Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22818

Search results for: LSB based steganography

22818 Implementation and Performance Analysis of Data Encryption Standard and RSA Algorithm with Image Steganography and Audio Steganography

Authors: S. C. Sharma, Ankit Gambhir, Rajeev Arya

Abstract:

In today’s era data security is an important concern and most demanding issues because it is essential for people using online banking, e-shopping, reservations etc. The two major techniques that are used for secure communication are Cryptography and Steganography. Cryptographic algorithms scramble the data so that intruder will not able to retrieve it; however steganography covers that data in some cover file so that presence of communication is hidden. This paper presents the implementation of Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman (RSA) Algorithm with Image and Audio Steganography and Data Encryption Standard (DES) Algorithm with Image and Audio Steganography. The coding for both the algorithms have been done using MATLAB and its observed that these techniques performed better than individual techniques. The risk of unauthorized access is alleviated up to a certain extent by using these techniques. These techniques could be used in Banks, RAW agencies etc, where highly confidential data is transferred. Finally, the comparisons of such two techniques are also given in tabular forms.

Keywords: audio steganography, data security, DES, image steganography, intruder, RSA, steganography

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
22817 A Novel Image Steganography Scheme Based on Mandelbrot Fractal

Authors: Adnan H. M. Al-Helali, Hamza A. Ali

Abstract:

Growth of censorship and pervasive monitoring on the Internet, Steganography arises as a new means of achieving secret communication. Steganography is the art and science of embedding information within electronic media used by common applications and systems. Generally, hiding information of multimedia within images will change some of their properties that may introduce few degradation or unusual characteristics. This paper presents a new image steganography approach for hiding information of multimedia (images, text, and audio) using generated Mandelbrot Fractal image as a cover. The proposed technique has been extensively tested with different images. The results show that the method is a very secure means of hiding and retrieving steganographic information. Experimental results demonstrate that an effective improvement in the values of the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE), Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC) and Image Fidelity (IF) over the previous techniques.

Keywords: fractal image, information hiding, Mandelbrot et fractal, steganography

Procedia PDF Downloads 459
22816 A Novel Image Steganography Method Based on Mandelbrot Fractal

Authors: Adnan H. M. Al-Helali, Hamza A. Ali

Abstract:

The growth of censorship and pervasive monitoring on the Internet, Steganography arises as a new means of achieving secret communication. Steganography is the art and science of embedding information within electronic media used by common applications and systems. Generally, hiding information of multimedia within images will change some of their properties that may introduce few degradation or unusual characteristics. This paper presents a new image steganography approach for hiding information of multimedia (images, text, and audio) using generated Mandelbrot Fractal image as a cover. The proposed technique has been extensively tested with different images. The results show that the method is a very secure means of hiding and retrieving steganographic information. Experimental results demonstrate that an effective improvement in the values of the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE), Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC), and Image Fidelity (IF) over the pervious techniques.

Keywords: fractal image, information hiding, Mandelbrot set fractal, steganography

Procedia PDF Downloads 472
22815 Image Steganography Using Least Significant Bit Technique

Authors: Preeti Kumari, Ridhi Kapoor

Abstract:

 In any communication, security is the most important issue in today’s world. In this paper, steganography is the process of hiding the important data into other data, such as text, audio, video, and image. The interest in this topic is to provide availability, confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of data. The steganographic technique that embeds hides content with unremarkable cover media so as not to provoke eavesdropper’s suspicion or third party and hackers. In which many applications of compression, encryption, decryption, and embedding methods are used for digital image steganography. Due to compression, the nose produces in the image. To sustain noise in the image, the LSB insertion technique is used. The performance of the proposed embedding system with respect to providing security to secret message and robustness is discussed. We also demonstrate the maximum steganography capacity and visual distortion.

Keywords: steganography, LSB, encoding, information hiding, color image

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
22814 An Improved Image Steganography Technique Based on Least Significant Bit Insertion

Authors: Olaiya Folorunsho, Comfort Y. Daramola, Joel N. Ugwu, Lawrence B. Adewole, Olufisayo S. Ekundayo

Abstract:

In today world, there is a tremendous rise in the usage of internet due to the fact that almost all the communication and information sharing is done over the web. Conversely, there is a continuous growth of unauthorized access to confidential data. This has posed a challenge to information security expertise whose major goal is to curtail the menace. One of the approaches to secure the safety delivery of data/information to the rightful destination without any modification is steganography. Steganography is the art of hiding information inside an embedded information. This research paper aimed at designing a secured algorithm with the use of image steganographic technique that makes use of Least Significant Bit (LSB) algorithm for embedding the data into the bit map image (bmp) in order to enhance security and reliability. In the LSB approach, the basic idea is to replace the LSB of the pixels of the cover image with the Bits of the messages to be hidden without destroying the property of the cover image significantly. The system was implemented using C# programming language of Microsoft.NET framework. The performance evaluation of the proposed system was experimented by conducting a benchmarking test for analyzing the parameters like Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The result showed that image steganography performed considerably in securing data hiding and information transmission over the networks.

Keywords: steganography, image steganography, least significant bits, bit map image

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
22813 A Survey of Feature-Based Steganalysis for JPEG Images

Authors: Syeda Mainaaz Unnisa, Deepa Suresh

Abstract:

Due to the increase in usage of public domain channels, such as the internet, and communication technology, there is a concern about the protection of intellectual property and security threats. This interest has led to growth in researching and implementing techniques for information hiding. Steganography is the art and science of hiding information in a private manner such that its existence cannot be recognized. Communication using steganographic techniques makes not only the secret message but also the presence of hidden communication, invisible. Steganalysis is the art of detecting the presence of this hidden communication. Parallel to steganography, steganalysis is also gaining prominence, since the detection of hidden messages can prevent catastrophic security incidents from occurring. Steganalysis can also be incredibly helpful in identifying and revealing holes with the current steganographic techniques, which makes them vulnerable to attacks. Through the formulation of new effective steganalysis methods, further research to improve the resistance of tested steganography techniques can be developed. Feature-based steganalysis method for JPEG images calculates the features of an image using the L1 norm of the difference between a stego image and the calibrated version of the image. This calibration can help retrieve some of the parameters of the cover image, revealing the variations between the cover and stego image and enabling a more accurate detection. Applying this method to various steganographic schemes, experimental results were compared and evaluated to derive conclusions and principles for more protected JPEG steganography.

Keywords: cover image, feature-based steganalysis, information hiding, steganalysis, steganography

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
22812 Secure E-Pay System Using Steganography and Visual Cryptography

Authors: K. Suganya Devi, P. Srinivasan, M. P. Vaishnave, G. Arutperumjothi

Abstract:

Today’s internet world is highly prone to various online attacks, of which the most harmful attack is phishing. The attackers host the fake websites which are very similar and look alike. We propose an image based authentication using steganography and visual cryptography to prevent phishing. This paper presents a secure steganographic technique for true color (RGB) images and uses Discrete Cosine Transform to compress the images. The proposed method hides the secret data inside the cover image. The use of visual cryptography is to preserve the privacy of an image by decomposing the original image into two shares. Original image can be identified only when both qualified shares are simultaneously available. Individual share does not reveal the identity of the original image. Thus, the existence of the secret message is hard to be detected by the RS steganalysis.

Keywords: image security, random LSB, steganography, visual cryptography

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
22811 An Optimal Steganalysis Based Approach for Embedding Information in Image Cover Media with Security

Authors: Ahlem Fatnassi, Hamza Gharsellaoui, Sadok Bouamama

Abstract:

This paper deals with the study of interest in the fields of Steganography and Steganalysis. Steganography involves hiding information in a cover media to obtain the stego media in such a way that the cover media is perceived not to have any embedded message for its unintended recipients. Steganalysis is the mechanism of detecting the presence of hidden information in the stego media and it can lead to the prevention of disastrous security incidents. In this paper, we provide a critical review of the steganalysis algorithms available to analyze the characteristics of an image stego media against the corresponding cover media and understand the process of embedding the information and its detection. We anticipate that this paper can also give a clear picture of the current trends in steganography so that we can develop and improvise appropriate steganalysis algorithms.

Keywords: optimization, heuristics and metaheuristics algorithms, embedded systems, low-power consumption, steganalysis heuristic approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
22810 Text Based Shuffling Algorithm on Graphics Processing Unit for Digital Watermarking

Authors: Zayar Phyo, Ei Chaw Htoon

Abstract:

In a New-LSB based Steganography method, the Fisher-Yates algorithm is used to permute an existing array randomly. However, that algorithm performance became slower and occurred memory overflow problem while processing the large dimension of images. Therefore, the Text-Based Shuffling algorithm aimed to select only necessary pixels as hiding characters at the specific position of an image according to the length of the input text. In this paper, the enhanced text-based shuffling algorithm is presented with the powered of GPU to improve more excellent performance. The proposed algorithm employs the OpenCL Aparapi framework, along with XORShift Kernel including the Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) Kernel. PRNG is applied to produce random numbers inside the kernel of OpenCL. The experiment of the proposed algorithm is carried out by practicing GPU that it can perform faster-processing speed and better efficiency without getting the disruption of unnecessary operating system tasks.

Keywords: LSB based steganography, Fisher-Yates algorithm, text-based shuffling algorithm, OpenCL, XORShiftKernel

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
22809 Secure Text Steganography for Microsoft Word Document

Authors: Khan Farhan Rafat, M. Junaid Hussain

Abstract:

Seamless modification of an entity for the purpose of hiding a message of significance inside its substance in a manner that the embedding remains oblivious to an observer is known as steganography. Together with today's pervasive registering frameworks, steganography has developed into a science that offers an assortment of strategies for stealth correspondence over the globe that must, however, need a critical appraisal from security breach standpoint. Microsoft Word is amongst the preferably used word processing software, which comes as a part of the Microsoft Office suite. With a user-friendly graphical interface, the richness of text editing, and formatting topographies, the documents produced through this software are also most suitable for stealth communication. This research aimed not only to epitomize the fundamental concepts of steganography but also to expound on the utilization of Microsoft Word document as a carrier for furtive message exchange. The exertion is to examine contemporary message hiding schemes from security aspect so as to present the explorative discoveries and suggest enhancements which may serve a wellspring of information to encourage such futuristic research endeavors.

Keywords: hiding information in plain sight, stealth communication, oblivious information exchange, conceal, steganography

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
22808 Development of a Data Security Model Using Steganography

Authors: Terungwa Simon Yange, Agana Moses A.

Abstract:

This paper studied steganography and designed a simplistic approach to a steganographic tool for hiding information in image files with the view of addressing the security challenges with data by hiding data from unauthorized users to improve its security. The Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM) was used in this work. The system was developed using Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.7.0_10 and MySQL Server as its backend. The system was tested with some hypothetical health records which proved the possibility of protecting data from unauthorized users by making it secret so that its existence cannot be easily recognized by fraudulent users. It further strengthens the confidentiality of patient records kept by medical practitioners in the health setting. In conclusion, this work was able to produce a user friendly steganography software that is very fast to install and easy to operate to ensure privacy and secrecy of sensitive data. It also produced an exact copy of the original image and the one carrying the secret message when compared with each.

Keywords: steganography, cryptography, encryption, decryption, secrecy

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
22807 High Performance Electrocardiogram Steganography Based on Fast Discrete Cosine Transform

Authors: Liang-Ta Cheng, Ching-Yu Yang

Abstract:

Based on fast discrete cosine transform (FDCT), the authors present a high capacity and high perceived quality method for electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. By using a simple adjusting policy to the 1-dimentional (1-D) DCT coefficients, a large volume of secret message can be effectively embedded in an ECG host signal and be successfully extracted at the intended receiver. Simulations confirmed that the resulting perceived quality is good, while the hiding capability of the proposed method significantly outperforms that of existing techniques. In addition, our proposed method has a certain degree of robustness. Since the computational complexity is low, it is feasible for our method being employed in real-time applications.

Keywords: data hiding, ECG steganography, fast discrete cosine transform, 1-D DCT bundle, real-time applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
22806 High Secure Data Hiding Using Cropping Image and Least Significant Bit Steganography

Authors: Khalid A. Al-Afandy, El-Sayyed El-Rabaie, Osama Salah, Ahmed El-Mhalaway

Abstract:

This paper presents a high secure data hiding technique using image cropping and Least Significant Bit (LSB) steganography. The predefined certain secret coordinate crops will be extracted from the cover image. The secret text message will be divided into sections. These sections quantity is equal the image crops quantity. Each section from the secret text message will embed into an image crop with a secret sequence using LSB technique. The embedding is done using the cover image color channels. Stego image is given by reassembling the image and the stego crops. The results of the technique will be compared to the other state of art techniques. Evaluation is based on visualization to detect any degradation of stego image, the difficulty of extracting the embedded data by any unauthorized viewer, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio of stego image (PSNR), and the embedding algorithm CPU time. Experimental results ensure that the proposed technique is more secure compared with the other traditional techniques.

Keywords: steganography, stego, LSB, crop

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22805 Mathematical Model That Using Scrambling and Message Integrity Methods in Audio Steganography

Authors: Mohammed Salem Atoum

Abstract:

The success of audio steganography is to ensure imperceptibility of the embedded message in stego file and withstand any form of intentional or un-intentional degradation of message (robustness). Audio steganographic that utilized LSB of audio stream to embed message gain a lot of popularity over the years in meeting the perceptual transparency, robustness and capacity. This research proposes an XLSB technique in order to circumvent the weakness observed in LSB technique. Scrambling technique is introduce in two steps; partitioning the message into blocks followed by permutation each blocks in order to confuse the contents of the message. The message is embedded in the MP3 audio sample. After extracting the message, the permutation codebook is used to re-order it into its original form. Md5sum and SHA-256 are used to verify whether the message is altered or not during transmission. Experimental result shows that the XLSB performs better than LSB.

Keywords: XLSB, scrambling, audio steganography, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
22804 Applying Different Stenography Techniques in Cloud Computing Technology to Improve Cloud Data Privacy and Security Issues

Authors: Muhammad Muhammad Suleiman

Abstract:

Cloud Computing is a versatile concept that refers to a service that allows users to outsource their data without having to worry about local storage issues. However, the most pressing issues to be addressed are maintaining a secure and reliable data repository rather than relying on untrustworthy service providers. In this study, we look at how stenography approaches and collaboration with Digital Watermarking can greatly improve the system's effectiveness and data security when used for Cloud Computing. The main requirement of such frameworks, where data is transferred or exchanged between servers and users, is safe data management in cloud environments. Steganography is the cloud is among the most effective methods for safe communication. Steganography is a method of writing coded messages in such a way that only the sender and recipient can safely interpret and display the information hidden in the communication channel. This study presents a new text steganography method for hiding a loaded hidden English text file in a cover English text file to ensure data protection in cloud computing. Data protection, data hiding capability, and time were all improved using the proposed technique.

Keywords: cloud computing, steganography, information hiding, cloud storage, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
22803 A Novel Approach of Secret Communication Using Douglas-Peucker Algorithm

Authors: R. Kiruthika, A. Kannan

Abstract:

Steganography is the problem of hiding secret messages in 'innocent – looking' public communication so that the presence of the secret message cannot be detected. This paper introduces a steganographic security in terms of computational in-distinguishability from a channel of probability distributions on cover messages. This method first splits the cover image into two separate blocks using Douglas – Peucker algorithm. The text message and the image will be hided in the Least Significant Bit (LSB) of the cover image.

Keywords: steganography, lsb, embedding, Douglas-Peucker algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
22802 Image Steganography Using Predictive Coding for Secure Transmission

Authors: Baljit Singh Khehra, Jagreeti Kaur

Abstract:

In this paper, steganographic strategy is used to hide the text file inside an image. To increase the storage limit, predictive coding is utilized to implant information. In the proposed plan, one can exchange secure information by means of predictive coding methodology. The predictive coding produces high stego-image. The pixels are utilized to insert mystery information in it. The proposed information concealing plan is powerful as contrasted with the existing methodologies. By applying this strategy, a provision helps clients to productively conceal the information. Entropy, standard deviation, mean square error and peak signal noise ratio are the parameters used to evaluate the proposed methodology. The results of proposed approach are quite promising.

Keywords: cryptography, steganography, reversible image, predictive coding

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
22801 Security System for Safe Transmission of Medical Image

Authors: Mohammed Jamal Al-Mansor, Kok Beng Gan

Abstract:

This paper develops an optimized embedding of payload in medical image by using genetic optimization. The goal is to preserve region of interest from being distorted because of the watermark. By using this developed system there is no need of manual defining of region of interest through experts as the system will apply the genetic optimization to select the parts of image that can carry the watermark with guaranteeing less distortion. The experimental results assure that genetic based optimization is useful for performing steganography with less mean square error percentage.

Keywords: AES, DWT, genetic algorithm, watermarking

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
22800 Reversible Information Hitting in Encrypted JPEG Bitstream by LSB Based on Inherent Algorithm

Authors: Vaibhav Barve

Abstract:

Reversible information hiding has drawn a lot of interest as of late. Being reversible, we can restore unique computerized data totally. It is a plan where mystery data is put away in digital media like image, video, audio to maintain a strategic distance from unapproved access and security reason. By and large JPEG bit stream is utilized to store this key data, first JPEG bit stream is encrypted into all around sorted out structure and then this secret information or key data is implanted into this encrypted region by marginally changing the JPEG bit stream. Valuable pixels suitable for information implanting are computed and as indicated by this key subtle elements are implanted. In our proposed framework we are utilizing RC4 algorithm for encrypting JPEG bit stream. Encryption key is acknowledged by framework user which, likewise, will be used at the time of decryption. We are executing enhanced least significant bit supplanting steganography by utilizing genetic algorithm. At first, the quantity of bits that must be installed in a guaranteed coefficient is versatile. By utilizing proper parameters, we can get high capacity while ensuring high security. We are utilizing logistic map for shuffling of bits and utilization GA (Genetic Algorithm) to find right parameters for the logistic map. Information embedding key is utilized at the time of information embedding. By utilizing precise picture encryption and information embedding key, the beneficiary can, without much of a stretch, concentrate the incorporated secure data and totally recoup the first picture and also the original secret information. At the point when the embedding key is truant, the first picture can be recouped pretty nearly with sufficient quality without getting the embedding key of interest.

Keywords: data embedding, decryption, encryption, reversible data hiding, steganography

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
22799 Secured Embedding of Patient’s Confidential Data in Electrocardiogram Using Chaotic Maps

Authors: Butta Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents a chaotic map based approach for secured embedding of patient’s confidential data in electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. The chaotic map generates predefined locations through the use of selective control parameters. The sample value difference method effectually hides the confidential data in ECG sample pairs at these predefined locations. Evaluation of proposed method on all 48 records of MIT-BIH arrhythmia ECG database demonstrates that the embedding does not alter the diagnostic features of cover ECG. The secret data imperceptibility in stego-ECG is evident through various statistical and clinical performance measures. Statistical metrics comprise of Percentage Root Mean Square Difference (PRD) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). Further, a comparative analysis between proposed method and existing approaches was also performed. The results clearly demonstrated the superiority of proposed method.

Keywords: chaotic maps, ECG steganography, data embedding, electrocardiogram

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22798 Robust Image Design Based Steganographic System

Authors: Sadiq J. Abou-Loukh, Hanan M. Habbi

Abstract:

This paper presents a steganography to hide the transmitted information without excite suspicious and also illustrates the level of secrecy that can be increased by using cryptography techniques. The proposed system has been implemented firstly by encrypted image file one time pad key and secondly encrypted message that hidden to perform encryption followed by image embedding. Then the new image file will be created from the original image by using four triangles operation, the new image is processed by one of two image processing techniques. The proposed two processing techniques are thresholding and differential predictive coding (DPC). Afterwards, encryption or decryption keys are generated by functional key generator. The generator key is used one time only. Encrypted text will be hidden in the places that are not used for image processing and key generation system has high embedding rate (0.1875 character/pixel) for true color image (24 bit depth).

Keywords: encryption, thresholding, differential predictive coding, four triangles operation

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22797 Estimating Lost Digital Video Frames Using Unidirectional and Bidirectional Estimation Based on Autoregressive Time Model

Authors: Navid Daryasafar, Nima Farshidfar

Abstract:

In this article, we make attempt to hide error in video with an emphasis on the time-wise use of autoregressive (AR) models. To resolve this problem, we assume that all information in one or more video frames is lost. Then, lost frames are estimated using analogous Pixels time information in successive frames. Accordingly, after presenting autoregressive models and how they are applied to estimate lost frames, two general methods are presented for using these models. The first method which is the same standard method of autoregressive models estimates lost frame in unidirectional form. Usually, in such condition, previous frames information is used for estimating lost frame. Yet, in the second method, information from the previous and next frames is used for estimating the lost frame. As a result, this method is known as bidirectional estimation. Then, carrying out a series of tests, performance of each method is assessed in different modes. And, results are compared.

Keywords: error steganography, unidirectional estimation, bidirectional estimation, AR linear estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
22796 Digital Image Steganography with Multilayer Security

Authors: Amar Partap Singh Pharwaha, Balkrishan Jindal

Abstract:

In this paper, a new method is developed for hiding image in a digital image with multilayer security. In the proposed method, the secret image is encrypted in the first instance using a flexible matrix based symmetric key to add first layer of security. Then another layer of security is added to the secret data by encrypting the ciphered data using Pythagorean Theorem method. The ciphered data bits (4 bits) produced after double encryption are then embedded within digital image in the spatial domain using Least Significant Bits (LSBs) substitution. To improve the image quality of the stego-image, an improved form of pixel adjustment process is proposed. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, image quality metrics including Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE), entropy, correlation, mean value and Universal Image Quality Index (UIQI) are measured. It has been found experimentally that the proposed method provides higher security as well as robustness. In fact, the results of this study are quite promising.

Keywords: Pythagorean theorem, pixel adjustment, ciphered data, image hiding, least significant bit, flexible matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
22795 A New Authenticable Steganographic Method via the Use of Numeric Data on Public Websites

Authors: Che-Wei Lee, Bay-Erl Lai

Abstract:

A new steganographic method via the use of numeric data on public websites with self-authentication capability is proposed. The proposed technique transforms a secret message into partial shares by Shamir’s (k, n)-threshold secret sharing scheme with n = k + 1. The generated k+1 partial shares then are embedded into the selected numeric items in a website as if they are part of the website’s numeric content. Afterward, a receiver links to the website and extracts every k shares among the k+1 ones from the stego-numeric-content to compute k+1 copies of the secret, and the phenomenon of value consistency of the computed k+1 copies is taken as an evidence to determine whether the extracted message is authentic or not, attaining the goal of self-authentication of the extracted secret message. Experimental results and discussions are provided to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: steganography, data hiding, secret authentication, secret sharing

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22794 Insight-Based Evaluation of a Map-Based Dashboard

Authors: Anna Fredriksson Häägg, Charlotte Weil, Niklas Rönnberg

Abstract:

Map-based dashboards are used for data exploration every day. The present study used an insight-based methodology for evaluating a map-based dashboard that presents research findings of water management and ecosystem services in the Amazon. In addition to analyzing the insights gained from using the dashboard, the evaluation method was compared to standardized questionnaires and task-based evaluations. The result suggests that the dashboard enabled the participants to gain domain-relevant, complex insights regarding the topic presented. Furthermore, the insight-based analysis highlighted unexpected insights and hypotheses regarding causes and potential adaptation strategies for remediation. Although time- and resource-consuming, the insight-based methodology was shown to have the potential of thoroughly analyzing how end users can utilize map-based dashboards for data exploration and decision making. Finally, the insight-based methodology is argued to evaluate tools in scenarios more similar to real-life usage compared to task-based evaluation methods.

Keywords: visual analytics, dashboard, insight-based evaluation, geographic visualization

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22793 Performance Evaluation of Arrival Time Prediction Models

Authors: Bin Li, Mei Liu

Abstract:

Arrival time information is a crucial component of advanced public transport system (APTS). The advertisement of arrival time at stops can help reduce the waiting time and anxiety of passengers, and improve the quality of service. In this research, an experiment was conducted to compare the performance on prediction accuracy and precision between the link-based and the path-based historical travel time based model with the automatic vehicle location (AVL) data collected from an actual bus route. The research results show that the path-based model is superior to the link-based model, and achieves the best improvement on peak hours.

Keywords: bus transit, arrival time prediction, link-based, path-based

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22792 Frequency of Occurrence Hybrid Watermarking Scheme

Authors: Hamza A. Ali, Adnan H. M. Al-Helali

Abstract:

Generally, a watermark is information that identifies the ownership of multimedia (text, image, audio or video files). It is achieved by introducing modifications into these files that are imperceptible to the human senses but easily recoverable by a computer program. These modifications are done according to a secret key in a descriptive model that would be either in the time domain or frequency domain or both. This paper presents a procedure for watermarking by mixing amplitude modulation with frequency transformation histogram; namely a specific value is used to modulate the intensity component Y of the YIQ components of the carrier image. This scheme is referred to as histogram embedding technique (HET). Results comparison with those of other techniques such as discrete wavelet transform (DWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) have shown an enhance efficiency in terms of ease and performance. It has manifested a good degree of robustness against various environment effects such as resizing, rotation and different kinds of noise. This method would prove very useful technique for copyright protection and ownership judgment.

Keywords: watermarking, ownership, copyright protection, steganography, information hiding, authentication

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
22791 Secret Sharing in Visual Cryptography Using NVSS and Data Hiding Techniques

Authors: Misha Alexander, S. B. Waykar

Abstract:

Visual Cryptography is a special unbreakable encryption technique that transforms the secret image into random noisy pixels. These shares are transmitted over the network and because of its noisy texture it attracts the hackers. To address this issue a Natural Visual Secret Sharing Scheme (NVSS) was introduced that uses natural shares either in digital or printed form to generate the noisy secret share. This scheme greatly reduces the transmission risk but causes distortion in the retrieved secret image through variation in settings and properties of digital devices used to capture the natural image during encryption / decryption phase. This paper proposes a new NVSS scheme that extracts the secret key from randomly selected unaltered multiple natural images. To further improve the security of the shares data hiding techniques such as Steganography and Alpha channel watermarking are proposed.

Keywords: decryption, encryption, natural visual secret sharing, natural images, noisy share, pixel swapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
22790 Improved Processing Speed for Text Watermarking Algorithm in Color Images

Authors: Hamza A. Al-Sewadi, Akram N. A. Aldakari

Abstract:

Copyright protection and ownership proof of digital multimedia are achieved nowadays by digital watermarking techniques. A text watermarking algorithm for protecting the property rights and ownership judgment of color images is proposed in this paper. Embedding is achieved by inserting texts elements randomly into the color image as noise. The YIQ image processing model is found to be faster than other image processing methods, and hence, it is adopted for the embedding process. An optional choice of encrypting the text watermark before embedding is also suggested (in case required by some applications), where, the text can is encrypted using any enciphering technique adding more difficulty to hackers. Experiments resulted in embedding speed improvement of more than double the speed of other considered systems (such as least significant bit method, and separate color code methods), and a fairly acceptable level of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) with low mean square error values for watermarking purposes.

Keywords: steganography, watermarking, time complexity measurements, private keys

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22789 Olive Seed Tannins as Bioadhesives for Manufacturing Wood-Based Panels

Authors: Ajith K. A. Gedara, Iva Chianella, Jose L. Endrino, Qi Zhang

Abstract:

The olive seed is a by-product of the olive oil production industry. Biuret test and ferric chloride test revealed that water or alkali NaOH extractions of olive seed flour are rich in proteins and tannins. Both protein and tannins are well-known bio-based wood adhesives in the wood-based panel industry. In general, tannins-based adhesives show better mechanical and physical properties than protein wood adhesives. This paper explores different methods of extracting tannins from olive seed flour against the tannins yield and their applications as bio-based adhesives in wood-based panels. Once investigated, the physical and the mechanical properties of wood-based panels made using bio-adhesives based tannins extracted from olive seed flour revealed that the resulting products seemed to satisfy the Japanese Industrial Standards JIS A 5908:2015.

Keywords: bio-adhesives, olive seed flour, tannins, wood-based panels

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