Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1513

Search results for: in vitro Rumen Fermentation

1513 Effects of Rumen Protozoa and Nitrate on Fermentation and Methane Production

Authors: S. H. Nguyen, L. Li, R. S. Hegarty


Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in-vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing coconut oil distillate 4.5% (COD) for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy) dodecane (Empicol). After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation. On d 48, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 48, 55, 62 and 69 were incubated for 23h in-vitro (experiment 1). On day 82, 2% of NO3 (as NaNO3) was included in in-vitro incubations (experiment 2) to test for additivity of NO3 and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production, with methane production rate significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 7, 14 and 21 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major VFA, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining defaunation and dietary nitrate as the addition of nitrate in the defaunated heifers resulted in 86% reduction in methane production in-vitro.

Keywords: defaunation, nitrate, fermentation, methane production

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1512 In vitro Fermentation Characteristics of Palm Oil Byproducts Which is Supplemented with Growth Factor Rumen Microbes

Authors: Mardiati Zain, Jurnida Rahman, Khasrad, Erpomen


The aim of this experiment was to study the use of palm oil by products (oil palm fronds (OPF), palm oil sludge (POS) and palm kernel cake (PKC)), that supplemented with growth factor rumen microbes (Sapindus rarak and Sacharomyces cerevisiae) on digestibility and fermentation in vitro. Oil Palm Fronds was previously treated with 3% urea. The treatments consist of 50% OPF+ 30% POS+ 20% PKC as a control diet (A), B = A + 4% Sapindus rarak, C = A + 0.5 % Sacharomyces cerevisiae and D = A + 4% Sapindus rarak + 0.5% Sacharomyces cerevisiae. Digestibility of DM, OM, ADF, NDF, cellulose and rumen parameters (NH3 and VFA) of all treatments were significantly different (P < 0.05). Fermentation and digestibility treatment A were significantly lower than treatments B, C, and D. The result indicated that supplementation Sapindus rarak and S. cerevisiae were able to improve fermentability and digestibility of palm oil by product.

Keywords: palm oil by product, Sapindus rarak, Sacharomyces rerevisiae, fermentability, OPF ammoniated

Procedia PDF Downloads 558
1511 Effects of Vegetable Oils Supplementation on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Methane Production in Buffaloes

Authors: Avijit Dey, Shyam S. Paul, Satbir S. Dahiya, Balbir S. Punia, Luciano A. Gonzalez


Methane emitted from ruminant livestock not only reduces the efficiency of feed energy utilization but also contributes to global warming. Vegetable oils, a source of poly unsaturated fatty acids, have potential to reduce methane production and increase conjugated linoleic acid in the rumen. However, characteristics of oils, level of inclusion and composition of basal diet influences their efficacy. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of sunflower (SFL) and cottonseed (CSL) oils on methanogenesis, volatile fatty acids composition and feed fermentation pattern by in vitro gas production (IVGP) test. Four concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4ml /30ml buffered rumen fluid) of each oil were used. Fresh rumen fluid was collected before morning feeding from two rumen cannulated buffalo steers fed a mixed ration. In vitro incubation was carried out with sorghum hay (200 ± 5 mg) as substrate in 100 ml calibrated glass syringes following standard IVGP protocol. After 24h incubation, gas production was recorded by displacement of piston. Methane in the gas phase and volatile fatty acids in the fermentation medium were estimated by gas chromatography. Addition of oils resulted in increase (p<0.05) in total gas production and decrease (p<0.05) in methane production, irrespective of type and concentration. Although the increase in gas production was similar, methane production (ml/g DM) and its concentration (%) in head space gas was lower (p< 0.01) in CSL than in SFL at corresponding doses. Linear decrease (p<0.001) in degradability of DM was evident with increasing doses of oils (0.2ml onwards). However, these effects were more pronounced with SFL. Acetate production tended to decrease but propionate and butyrate production increased (p<0.05) with addition of oils, irrespective of type and doses. The ratio of acetate to propionate was reduced (p<0.01) with addition of oils but no difference between the oils was noted. It is concluded that both the oils can reduce methane production. However, feed degradability was also affected with higher doses. Cotton seed oil in small dose (0.1ml/30 ml buffered rumen fluid) exerted greater inhibitory effects on methane production without impeding dry matter degradability. Further in vivo studies need to be carried out for their practical application in animal ration.

Keywords: buffalo, methanogenesis, rumen fermentation, vegetable oils

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1510 In vitro Method to Evaluate the Effect of Steam-Flaking on the Quality of Common Cereal Grains

Authors: Wanbao Chen, Qianqian Yao, Zhenming Zhou


Whole grains with intact pericarp are largely resistant to digestion by ruminants because entire kernels are not conducive to bacterial attachment. But processing methods makes the starch more accessible to microbes, and increases the rate and extent of starch degradation in the rumen. To estimate the feasibility of applying a steam-flaking as the processing technique of grains for ruminants, cereal grains (maize, wheat, barley and sorghum) were processed by steam-flaking (steam temperature 105°C, heating time, 45 min). And chemical analysis, in vitro gas production, volatile fatty acid concentrations, and energetic values were adopted to evaluate the effects of steam-flaking. In vitro cultivation was conducted for 48h with the rumen fluid collected from steers fed a total mixed ration consisted of 40% hay and 60% concentrates. The results showed that steam-flaking processing had a significant effect on the contents of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber (P < 0.01). The concentration of starch gelatinization degree in all grains was also great improved in steam-flaking grains, as steam-flaking processing disintegrates the crystal structure of cereal starch, which may subsequently facilitate absorption of moisture and swelling. Theoretical maximum gas production after steam-flaking processing showed no great difference. However, compared with intact grains, total gas production at 48 h and the rate of gas production were significantly (P < 0.01) increased in all types of grain. Furthermore, there was no effect of steam-flaking processing on total volatile fatty acid, but a decrease in the ratio between acetate and propionate was observed in the current in vitro fermentation. The present study also found that steam-flaking processing increased (P < 0.05) organic matter digestibility and energy concentration of the grains. The collective findings of the present study suggest that steam-flaking processing of grains could improve their rumen fermentation and energy utilization by ruminants. In conclusion, the utilization of steam-flaking would be practical to improve the quality of common cereal grains.

Keywords: cereal grains, gas production, in vitro rumen fermentation, steam-flaking processing

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1509 Effects of Rations with High Amount of Crude Fiber on Rumen Fermentation in Suckler Cows

Authors: H. Scholz, P. Kuehne, G. Heckenberger


Problems during the calving period (December until May) often are results in a high body condition score (BCS) at this time. At the end of the grazing period (frequently after early weaning), however, an increase of BCS can often be observed under German conditions. In the last eight weeks before calving, the body condition should be reduced or at least not increased. Rations with a higher amount of crude fiber can be used (rations with straw or late mowed grass silage). Fermentative digestion of fiber is slow and incomplete; that’s why the fermentative process in the rumen can be reduced over a long feeding time. Viewed in this context, feed intake of suckler cows (8 weeks before calving) in different rations and fermentation in the rumen should be checked by taking rumen fluid. Eight suckler cows (Charolais) were feeding a Total Mixed Ration (TMR) in the last eight weeks before calving and grass silage after calving. By the addition of straw (30 % [TMR1] vs. 60 % [TMR2] of dry matter) was varied the amount of crude fiber in the TMR (grass silage, straw, mineral) before calving. After calving of the cow's grass, silage [GS] was fed ad libitum, and the last measurement of rumen fluid took place on the pasture [PS]. Rumen fluid, plasma, body weight, and backfat thickness were collected. Rumen fluid pH was assessed using an electronic pH meter. Volatile fatty acids (VFA), sedimentation, methylene-blue, and amount of infusorians were measured. From these 4 parameters, an “index of rumen fermentation” [IRF] in the rumen was formed. Fixed effects of treatment (TMR1, TMR2, GS, and PS) and a number of lactations (3-7 lactations) were analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS Version 25.0 (significant by p ≤ 5 %). Rumen fluid pH was significantly influenced by variants (TMR 1 by 6.6; TMR 2 by 6.9; GS by 6.6 and PS by 6.9) but was not affected by other effects. The IRF showed disturbed fermentation in the rumen by feeding the TMR 1+2 with a high amount of crude fiber (Score: > 10.0 points) and a very good environment for fermentation during grazing the pasture (Score: 6.9 points). Furthermore, significant differences were found for VFA, methylene blue, and the number of infusorians. The use of rations with a high amount of crude fiber from weaning to calving may cause deviations from undisturbed fermentation in the rumen and adversely affect the utilization of the feed in the rumen.

Keywords: rumen fermentation, suckler cow, digestibility organic matter, crude fiber

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1508 In vitro Evaluation of the Anti-Methanogenic Properties of Australian Native and Some Exotic Plants with a View of Their Potential Role in Management of Ruminant Livestock Emissions

Authors: Philip Vercoe, Ali Hardan


Samples of 29 Australian wild natives and exotic plants were tested in vitro batch rumen culture system for their methanogenic characteristics and potential usage as feed or antimicrobial to enhance sustainable livestock ruminant production system. The plants were tested for their in vitro rumen fermentation end products properties which include: methane production, total gas pressure, concentrations of total volatile fatty acids, ammonia, and acetate to propionate ratio. All of the plants were produced less methane than the positive control (i.e., oaten chaff) in vitro. Nearly 50 % of plants inhibiting methane by over 50% in comparison to the control. Eremophila granitica had the strongest inhibitory effect about 92 % on methane production comparing with oaten chaff. The exotic weed Arctotheca calendula (Capeweed) had the highest concentration of volatile fatty acids production as well as the highest in total gas pressure among all plants and the control. Some of the acacia species have the lowest production of total gas pressure. The majority of the plants produced more ammonia than the oaten chaff control. The plant species that produced the most ammonia was Codonocarpus cotinifolius, producing over 3 times as much methane as oaten chaff control while the lowest was Eremophila galeata. There was strong positive correlation between methane production and total gas production as well as between total gas production and the concentration of VFA produced with R² = 0.74, R² = 0.84, respectively. While there was weak positive correlation between methane production and the acetate to propionate ratio as well as between the concentration of VFA produced and methane production with R² = 0.41, R² = 0.52, respectively.

Keywords: in vitro Rumen Fermentation, methane, wild Australian native plants, forages

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1507 Supplementation of Leucahena leucochepala on Rice Straw Ammoniated Complete Feed on Fiber Digestibility and in vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics

Authors: Mardiati Zain, W. S. N. Rusmana, Erpomen, Malik Makmur, Ezi Masdia Putri


Background and Aim: The leaves of the Leucaenaleucocephala tree have potential as a nitrogen source for ruminants. Leucaena leaf meal as protein supplement has been shown to improve the feed quality of ruminants. The effects of different levels of Leucaena leucocephala supplementation as substitute of concentrate on fiber digestibility and in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics were investigated. This research was conducted in vitro. The study used a randomized block design consisting of 3 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments were A. 40% rice straw ammoniated + 60% concentrate, B. 40% rice straw ammoniated + 50% concentrate + 10% Leucaena leuchephala, C. 40% rice straw ammoniated + 40% concentrate + 20% Leucaena leuchephala, Result: The results showed that the addition of Leucaena leucocephala increased the digestibility of Neutral detergent Fiber NDF and Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) (p < 0.05). In this study, rumen NH3, propionate, amount of escape protein and total Volatyl Fatty Acid (VFA) were found increased significantly at treatment B. No significant difference was observed in acetate and butyrate production. The populations of total protozoa and methane production had significantly decreased (P < .05) in supplemented group. Conclusion: Supplementation of leuchaena leucochepala on completed feed based on ammoniated rice straw in vitro can increase fiber digestibility, VFA production and decreased protozoa pupulataion and methane production. Supplementation of 10% and 20% L. leucochepala were suitable to be used for further studies, therefore in vivo experiment is required to study the effects on animal production.

Keywords: digestibility, Leucaena leucocephala, complete feed, rice straw ammoniated

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1506 Mitigating Ruminal Methanogenesis Through Genomic and Transcriptomic Approaches

Authors: Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Faiz-Ul Hassan, Yanfen Cheng


According to FAO, enteric methane (CH4) production is about 44% of all greenhouse gas emissions from the livestock sector. Ruminants produce CH4 as a result of fermentation of feed in the rumen especially from roughages which yield more CH4 per unit of biomass ingested as compared to concentrates. Efficient ruminal fermentation is not possible without abating CO2 and CH4. Methane abatement strategies are required to curb the predicted rise in emissions associated with greater ruminant production in future to meet ever increasing animal protein requirements. Ecology of ruminal methanogenesis and avenues for its mitigation can be identified through various genomic and transcriptomic techniques. Programs such as Hungate1000 and the Global Rumen Census have been launched to enhance our understanding about global ruminal microbial communities. Through Hungate1000 project, a comprehensive reference set of rumen microbial genome sequences has been developed from cultivated rumen bacteria and methanogenic archaea along with representative rumen anaerobic fungi and ciliate protozoa cultures. But still many species of rumen microbes are underrepresented especially uncultivable microbes. Lack of sequence information specific to the rumen's microbial community has inhibited efforts to use genomic data to identify specific set of species and their target genes involved in methanogenesis. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic study of entire microbial rumen populations offer new perspectives to understand interaction of methanogens with other rumen microbes and their potential association with total gas and methane production. Deep understanding of methanogenic pathway will help to devise potentially effective strategies to abate methane production while increasing feed efficiency in ruminants.

Keywords: Genome sequences, Hungate1000, methanogens, ruminal fermentation

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1505 Effect of Amount of Crude Fiber in Grass or Silage to the Digestibility of Organic Matter in Suckler Cow Feeding Systems

Authors: Scholz Heiko, Kuhne Petra, Heckenberger Gerd


Problems during the calving period (December to May) often result in a high body condition score (BCS) at this time. At the end of the grazing period (frequently after early weaning), however, an increase of BCS can often be observed under German conditions. In the last eight weeks before calving, the body condition should be reduced or at least not increased. Rations with a higher amount of crude fiber can be used (rations with straw or late mowed grass silage). Fermentative digestion of fiber is slow and incomplete; that’s why the fermentative process in the rumen can be reduced over a long feeding time. Viewed in this context, feed intake of suckler cows (8 weeks before calving) in different rations and fermentation in the rumen should be checked by taking rumen fluid. Eight suckler cows (Charolais) were feeding a Total Mixed Ration (TMR) in the last eight weeks before calving and grass silage after calving. By the addition of straw (30 % [TMR1] vs. 60 % [TMR2] of dry matter) was varied the amount of crude fiber in the TMR (grass silage, straw, mineral) before calving. After calving of the cow's grass, silage [GS] was fed ad libitum, and the last measurement of rumen fluid took place on the pasture [PS]. Rumen fluid, plasma, body weight, and backfat thickness were collected. Rumen fluid pH was assessed using an electronic pH meter. Volatile fatty acids (VFA), sedimentation, methylene-blue and amount of infusorians were measured. From these 4 parameters, an “index of rumen fermentation” [IRF] in the rumen was formed. Fixed effects of treatment (TMR1, TMR2, GS and PS) and a number of lactations (3-7 lactations) were analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS Version 25.0 (significant by p ≤ 5 %). Rumen fluid pH was significant influenced by variants (TMR 1 by 6.6; TMR 2 by 6.9; GS by 6.6 and PS by 6.9) but was not affected by other effects. The IRF showed disturbed fermentation in the rumen by feeding the TMR 1+2 with a high amount of crude fiber (Score: > 10.0 points) and a very good environment for fermentation during grazing the pasture (Score: 6.9 points). Furthermore, significant differences were found for VFA, methylene blue and the number of infusorians. The use of rations with the high amount of crude fiber from weaning to calving may cause deviations from undisturbed fermentation in the rumen and adversely affect the utilization of the feed in the rumen.

Keywords: suckler cow, feeding systems, crude fiber, digestibilty of organic matter

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1504 Effects of Glucogenic and Lipogenic Diets on Ruminal Microbiota and Metabolites in Vitro

Authors: Beihai Xiong, Dengke Hua, Wouter Hendriks, Wilbert Pellikaan


To improve the energy status of dairy cows in the early lactation, lots of jobs have been done on adjusting the starch to fiber ratio in the diet. As a complex ecosystem, the rumen contains a large population of microorganisms which plays a crucial role in feed degradation. Further study on the microbiota alterations and metabolic changes under different dietary energy sources is essential and valuable to better understand the function of the ruminal microorganisms and thereby to optimize the rumen function and enlarge feed efficiency. The present study will focus on the effects of two glucogenic diets (G: ground corn and corn silage; S: steam-flaked corn and corn silage) and a lipogenic diet (L: sugar beet pulp and alfalfa silage) on rumen fermentation, gas production, the ruminal microbiota and metabolome, and also their correlations in vitro. The gas production was recorded consistently, and the gas volume and producing rate at times 6, 12, 24, 48 h were calculated separately. The fermentation end-products were measured after fermenting for 48 h. The ruminal bacteria and archaea communities were determined by 16S RNA sequencing technique, the metabolome profile was tested through LC-MS methods. Compared to the diet G and S, the L diet had a lower dry matter digestibility, propionate production, and ammonia-nitrogen concentration. The two glucogenic diets performed worse in controlling methane and lactic acid production compared to the L diet. The S diet produced the greatest cumulative gas volume at any time points during incubation compared to the G and L diet. The metabolic analysis revealed that the lipid digestion was up-regulated by the diet L than other diets. On the subclass level, most metabolites belonging to the fatty acids and conjugates were higher, but most metabolites belonging to the amino acid, peptides, and analogs were lower in diet L than others. Differences in rumen fermentation characteristics were associated with (or resulting from) changes in the relative abundance of bacterial and archaeal genera. Most highly abundant bacteria were stable or slightly influenced by diets, while several amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were sensitive to the dietary changes. The L diet had a significantly higher number of cellulolytic bacteria, including the genera of Ruminococcus, Butyrivibrio, Eubacterium, Lachnospira, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and unclassified Ruminococcaceae. The relative abundances of amylolytic bacteria genera including Selenomonas_1, Ruminobacter, and Succinivibrionaceae_UCG-002 were higher in diet G and S. These affected bacteria was also proved to have high associations with certain metabolites. The Selenomonas_1 and Succinivibrionaceae_UCG-002 may contribute to the higher propionate production in the diet G and S through enhancing the succinate pathway. The results indicated that the two glucogenic diets had a greater extent of gas production, a higher dry matter digestibility, and produced more propionate than diet L. The steam-flaked corn did not show a better performance on fermentation end-products than ground corn. This study has offered a deeper understanding of ruminal microbial functions which could assistant the improvement in rumen functions and thereby in the ruminant production.

Keywords: gas production, metabolome, microbiota, rumen fermentation

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1503 Application of the Carboxylate Platform in the Consolidated Bioconversion of Agricultural Wastes to Biofuel Precursors

Authors: Sesethu G. Njokweni, Marelize Botes, Emile W. H. Van Zyl


An alternative strategy to the production of bioethanol is by examining the degradability of biomass in a natural system such as the rumen of mammals. This anaerobic microbial community has higher cellulolytic activities than microbial communities from other habitats and degrades cellulose to produce volatile fatty acids (VFA), methane and CO₂. VFAs have the potential to serve as intermediate products for electrochemical conversion to hydrocarbon fuels. In vitro mimicking of this process would be more cost-effective than bioethanol production as it does not require chemical pre-treatment of biomass, a sterile environment or added enzymes. The strategies of the carboxylate platform and the co-cultures of a bovine ruminal microbiota from cannulated cows were combined in order to investigate and optimize the bioconversion of agricultural biomass (apple and grape pomace, citrus pulp, sugarcane bagasse and triticale straw) to high value VFAs as intermediates for biofuel production in a consolidated bioprocess. Optimisation of reactor conditions was investigated using five different ruminal inoculum concentrations; 5,10,15,20 and 25% with fixed pH at 6.8 and temperature at 39 ˚C. The ANKOM 200/220 fiber analyser was used to analyse in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) disappearance of the feedstuffs. Fresh and cryo-frozen (5% DMSO and 50% glycerol for 3 months) rumen cultures were tested for the retainment of fermentation capacity and durability in 72 h fermentations in 125 ml serum vials using a FURO medical solutions 6-valve gas manifold to induce anaerobic conditions. Fermentation of apple pomace, triticale straw, and grape pomace showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the effect of 15 and 20 % inoculum concentrations for the total VFA yield. However, high performance liquid chromatographic separation within the two inoculum concentrations showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in acetic acid yield, with 20% inoculum concentration being the optimum at 4.67 g/l. NDF disappearance of 85% in 96 h and total VFA yield of 11.5 g/l in 72 h (A/P ratio = 2.04) for apple pomace entailed that it was the optimal feedstuff for this process. The NDF disappearance and VFA yield of DMSO (82% NDF disappearance and 10.6 g/l VFA) and glycerol (90% NDF disappearance and 11.6 g/l VFA) stored rumen also showed significantly similar degradability of apple pomace with lack of treatment effect differences compared to a fresh rumen control (P > 0.05). The lack of treatment effects was a positive sign in indicating that there was no difference between the stored samples and the fresh rumen control. Retaining of the fermentation capacity within the preserved cultures suggests that its metabolic characteristics were preserved due to resilience and redundancy of the rumen culture. The amount of degradability and VFA yield within a short span was similar to other carboxylate platforms that have longer run times. This study shows that by virtue of faster rates and high extent of degradability, small scale alternatives to bioethanol such as rumen microbiomes and other natural fermenting microbiomes can be employed to enhance the feasibility of biofuels large-scale implementation.

Keywords: agricultural wastes, carboxylate platform, rumen microbiome, volatile fatty acids

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1502 Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis Method to Assess Rumen Microbial Diversity of Ruminant

Authors: A. Natsir, M. Nadir, S. Syahrir, A. Mujnisa, N. Purnomo, A. R. Egan, B. J. Leury


Rumen degradation characteristic of feedstuff is one of the prominent factors affecting microbial population in rumen of animal. High rumen degradation rate of faba bean protein may lead to inconstant rumen conditions that could have a prominent impact on rumen microbial diversity. Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) is utilized to monitor diversity of rumen microbes on sheep fed low quality forage supplemented by faba beans. Four mature merino sheep with existing rumen cannula were used in this study according to 4 x 4 Latin square design. The results of study indicated that there were 37 different ARDRA types identified out of 136 clones examined. Among those clones, five main clone types existed across the treatments with different percentages. In conclusion, the ARDRA method is potential to be used as a routine tool to assess the temporary changes in the rumen community as a result of different feeding strategies.

Keywords: ARDRA method, cattle, genomic diversity, rumen microbes

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1501 In Vitro Digestibility of Grains and Straw of Seventeen Ecotypes of Bitter Vetch (Vicia ervilia) in the North of Morocco

Authors: Boukrouh Soumaya, Cabaraux Jean-François, Avril Claire, Noutfia Ali, Chentouf Mouad


The introduction of marginal leguminous forage species in the diet of ruminants are of great importance. Bitter vetch is a good source of proteins, highly resistant against drought and poor soil conditions. Accordingly; two years field trials (2018/2019 and 2019-2020) were conducted to determine the digestibility of straw and grains of 17 promising bitter vetch ecotypes(Vicia ervilia) in the north of Morocco. In vitro dry and organic matter digestibility, gas production, and kinetics of fermentation of grains and straw were evaluated using gas production technique, pepsin-cellulase enzymatic digestibility of DM (CDDM)and OM (CDOM), as well as protease enzymatic CP degradation (CPD) and in vitro true digestibility, were performed using DAISYII Incubator. In vitro digestibility was performed using gas production method of (Menke et al., 1979) improved by Menke and Steingass (1988). Samples were incubated in glass syringes that contained rumen fluid and incubation solution that conserved in water bath in 39°C during 72 hours. Gas production was recorded after 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Studied digestibility parameters were dry and organic matter digestibility, microbial biomass production, partitioning factor, and volatile fatty acids. Enzymatic dry matter digestibility was different (p < 0.05) among grains and straw for all ecotypes. It varied from 804.1 to 957.7 g/kg DM and 270.4 to 412.3 g/kg DM for grains and straw, respectively. Metabolizable energy varied between 11.7 to 14.3 MJ/kg DM and 2.6 to 5.0 MJ/kg DM for grains and straw, respectively. Potential gas production (A), the rate constants (c and d), and lag times of grains and straws from different bitter vetch ecotypes were different (p > 0.05). The results emphasized that in any evaluation of bitter vetch ecotypes, where straw of this legume seed is used as an animal feed, not only seed yield but also yield and quality of straw should be taken into consideration, particularly in areas where straw from this legume is considered as an important feedstuff for ruminants. Enzymatic digestibility was lower than in vitro digestibility by gaz production and by the DAISYII method because rumen fluid contains bacteria than increase digestibility. There was no difference between in vitro digestibility by gaz production and the DAISY II method. The DAISY II method can be used to increase labor efficiency in the in vitro DM digestibility analysis if gaz production is not necessary for analysis.

Keywords: bitter vetch, grains, straw, ecotype, in vitro digestibility, gaz production, enzymatic digestibility

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1500 Inventory of Local Forages in Indonesia That Potentially Reduce Methane (CH4) Emissions and Increase Productivity in Ruminants

Authors: Amriana Hifizah, Philip Edward Vercoe, Graeme Bruce Martin, Teuku Reza Ferasy, Muhammad Hambal


Many native forage plant species have been used in Indonesia as feed for ruminants. However, less information is available about how these plants affect productivity, let alone methane emissions. In the province of Aceh, where the traditional practice is to feed local forages to small ruminants, the farmers are not satisfied with the productivity of their livestock, and they attribute this problem to poor availability and too few options for good quality forages. Forage quality is reduced by high environmental temperatures which increase the amount of lignification. In addition to reducing productivity, these factors also increase enteric methane production. A preliminary survey about potential forage species was completed in three different districts, two of low elevation and one of high elevation: Syiah Kuala (05°30’5.08” N to 095°24’7.35” E), elevation 29 m MSL; Kajhu (05°32’34.6” N to 095°21’17.7” E), elevation 30 m MSL; Lembah Seulawah (05°28'06.4" N to 095°43' 14.2" E), elevation 254 m MSL. Information about local plants was collected in a semi-structured interview with scientists, government field officers and local farmers, in the city of Banda Aceh and in those three districts. The outcome was a list 40 species that could be useful, of which 21 were selected for further study. The selection process was based on several criteria: high availability, high protein content, low toxicity, and evidence of secondary metabolites (eg, history of medicinal plants for both human and animals). For some of the selected medicinal plants, there is experimental evidence of effects on methane production during rumen fermentation. Subsequently, the selected forages were tested for their effects on rumen fermentation in vitro, using batch culture. The data produced will be used to identify forages with the potential to reduce CH4 emissions. These candidates will then be assessed for their benefits (fermentability and productivity) and potential deleterious side-effects.

Keywords: batch culture, forage, methane, rumen

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1499 Direct Fed Microbes: A Better Approach to Maximize Utilization of Roughages in Tropical Ruminants

Authors: Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Shaukat Ali Bhatti, Faiz-ul Hassan


Manipulating microbial ecosystem in the rumen is considered as an important strategy to optimize production efficiency in ruminants. In the past, antibiotics and synthetic chemical compounds have been used for the manipulation of rumen fermentation. However, since the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics has been banned, efforts are being focused to search out safe alternative products. In tropics, crop residues and forage grazing are major dietary sources for ruminants. Poor digestibility and utilization of these feedstuffs by animals is a limiting factor to exploit the full potential of ruminants in this area. Hence, there is a need to enhance the utilization of these available feeding resources. One of the potential strategies in this regard is the use of direct-fed microbes. Bacteria and fungi are mostly used as direct-fed microbes to improve animal health and productivity. Commonly used bacterial species include lactic acid-producing and utilizing bacteria (Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Bifidobacterium, and Bacillus) and fungal species of yeast are Saccharomyces and Aspergillus. Direct-fed microbes modulate microbial balance in the gastrointestinal tract through the competitive exclusion of pathogenic species and favoring beneficial microbes. Improvement in weight gain and feed efficiency has been observed as a result of feeding direct-fed bacteria. The use of fungi as a direct-fed microbe may prevent excessive production of lactate and harmful oxygen in the rumen leading to better feed digestibility. However, the mechanistic mode of action for bacterial or fungal direct-fed microbes has not been established yet. Various reports have confirmed an increase in dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk contents in response to the administration of direct-fed microbes. However, the application of a direct-fed microbe has shown variable responses mainly attributed to dosages and strains of microbes. Nonetheless, it is concluded that the inclusion of direct-fed microbes may mediate the rumen ecosystem to manage lactic acid production and utilization in both clinical and sub-acute rumen acidosis.

Keywords: microbes, roughages, rumen, feed efficiency, production, fermentation

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1498 Effect of an Oral Dose of M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 on Lower Digestive Tract, Bacteria Count and Rumen Fermentation in Holstein Calves

Authors: M. C. Muya, L. J. Erasmus


Twenty four new born male Holstein calves were divided into two treatments groups and used to evaluate the effects of M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125. The first groups were dosed with 50 ml containing 108 CFU/mL of M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 (Me) and the control calves were not dosed. Within each of the two treatments groups, calves were divided into three treatment groups (Not dosed: 7 d, 14 d and 21 d vs dosed Me 7 d, Me14 and Me21 d (treatments), each groups contained 4 calves within which two calves were euthanized at 24 h and two calves at 72 h. Calves entered the trial until euthanize at whether 24 or 72 H after dosing time. After receiving colostrum for 3 consecutive days after birth, calves were fed whole milk and had free access to a commercial calf starter pellet and fresh water. Fecal grab samples were taken from each calf in duplicate +24 h or +72 h relative to dosing. Immediately after euthanizing, the digestive tract was harvested, and duplicate rumen and colon digesta samples collected for VFA’s determination and DNA extraction for bacteria count using 16s RNA PCR probe technique. Independent two t-test was performed to compare mean volatile fatty acids. Mixed-effects linear regressions were performed to establish relationships between: 1) M. elsdenii and Me, and between VFA’s and Me using SAS (2009). M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 was detected in the faeces, colon and rumen of dosed calves at both +24H and +72H and ranged from 1.6 x 106 to 4.9 x 109 cfu/ml, indicating its potential to colonize in the digestive tract of calves. There was a strong positive relationship (R²=0.96; P < 0.0001) between M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 and M. elsdenii population (cfu/ml) in the rumen, suggesting that the increase in M. elsdenii was due to increased M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125. An increase in butyrate was observed from +24 h to +72 h when calves were dosed on both d 7 and 14. Results showed that Me presented a positive relationship with butyrate (P < 0.001, R² = 0.43) and a concomitant negative relationship with acetate (P = 0.017, R² = -0.33). These results suggest that dosing pre-weaned dairy calves with M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 has the potential to alter ruminal VFA production through increasing proportions of butyrate at the expense of propionate.

Keywords: calves, megasphaera elsdenii, rumen fermentation, bacteria

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1497 The Changes of Chemical Composition of Rice Straw Treated by a Biodecomposer Developed from Rumen Bacterial of Buffalo

Authors: A. Natsir, M. Nadir, S. Syahrir, A. Mujnisa


In tropical countries such as in Indonesia, rice straw plays an important role in fulfilling the needs of feed for ruminant, especially during the dry season in which the availability of forage is very limited. However, the main problem of using rice straw as a feedstuff is low digestibility due to the existence of the links between lignin and cellulose or hemicellulose, and imbalance of its minerals content. One alternative to solve this problem is by application of biodecomposer (BS) derived from rumen bacterial of the ruminant. This study was designed to assess the effects of BS application on the changes of the chemical composition of rice straw. Four adults local buffalo raised under typical feeding conditions were used as a source of inoculum for BS development. The animal was fed for a month with a diet consisted of rice straw and elephant grass before taking rumen fluid samples. Samples of rumen fluid were inoculated in the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) media under anaerobic condition for 48 hours at 37°C. The mixture of CMC media and microbes are ready to be used as a biodecomposer following incubation of the mixture under anaerobic condition for 7 days at 45°C. The effectiveness of BS then assessed by applying the BS on the straw according to completely randomized design consisted of four treatments and three replication. One hundred g of ground coarse rice straw was used as the substrate. The BS was applied to the rice straw substrate with the following composition: Rice straw without BS (P0), rice straw + 5% BS (P1), rice straw +10% BS (P2), and rice straw + 15% BS. The mixture of rice straw and BS then fermented under anaerobic for four weeks. Following the fermentation, the chemical composition of rice straw was evaluated. The results indicated that the crude protein content of rice straw significantly increased (P < 0.05) as the level of BS increased. On the other hand, the concentration of crude fiber of the rice straw was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) as the level of BS increased. Other nutrients such as minerals did not change (P > 0.05) due to the treatments. In conclusion, application of BS developed from rumen bacterial of buffalo has a promising prospect to be used as a biological agent to improve the quality of rice straw as feeding for ruminant.

Keywords: biodecomposer, local buffalo, rumen microbial, chemical composition

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1496 Investigation of Influence of Maize Stover Components and Urea Treatment on Dry Matter Digestibility and Fermentation Kinetics Using in vitro Gas Techniques

Authors: Anon Paserakung, Chaloemphon Muangyen, Suban Foiklang, Yanin Opatpatanakit


Improving nutritive values and digestibility of maize stover is an alternative way to increase their utilization in ruminant and reduce air pollution from open burning of maize stover in the northern Thailand. The present study, 2x3 factorial arrangements in completely randomized design was conducted to investigate the effect of maize stover components (whole and upper stover; cut above 5th node). Urea treatment at levels 0, 3, and 6% DM on dry matter digestibility and fermentation kinetics of maize stover using in vitro gas production. After 21 days of urea treatment, results illustrated that there was no interaction between maize stover components and urea treatment on 48h in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD). IVDMD was unaffected by maize stover components (P > 0.05), average IVDMD was 55%. However, using whole maize stover gave higher cumulative gas and gas kinetic parameters than those of upper stover (P<0.05). Treating maize stover by ensiling with urea resulted in a significant linear increase in IVDMD (P<0.05). IVDMD increased from 42.6% to 53.9% when increased urea concentration from 0 to 3% and maximum IVDMD (65.1%) was observed when maize stover was ensiled with 6% urea. Maize stover treated with urea at levels of 0, 3, and 6% linearly increased cumulative gas production at 96h (31.1 vs 50.5 and 59.1 ml, respectively) and all gas kinetic parameters excepted the gas production from the immediately soluble fraction (P<0.50). The results indicate that maize stover treated with 6% urea enhance in vitro dry matter digestibility and fermentation kinetics. This study provides a practical approach to increasing utilization of maize stover in feeding ruminant animals.

Keywords: maize stover, urea treatment, ruminant feed, gas production

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1495 Assessment on Rumen Microbial Diversity of Bali Cattle Using 16S rRNA Sequencing

Authors: Asmuddin Natsir, A. Mujnisa, Syahriani Syahrir, Marhamah Nadir, Nurul Purnomo


Bacteria, protozoa, Archaea, and fungi are the dominant microorganisms found in the rumen ecosystem that has an important role in converting feed ingredients into components that can be digested and utilized by the livestock host. This study was conducted to assess the diversity of rumen bacteria of bali cattle raised under traditional farming condition. Three adult bali cattle were used in this experiment. The rumen fluid samples from the three experimental animals were obtained by the Stomach Tube method before the morning feeding. The results of study indicated that the Illumina sequencing was successful in identifying 301,589 sequences, averaging 100,533 sequences, from three rumen fluid samples of three cattle. Furthermore, based on the SILVA taxonomic database, there were 19 kinds of phyla that had been successfully identified. Of the 19 phyla, there were only two dominant groups across the three samples, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, with an average percentage of 83.68% and 13.43%, respectively. Other groups such as Synergistetes, Spirochaetae, Planctomycetes can also be identified but in relatively small percentage. At the genus level, there were 157 sequences obtained from all three samples. Of this number, the most dominant group was Prevotella 1 with a percentage of 71.82% followed by 6.94% of Christencenellaceae R-7 group. Other groups such as Prevotellaceae UCG-001, Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 group, Sphaerochaeta, Ruminococcus 2, Rikenellaceae RC9 gut group, Quinella were also identified but with very low percentages. The sequencing results were able to detect the presence of 3.06% and 3.92% respectively for uncultured rumen bacterium and uncultured bacterium. In conclusion, the results of this experiment can provide an opportunity for a better understanding of the rumen bacterial diversity of the bali cattle raised under traditional farming condition and insight regarding the uncultured rumen bacterium and uncultured bacterium that need to be further explored.

Keywords: 16S rRNA sequencing, bali cattle, rumen microbial diversity, uncultured rumen bacterium

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1494 Factors Affecting the Results of in vitro Gas Production Technique

Authors: O. Kahraman, M. S. Alatas, O. B. Citil


In determination of values of feeds which, are used in ruminant nutrition, different methods are used like in vivo, in vitro, in situ or in sacco. Generally, the most reliable results are taken from the in vivo studies. But because of the disadvantages like being hard, laborious and expensive, time consuming, being hard to keep the experiment conditions under control and too much samples are needed, the in vitro techniques are more preferred. The most widely used in vitro techniques are two-staged digestion technique and gas production technique. In vitro gas production technique is based on the measurement of the CO2 which is released as a result of microbial fermentation of the feeds. In this review, the factors affecting the results obtained from in vitro gas production technique (Hohenheim Feed Test) were discussed. Some factors must be taken into consideration when interpreting the findings obtained in these studies and also comparing the findings reported by different researchers for the same feeds. These factors were discussed in 3 groups: factors related to animal, factors related to feeds and factors related with differences in the application of method. These factors and their effects on the results were explained. Also it can be concluded that the use of in vitro gas production technique in feed evaluation routinely can be contributed to the comprehensive feed evaluation, but standardization is needed in this technique to attain more reliable results.

Keywords: In vitro, gas production technique, Hohenheim feed test, standardization

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1493 Investigation of Biogas from Slaughterhouse and Dairy Farm Waste

Authors: Saadelnour Abdueljabbar Adam


Wastes from slaughterhouses in most towns in Sudan are often poorly managed and sometimes discharged into adjoining streams due to poor implementation of standards, thus causing environmental and public health hazards and also there is a large amount of manure from dairy farms. This paper presents a solution of organic waste from cow dairy farms and slaughterhouse. We present the findings of experimental investigation of biogas production using cow manure, blood and rumen content were mixed at three proportions :72.3%, 61%, 39% manure, 6%, 8.5%, 22% blood; and 21.7%, 30.5%, 39% rumen content in volume for bio-digester 1,2,3 respectively. This paper analyses the quantitative and qualitative composition of biogas: gas content, and the concentration of methane. The highest biogas output 0.116L/g dry matter from bio-digester1 together with a high-quality biogas of 85% methane Was from the mixture of cow manure with blood and rumen content were mixed at 72.3%manure, 6%blood and 21.7%rumen content which is useful for combustion and energy production. While bio-digester 2 and 3 gave 0.012L/g dry matter and 0.013L/g dry matter respectively with the weak concentration of methane (50%).

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, bio-digester, blood, cow manure, rumen content

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1492 In vitro Analysis of the Effect of Supplementation Oils on Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Butyvibrio Fibrisolvense

Authors: B. D. Ravindra, A. K. Tyagi, C. Kathirvelan


Some micronutrients in food (milk and meat), called ‘functional food components’ exert beneficial effects other than their routine nutrient function and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an unsaturated fatty acid of ruminant origin, an example of this category. However, recently the fear of hypercholesterolemia due to saturated fats has led to the avoidance of dietary fat especially of animal origin despite its advantages such as lowering blood cholesterol, immuno-modulation and anticarcinogenic property due to the presence of CLA. The dietary increase of linoleic acid (LA) and linolenic acid (LNA) is one of the feeding strategies for increasing the CLA concentration in milk. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens is the one potential rumen bacteria, which has high potential to isomerize LA to CLA. The study was conducted to screen the different oils for CLA production, selected based on their LA concentration. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens culture (strain 49, MZ3, 30/10) were isolated from the rumen liquor of fistulated Buffalo (age ≈ 3 years; weight ≈ 250 kg) were used in in-vitro experiments, further work was carried out with three oils viz., sunflower, mustard and soybean oil at different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 g/L of media) to study the growth of bacteria and CLA production at different incubation period (0, 8, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72 h). In the present study, growth of the bacteria was decreased linearly with increase in concentration of three oils. However, highest decrease in growth was recorded at the concentration of 0.30 g of three oils per litre of the media. Highest CLA production was 51.96, 42.08 and 25.60 µg/ml at 0.25 g and it decreased to 48.19, 39.35 and 23.41 µg/ml at 0.3 g supplementation of sunflower, soybean, and mustard oil per litre of the media, respectively at 18 h incubation period. The present study indicates the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens bacteria involves in the biohydrogenation process, and LA rich sunflower meal can be used to improve the CLA production in rumen and thereby increasing the CLA concentration of milk.

Keywords: Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, CLA, fatty acids, sunflower oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
1491 The Effect of Concentrate Containing Probiotics on Fermentation Characteristics and in vitro Nutrient Digestibility

Authors: B. Santoso, B. Tj. Hariadi, H. Abubakar


The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of probiotic addition in concentrate on fermentation characteristics and in vitro nutrient digestibility of the grass Pennisetum purpureophoides. Two strains lactic acid bacteria (LAB) i.e Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidhophilus, and one strain yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as probiotic. The probiotics was added at 2% and 4% (v/w) in the concentrate. The result showed the concentrate containing between 1.5 × 106 and 3 × 107 CFU/g of lactic acid bacteria and 3 × 103 CFU/g of S. cerevisiae. The DM, OM and NDF digestibility were higher (P<0.01) in grass substrate with concentrate than in grass alone. Addition of probiotic in concentrate increased (P<0.01) DM, OM and NDF compared to concentrate without probiotic. Total VFA and propionic acid concentrations were higher (P<0.01) in grass substrate with concentrate than in grass alone. Concentration of acetic acid decreased (P<0.01) in grass substrate with concentrate than in grass substrate alone. Addition of L. plantarum and L. acidophilus and S. cerevisiae in concentrate increased (P<0.01) propionic acid concentration. It was concluded that addition of probiotic in concentrate increased propionic concentration and in vitro nutrient digestibility.

Keywords: by-products, concentrate, digestibility, probiotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
1490 Ruminal Fermentation of Biologically Active Nitrate- and Nitro-Containing Forages

Authors: Robin Anderson, David Nisbet


Nitrate, 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA) and 3-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH) are biologically active chemicals that can accumulate naturally in rangeland grasses forages consumed by grazing cattle, sheep and goats. While toxic to livestock if accumulations and amounts consumed are high enough, particularly in animals having no recent exposure to the forages, these chemicals are known to be potent inhibitors of methane-producing bacteria inhabiting the rumen. Consequently, there is interest in examining their potential use as anti-methanogenic compounds to decrease methane emissions by grazing ruminants. Presently, rumen microbes, collected freshly from a cannulated Holstein cow maintained on 50:50 corn based concentrate:alfalfa diet were mixed (10 mL fluid) in 18 x 150 mm crimp top tubes with 0.5 of high nitrate-containing barley (Hordeum vulgare; containing 272 µmol nitrate per g forage dry matter), and NPA- or NPOH- containing milkvetch forages (Astragalus canadensis and Astragalus miser containing 80 and 174 soluble µmol NPA or NPOH/g forage dry matter respectively). Incubations containing 0.5 g alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were used as controls. Tubes (3 per each respective forage) were capped and incubated anaerobically (using oxygen free carbon dioxide) for 24 h at 39oC after which time amounts of total gas produced were measured via volume displacement and headspace samples were analyzed by gas chromatography to determine concentrations of hydrogen and methane. Fluid samples were analyzed by gas chromatography to measure accumulations of fermentation acids. A completely randomized analysis of variance revealed that the nitrate-containing barley and both the NPA- and the NPOH-containing milkvetches significantly decreased methane production, by > 50%, when compared to methane produced by populations incubated similarly with alfalfa (70.4 ± 3.6 µmol/ml incubation fluid). Accumulations of hydrogen, which are typically increased when methane production is inhibited, by incubations with the nitrate-containing barley and the NPA- and NPOH-containing milkvetches did not differ from accumulations observed in the alfalfa controls (0.09 ± 0.04 µmol/mL incubation fluid). Accumulations of fermentation acids produced in the incubations containing the high-nitrate barley and the NPA- and NPOH-containing milkvetches likewise did not differ from accumulations observed in incubations containing alfalfa (123.5 ± 10.8, 36.0 ± 3.0, 17.1 ± 1.5, 3.5 ± 0.3, 2.3 ± 0.2, 2.2 ± 0.2 µmol/mL incubation fluid for acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate, respectively). This finding indicates the microbial populations did not compensate for the decreased methane production via compensatory changes in production of fermentative acids. Stoichiometric estimation of fermentation balance revealed that > 77% of reducing equivalents generated during fermentation of the forages were recovered in fermentation products and the recoveries did not differ between the alfalfa incubations and those with the high-nitrate barley or the NPA- or NPOH-containing milkvetches. Stoichiometric estimates of amounts of hexose fermented similarly did not differ between the nitrate-, NPA and NPOH-containing incubations and those with the alfalfa, averaging 99.6 ± 37.2 µmol hexose consumed/mL of incubation fluid. These results suggest that forages containing nitrate, NPA or NPOH may be useful to reduce methane emissions of grazing ruminants provided risks of toxicity can be effectively managed.

Keywords: nitrate, nitropropanol, nitropropionic acid, rumen methane emissions

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1489 Comparative Rumen Degradable and Rumen Undegradable Fractions in Untreated, Formaldehyde and Heat Treated Vegetable Protein Sources of Pakistan

Authors: Illahi Bakhsh Marghazani, Nasrullah, Masood Ul Haq Kakar, Abdul Hameed Baloch, Ahmad Nawaz Khoso, Behram Chacher


Protein sources are the major part of ration fed to dairy buffaloes in Pakistan however, the limited availability and lack of judicious use of protein resources are further aggravating the conditions to enhance milk and meat production. In order to gain maximum production from limited protein source availability, it is necessary to balance feed for rumen degradable and rumen undegradable protein fractions. This study planned to know the rumen degradable and rumen undegradable fractions in all vegetable protein sources with (formaldehyde and heat treatment) and without treatments. Samples of soybean meal, corn gluten meal 60%, maize gluten feed, guar meal, sunflower meal, rapeseed meal, rapeseed cake, canola meal, cottonseed cake, cottonseed meal, coconut cake, coconut meal, palm kernel cake, almond cake and sesame cake were collected from ten different geographical locations of Pakistan. These samples were also subjected to formaldehyde (1% /100g CP of test feed) and heat treatments (1 hr at 15 lb psi/100 g CP of test feed). In situ technique was used to know the ruminal degradability characteristics. Data obtained were fitted to Orskove equation. Results showed that both treatments significantly (P < 0.05) decreased ruminal degradability in all vegetable protein sources than untreated vegetable protein sources, however, of both treatments, heat treatment was more effective than formaldehyde treatment in decreasing ruminal degradability in most of the studied vegetable protein sources.

Keywords: formaldehyde and heat treatments, in situ technique, rumen degradable and rumen undegradable fractions, vegetable protein sources

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1488 Changes in the Quantity of Milk and the PH and Temperature of Rumen Content, after Surgical Treatment of Displaced Abomasum

Authors: Ramūnas Antanaitis, Robertas Stoškus, Mindaugas Televičius


The objective is to identify changes in the quantity of milk and the pH and the temperature of rumen content after omentopexia. The research was performed in a dairy farm with 550 cows on December 2014 – January 2015. The sample consisted of 10 cows. Left-sided displacement of the abomasums was diagnosed in 5 of them, which was treated by lateral omentopexia according to Dirksen; the rest 5 were used for control. Additional treatment was not applied. A special bolus for measuring pH and temperature was administered to the rumen of healthy cows and cows after the operation. The quantity of milk was registered with the help of herd management program Westfalia DP C21. All data were recorded ones a week in the period of four weeks. Statistically reliable difference in the quantity of milk (p<0.05) between the research groups was observed during the entire research. The major difference was recorded on Week 1 after the treatment (29.18 kg/d); on Week 4, the difference was 13.97 kg/d. During the entire research, rumen pH of Test group was lower than that of the Control group. Statistically reliable difference between the groups was identified on Week 1 (p<0.05). On the period mentioned, the pH of the rumen content of Test group was lower by 0.42 than that of the Control group. On Week 3, the difference increased up to 0.84. On Weeks 1, 2, and 3, statistically reliable (p<0.05) higher temperature was observed in the Test group. Major difference of temperature, 1.81 °C, was recorded on Week 1. On Week 4, the temperature of rumen in the Test group became equal to that of the Control group. After omentopexia treatment, the first four weeks showed the following results: statistically reliable difference in the quantity of milk remains the most obvious in Week 1 after the treatment; cows with left-sided displacement of abomasums were exposed to greater risk of acidosis; they indicated lower pH of rumen content; the first two weeks after omentopexia, rumen content has increased temperature, especially obvious in Week 1.

Keywords: Displacement of the abomasum, omentopexia, acidosis

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1487 Extractive Fermentation of Ethanol Using Vacuum Fractionation Technique

Authors: Weeraya Samnuknit, Apichat Boontawan


A vacuum fractionation technique was introduced to remove ethanol from fermentation broth. The effect of initial glucose and ethanol concentrations were investigated for specific productivity. The inhibitory ethanol concentration was observed at 100 g/L. In order to increase the fermentation performance, the ethanol product was removed as soon as it is produced. The broth was boiled at 35°C by reducing the pressure to 65 mBar. The ethanol/water vapor was fractionated for up to 90 wt% before leaving the column. Ethanol concentration in the broth was kept lower than 25 g/L, thus minimized the product inhibition effect to the yeast cells. For batch extractive fermentation, a high substrate utilization rate was obtained at 26.6 g/L.h and most of glucose was consumed within 21 h. For repeated-batch extractive fermentation, addition of glucose was carried out up to 9 times and ethanol was produced more than 8-fold higher than batch fermentation.

Keywords: ethanol, extractive fermentation, product inhibition, vacuum fractionation

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
1486 Effects of Fermentation Techniques on the Quality of Cocoa Beans

Authors: Monday O. Ale, Adebukola A. Akintade, Olasunbo O. Orungbemi


Fermentation as an important operation in the processing of cocoa beans is now affected by the recent climate change across the globe. The major requirement for effective fermentation is the ability of the material used to retain sufficient heat for the required microbial activities. Apart from the effects of climate on the rate of heat retention, the materials used for fermentation plays an important role. Most Farmers still restrict fermentation activities to the use of traditional methods. Improving on cocoa fermentation in this era of climate change makes it necessary to work on other materials that can be suitable for cocoa fermentation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of fermentation techniques on the quality of cocoa beans. The materials used in this fermentation research were heap-leaves (traditional), stainless steel, plastic tin, plastic basket and wooden box. The period of fermentation varies from zero days to 10 days. Physical and chemical tests were carried out for variables in quality determination in the samples. The weight per bean varied from 1.0-1.2 g after drying across the samples and the major color of the dry beans observed was brown except with the samples from stainless steel. The moisture content varied from 5.5-7%. The mineral content and the heavy metals decreased with increase in the fermentation period. A wooden box can conclusively be used as an alternative to heap-leaves as there was no significant difference in the physical features of the samples fermented with the two methods. The use of a wooden box as an alternative for cocoa fermentation is therefore recommended for cocoa farmers.

Keywords: fermentation, effects, fermentation materials, period, quality

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1485 Medium Composition for the Laboratory Production of Enzyme Fructosyltransferase (FTase)

Authors: O. R. Raimi, A. Lateef


Inoculum developments of A. niger were used for inoculation of medium for submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation. The filtrate obtained were used as sources of the extra-cellular enzymes. The FTase activities and the course of pH in submerged fermentation ranged from 7.53-24.42µ/ml and 4.4-4.8 respectively. The maximum FTase activity was obtained at 48 hours fermentation. In solid state fermentation, FTase activities ranged from 2.41-27.77µ/ml. Using ripe plantain peel and kola nut pod respectively. Both substrates supported the growth of the fungus, producing profuse growth during fermentation. In the control experiment (using kolanut pod) that lack supplementation, appreciable FTase activity of 16.92µ/ml was obtained. The optimum temperature range was 600C. it was also active at broad pH range of 1-9 with optimum obtain at pH of 5.0. FTase was stable within the range of investigated pH showing more than 60% activities. FTase can be used in the production of fructooligosaccharide, a functional food.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, solid state fermentation, kola nut pods, Fructosyltransferase (FTase)

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
1484 Evaluation of Microbial Community, Biochemical and Physiological Properties of Korean Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) Vinegar Manufacturing Process

Authors: Nho-Eul Song, Sang-Ho Baik


Fermentation characteristics of black raspberry vinegar by using static cultures without any additives were has been investigated to establish of vinegar manufacturing conditions and improve the quality of vinegar by optimization the vinegar manufacturing process. The two vinegar manufacturing conditions were prepared; one-step fermentation condition only using mother vinegar that prepared naturally occurring black raspberry vinegar without starter yeast for alcohol fermentation (traditional method) and two-step fermentation condition using commercial wine yeast and mother vinegar for acetic acid fermentation. Approximately 12% ethanol was produced after 35 days fermentation with log 7.6 CFU/mL of yeast population in one-step fermentation, resulting sugar reduction from 14 to 6oBrix whereas in two-step fermentation, ethanol concentration was reached up to 8% after 27 days with continuous increasing yeast until log 7.0 CFU/mL. In addition, yeast and ethanol were decreased after day 60 accompanied with proliferation of acetic acid bacteria (log 5.8 CFU/mL) and titratable acidity; 4.4% in traditional method and 6% in two-step fermentation method. DGGE analysis showed that S. cerevisiae was detected until 77 days of traditional fermentation and gradually changed to AAB, Acetobacter pasteurianus, as dominant species and Komagataeibacter xylinus at the end of the fermentation. However, S. cerevisiae and A. pasteurianus was dominant in two-step fermentation process. The prepared two-step fermentation showed enhanced total polyphenol and flavonoid content significantly resulting in higher radical scavenging activity. Our studies firstly revealed the microbial community change with chemical change and demonstrated a suitable fermentation system for black raspberry vinegar by the static surface method.

Keywords: bacteria, black raspberry, vinegar fermentation, yeast

Procedia PDF Downloads 317