants, industrial plants, economic development

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3038 Performance Evaluation of Acoustic-Spectrographic Voice Identification Method in Native and Non-Native Speech

Authors: E. Krasnova, E. Bulgakova, V. Shchemelinin

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The paper deals with acoustic-spectrographic voice identification method in terms of its performance in non-native language speech. Performance evaluation is conducted by comparing the result of the analysis of recordings containing native language speech with recordings that contain foreign language speech. Our research is based on Tajik and Russian speech of Tajik native speakers due to the character of the criminal situation with drug trafficking. We propose a pilot experiment that represents a primary attempt enter the field.

Keywords: speaker identification, acoustic-spectrographic method, non-native speech, performance evaluation

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3037 Herbal Medicines Used for the Cure of Jaundice among the Some Tribal Populations of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Awdhesh Narayan Sharma

Abstract:

The use of herbal medicines for the cure of various ailments among the tribal population is as old as human origin itself. Most of the tribal populations of Madhya Pradesh inhabit in remote and inaccessible ecological setup. From long back, tribals and forests are interrelated to each other. They use an enormous range of wild plants for their basic needs and medicines. The tribal developed a unique understanding with wild plants, herbs, etc., and earned specialized knowledge of disease pattern and curative therapy-through hard experiences, common sense, trial, and error methods. They have passed this knowledge through traditions, taboos, totems, folklore by words of mouth from generation to generation. Here, an attempt has been made to study the possible aspects of herbal medicine for the cure of Jaundice among the tribal populations of Madhya Pradesh, India, through primary data as well as available secondary data. The data have been collected from the 305 Bharias of Patalkot, Madhya Pradesh, India, and included available secondary source of data by various investigators. It may be concluded that a sizable herbal medicinal plants' wealth exists in Madhya Pradesh, India, which still awaits for scientific exploration. The existing herbal medicines used for the cure of jaundice need an extensive investigation from the pharmaceutical point of view.

Keywords: Bharias, herbal medicine, tribal, Madhya Pradesh

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3036 Status of Reintroduced Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis macqueeni in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammad Zafar-ul Islam

Abstract:

The breeding programme of Houbara bustard was started in Saudi Arabia in 1986 to undertake the restoration of native species such as Houbara through a programme of re-introduction, involving the release of captive-bred birds in the wild. Two sites were selected for houbara re-introduction, i.e., Mahazat as-Sayd and Saja Umm Ar-Rimth protected areas in 1988 and 1998 respectively. Both the areas are fenced fairly level, sandy plain with a few rock outcrops. Captive bred houbara have been released in Mahazat since 1992 by NWRC and those birds have been successfully breeding since then. The nesting season of the houbara at Mahazat recorded from February to May and on an average 20-25 nests are located each year but no nesting recorded in Saja. Houbara are monitored using radio transmitters through aerial tracking technique and also a vehicle for terrestrial tracking. Total population of houbara in Mahazat is roughly estimated around 300-400 birds, using the following: N = n1+n2+n3+n4+n5 (n1 = released or wild-born, radio, regularly monitored/checked; n2 = radio tagged missing; n3 = wild born chicks not recorded; n4 = wild born chicks, recorded but not tagged; n5 = immigrants). However, in Saja only 4-7 individuals of houbara have been survived since 2001 because most of the birds are predated immediately after the release. The mean annual home was also calculated using Kernel and Convex polygons methods with Range VII software. The minimum density of houbara was also calculated. In order to know the houbara movement or their migration to other regions, two captive-reared male houbara that were released into the wild and one wild born female were fitted with Platform Transmitter Terminals (PTT). The home range shows that wild-born female has larger movement than two males. More areas need to be selected for reintroduction programme to establish the network of sites to provide easy access to move these birds and mingle with the wild houbara. Some potential sites have been proposed which require more surveys to check the habitat suitability.

Keywords: re-introduction, survival rate, home range, Saudi Arabia

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3035 Native Plants Marketing by Entrepreneurs in the Landscaping Industry in Japan

Authors: Yuki Hara

Abstract:

Entrepreneurs are welcomed to the landscaping industry, conserving practically and theoretically biological diversity in landscaping construction, although there are limited reports on corporative trials making a market with a new logistics system of native plants (NP) between landscaping companies and nurserymen. This paper explores the entrepreneurial process of a landscaping company, “5byMidori” for NP marketing. This paper employs a case study design. Data are collected in interviews with the manager and designer of 5byMidori, 2 scientists, 1 organization, and 18 nurserymen, fieldworks at two nurseries, observations of marketing activities in three years, and texts from published documents about the business concept and marketing strategy with NP. These data are analyzed by qualitative methods. The results show that NP is suitable for the vision of 5byMidori improving urban desertified environment with closer urban-rural linkage. Professional landscaping team changes a forestry organization into NP producers conserving a large nursery of a mountain. Multifaceted PR based on the entrepreneurial context and personal background of a landscaping venture can foster team members' businesses and help customers and users to understand the biodiversity value of the product. Wider partnerships with existing nurserymen at other sites in many regions need socio-economic incentives and environmental reliability. In conclusion, the entrepreneurial marketing of a landscaping company needs to add more meanings and a variety of merits in terms of ecosystem services, as NP tends to be in academic definition and independent from the cultures like nurseryman and forestry.

Keywords: biological diversity, landscaping industry, marketing, native plants

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3034 Identifying Project Delay Factors in the Australian Construction Industry

Authors: Syed Sohaib Bin Hasib, Hiyam Al-Kilidar

Abstract:

Meeting project deadlines is a major challenge for most construction projects. In this study, perceptions of contractors, clients, and consultants are compared relative to a list of factors derived from the review of the extant literature on project delay. 59 causes (categorized into 8 groups) of project delays were identified from the literature. A survey was devised to get insights and ranking of these factors from clients, consultants & contractors in the Australian construction industry. Findings showed that project delays in the Australian construction industry are mainly the result of skill shortages, interference in execution, and poor coordination and communication between the project stakeholders.

Keywords: construction, delay factors, time delay, australian construction industry

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3033 The Diglossia and the Bilingualism: Concept, Problems, and Solutions

Authors: Abdou Mahmoud Abdou Hussein

Abstract:

We attempt, in this paper, to spot the light on the difference between the two concepts (diglossia and bilingualism). Thus, we will show the definition of these two concepts among various perspectives. On the other hand, we will emphasize and highlight 'diglossa' in The Arabic language historically. Furthermore, we will illustrate the factors of the diglossia, the impact of diglossia on the learners of Arabic (native and non native speakers) and finally the suggested solutions for this issue.

Keywords: Arabic linguistics, diglossia, bilingualism, native and non-native speakers

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
3032 Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Folk Medicine in Libya

Authors: Salmin Alshalmani, Ghazall M Benhusein, Ebtisam Alhadi Absomaha, Marwa I. Meshri, Hamdoon A. Mohammed, Jamal Mezogi

Abstract:

Eight wild medicinal plants used by Libyan and growing in Al-Jebel Al-Akhdar, Libya were suspected to estimate the antioxidant activity using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl stable free radical (DPPH). Incidences of purple colour reduction of the DPPH by testing extracts in addition to quercetin and vitamin C as positive controls reflect its ability to scavenge free radicals. All testing plants extract showed noticeable strength as antioxidant regarding its abilities to scavenge DPPH with an especial regards to Sarcopoterium spinosum.

Keywords: antioxidant, scavenging activity, folk medicine, methanol extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
3031 Non-Native Expatriate English: An Emerging Variety (Category of Users) in Cameroon?

Authors: Valentine Ubanako

Abstract:

This paper investigates a situation that has given rise to a particular kind of variety or category of users of English in Cameroon which I have called here Non-native expatriate English (Users). This paper asserts that Non-expatriates in Cameroon (those who work for native speakers of English) use English in a peculiar manner which is worth investigating. This paper thus looks into the kind of English they use and their attitudes towards other users of different varieties of English and how these non-native expatriates form new identities and try to negotiate social ascendency within a local context. Data for this paper is collected through observation, interviews and questionnaires. Some Cameroonians, especially the educated, believe that they must move to Europe or America, study to a very high level and struggle to be like the white man whereas, the lowly educated (working with native English expatriates), are living their European and American dream in Cameroon among their brothers. Thus, educational attainment is not a necessary criterion for social ascendency.

Keywords: non-native expatriate English, native expatriates, varieties of English, English language, linguistics

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3030 Breeding Performance and Egg Quality of Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus Gallus L.) Mated with Native Hens (Gallus galus domesticus) in Selected Areas of Leyte under Confinement System

Authors: Francisco F. Buctot Jr.

Abstract:

This study was conducted to assess the breeding performance and egg quality traits of Red Jungle Fowls in selected areas of Leyte mated to Native hens under confinement system. A total of six Red Jungle Fowl roosters, two native roosters and 16 native hens were randomly assigned to four treatments with eight replications; each composed of one rooster and two hens randomly laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design set up. Result on egg weight showed highly significant difference at p<0.01 and revealed heaviest weight (39.0 g) and lightest weight (35.75 g) on Native x Native and Baybay RJF x Native, respectively. While comparable number of eggs per clutch, fertility and hatchability rates, yolk and albumen weights, shell weight, egg length and width, egg shape index and yolk color score were obtained.

Keywords: egg clutch, egg shape index, native chicken, hatchability rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
3029 Introduction of a Medicinal Plants Garden to Revitalize a Botany Curriculum for Non-Science Majors

Authors: Rosa M. Gambier, Jennifer L. Carlson

Abstract:

In order to revitalize the science curriculum for botany courses for non-science majors, we have introduced the use of the medicinal plants into a first-year botany course. We have connected the use of scientific method, scientific inquiry and active learning in the classroom with the study of Western Traditional Medical Botany. The students have researched models of Botanical medicine and have designed a sustainable medicinal plants garden using native medicinal plants from the northeast. Through the semester, the students have researched their chosen species, planted seeds in the college greenhouse, collected germination ratios, growth ratios and have successfully produced a beginners medicinal plant garden. Phase II of the project will be to tie in SCCCs community outreach goals by involving the public in the expanded development of the garden as a way of sharing learning about medicinal plants and traditional medicine outside the classroom.

Keywords: medicinal plant garden, botany curriculum, active learning, community outreach

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3028 Nutritional Evaluation and the Importance of Traditional Vegetables That Sustain the Indigenous People of Malaysia

Authors: Rachel Thomas Tharmabalan

Abstract:

The growing unease over the matter of food security in the world is the result of a maturing realization that the genetic base of most human caloric intake from plants is dangerously narrow. Malaysia’s tropical rainforests have the potential to contribute to diet diversification and provide a source of nutrient-rich food as the Orang Asli communities in Malaysia have relied almost entirely on the jungle for food, fodder, medicine and fuel antithetical to what is happening today. This segregation of the Orang Asli from traditional lands and resources leads to severe loss of knowledge of biodiversity. In order to preserve these wild edibles, four different types of vegetables that are frequently consumed by the Orang Asli which consists of Rebu, Meranti, Saya and Pama were selected. These vegetables were then analysed to determine its proximate and mineral content to help ascertain claims and reaffirm the impact it can play in ensuring food and nutrition security, in addition to combating chronic diseases. From the results obtained, the Meranti had the highest crude fiber, iron and calcium content. Other minerals such as potassium, magnesium and copper were also found in varying content. These wild edibles could also contribute to education and bring awareness to younger generations as well as urban populations to start consuming more of these in their daily life as it could prevent various chronic diseases in Malaysia.

Keywords: food and nutrition security, Orang Asli, underutilized plants, wild edible food systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
3027 Investigating Potential Pest Management Strategies for Citrus Gall Wasp in Australia

Authors: M. Yazdani, J. F. Carragher

Abstract:

Citrus gall wasp (CGW), Bruchophagus fellis (Hym: Eurytomidae), is an Australian native insect pest. CGW has now become a problem of national concern, threatening the viability of the entire Australian citrus industry. However, CGW appears to exhibit a preference for certain citrus species; growers report that grapefruit and lemons are most severely infested, with oranges and mandarins affected to a lesser extent. Given the specificity of the host plant-insect interactions, it is speculated that plant volatiles may play a significant role in host recognition. To address whether plant volatiles is involved in host plant preference by CGW we tested the behavioral response of CGW to plants in a wind tunnel. The result showed that CGW had significantly higher preference to grapefruit and lemon than other cultivars and the least preference was recorded to mandarin (Chi-square test, P<0.001). Because CGW exhibited a detectable choice further studies were undertaken to identify the components of the volatiles from each species. We trapped the volatile chemicals emitted by a 30 cm tip of each plant onto a solid Porapak matrix. Eluted extracts were then analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) and the presumptive identity of the major compounds from each species inferred from the MS library. Although the same major compounds existed in all of the cultivars, the relative ratios of them differed between species. Next, we will validate the identity of the key volatiles using authentic standards and establish their ability to elicit olfactory responses in CGW in wind tunnel and field experiments. Identification of semiochemicals involved in host location by CGW is of interest not only from an ecological perspective but also for the development of novel pest control strategies.

Keywords: Citrus gall wasp, Bruchophagus fellis, volatiles, semiochemicals, IPM

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