Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 931

Search results for: slip-critical bolted connection

931 Improving Inelastic Capacity of Cold-Formed Steel Beams Using Slotted Blotted Connection

Authors: Marzie Shahini, Alireza Bagheri Sabbagh, Rasoul Mirghaderi, Paul C. Davidson


The focus of this paper is to incorporating the slotted bolted connection into the cold-formed steel (CFS) beams with aim of increasing inelastic bending capacity through bolt slip. An extensive finite element analysis was conducted on the through plate CFS bolted connections which are equipped with the slotted hole. The studied parameters in this paper included the following: CFS beam section geometry, the value of slip force, CFS beam thickness. The numerical results indicate that CFS slotted bolted connection exhibit higher inelastic capacity in terms of ductility compare to connection with standards holes. Moreover, the effect of slip force was analysed by comparing the moment-rotation curves of different models with different slip force value. As a result, as the slip force became lower, there was a tendency for the plastic strain to extend from the CFS member to the connection region.

Keywords: slip-critical bolted connection, inelastic capacity, slotted holes, cold-formed steel, bolt slippage, slip force

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
930 Numerical Analysis of End Plate Bolted Connection with Corrugated Beam

Authors: M. A. Sadeghian, J. Yang, Q. F. Liu


Steel extended end plate bolted connections are recommended to be widely utilized in special moment-resisting frame subjected to monotonic loading. Improper design of steel beam to column connection can lead to the collapse and fatality of structures. Therefore comprehensive research studies of beam to column connection design should be carried out. Also the performance and effect of corrugated on the strength of beam column end plate connection up to failure under monotonic loading in horizontal direction is presented in this paper. The non-linear elastic–plastic behavior has been considered through a finite element analysis using the multi-purpose software package LUSAS. The effect of vertically and horizontally types of corrugated web was also investigated.

Keywords: corrugated beam, monotonic loading, finite element analysis, end plate connection

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
929 Failure Mechanism of Slip-Critical Connections on Curved Surface

Authors: Bae Doobyong, Yoo Jaejun, Park Ilgyu, Choi Seowon, Oh Chang Kook


Variation of slip coefficient in slip-critical connections of curved plates. This paper presents the results of analytical investigations of slip coefficients in slip-critical bolted connections of curved plates. It may depend on the contact stress distribution at interface and the flexibility of spliced plate. Non-linear FEM analyses have been made to simulate the behavior of bolted connections of curved plates with various radiuses of curvature and thicknesses.

Keywords: slip coefficient, curved plates, slip-critical bolted connection, radius of curvature

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
928 The Capacity of Bolted and Screw Connections in Cold-Formed Steel Truss Structure through Analytical and Experimental Method

Authors: Slamet Setioboro, Rahutami Kusumaningsih, Prabowo Setiyawan, Danna Darmayadi


Designing of cold-formed steel capacity connections often based on the formula used for hot rolled steel. It makes the result of the actual capacity connection doesn’t accurate anymore. When the hot rolled steel receives the axial load pull, it will have different characteristics. As the result, there will be failure result when designing Truss structure made of hot rolled steel. This research aims to determine the capacity of actual cold-formed steel connections section which is loaded by the axial tensile force. It will test the appeal of the connection using bolt grafting tool and screw grafting tool. The variations of the test will be on the type of connection (single and double slap), the number of the connection tools and connection configuration. Bold and screw connections failure mode observed in this research are different each other. Failure mode of bolted connections includes sliding pivot plate, tearing at the plate and cutting of the bolt head. While the failure mode of screw connections includes tilting, hole-bearing, pull over and cutting the screw body out. This research was conducted using a laboratory test of HW2-600S Universal Testing Machine model with ASTM E8. It has done in the materials testing laboratory of Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering UNNES. The results obtained through the laboratory diversification towards theoretical calculations using the standards specified in ISO 7971-2013 Cold-Rolled Steel Structures. Based on the research, it can be concluded that the effective connection in receiving force strength is bolted connections neither single nor double plate. The method used is by applying 4 bolts through 2 parallel lines configuration. Furthermore, this connection deals with the consequences of holding the highest Pmaks, lowest failure risk and getting a little kind of mode of failure.

Keywords: axial load, cold-formed steel, capacity connections, bolted connections, screw connections

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
927 Torque Loss Prediction Test Method of Bolted Joints in Heavy Commercial Vehicles

Authors: Volkan Ayik


Loosening as a result of torque loss in bolted joints is one of the most encountered problems resulting in loss of connection between parts. The main reason for this is the dynamic loads to which the joints are subjected while the vehicle is moving. In particular, vibration-induced loads can loosen the joints in any size and geometry. The aim of this study is to study an improved method due to road-induced vibration in heavy commercial vehicles for estimating the vibration performance of bolted joints of the components connected to the chassis, before conducting prototype level vehicle structural strength tests on a proving ground. The frequency and displacements caused by the road conditions-induced vibration loads have been determined for the parts connected to the chassis, and various experimental design scenarios have been formed by matching specific components and vibration behaviors. In the studies, the performance of the torque, washer, test displacement, and test frequency parameters were observed by maintaining the connection characteristics on the vehicle, and the sensitivity ratios for these variables were calculated. As a result of these experimental design findings, tests performed on a developed device based on Junker’s vibration device and proving ground conditions versus test correlation levels were found.

Keywords: bolted joints, junker’s test, loosening failure, torque loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
926 Effect of Tube Thickness on the Face Bending for Blind-Bolted Connection to Concrete Filled Tubular Structures

Authors: Mohammed Mahmood, Walid Tizani, Carlo Sansour


In this paper, experimental testing and numerical analysis were used to investigate the effect of tube thickness on the face bending for concrete filled hollow sections connected to other structural members using Extended Hollobolts. Six samples were tested experimentally by applying pull-out load on the bolts. These samples were designed to fail by column face bending. The main variable in all tests is the column face thickness. Finite element analyses were also performed using ABAQUS 6.11 to extend the experimental results and to quantify the effect of column face thickness. Results show that, the column face thickness has a clear impact on the connection strength and stiffness. However, the amount of improvement in the connection stiffness by changing the column face thickness from 5 mm to 6.3 mm seems to be higher than that when increasing it from 6.3 mm to 8 mm. The displacement at which the bolts start pulling-out from their holes increased with the use of thinner column face due to the high flexibility of the section. At the ultimate strength, the yielding of the column face propagated to the column corner and there was no yielding in its walls. After the ultimate resistance is reached, the propagation of the yielding was mainly in the column face with a miner yielding in the walls.

Keywords: anchored bolted connection, Extended Hollobolt, column faces bending, concrete filled hollow sections

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925 Numerical Analysis Of Stainless Steel Beam To Column Joints With Bolted Flush End Plates

Authors: Takwiir Tahriim Khan, Tausif Khalid, Mohammad Redwan Ahamed, Md Soebur Rahman


The mutual connection in joints has a significant impact on the safe and cost-effective design of steel structures. Generally, the end plates are welded at the end of the beam and columns are bolted with the end plates. Thus, the moment will be transferred at the interface, which is a critical segment at the connection. 3-D Finite Element Models (FEM) has been developed using ABAQUS 2017 software to predict the yield capacity of the end plate connections. The parameters used in this study are the depth, width, and thickness of the end plate, dimensions of the bolt, sectional and material properties of beams and columns. The influence width, depth, and thicknesses of the end plate connection on yield capacity were investigated through parametric studies. The results showed that, for increasing plate thickness from 0.3 inch to 0.8 inch by an increment of 0.1 inch the yield capacity increased by 2.85% on average, for decreasing the end plate depth from 13 inch to 11 inch the yield capacity increased by 25.4 %, and for decreasing the end plate width from 6.5 inch to 5.75 inch the yield capacity increased by 35.4%. Variation in yield capacity was also found by changing the beam and column section. Besides, the numerical results showed a good agreement with published experimental literature with an average variation of less than 8.3 % in yield capacity. So the study allows for a more effective combination of beam, column, and end plate dimensions.

Keywords: steel beam-column joints, finite element analysis, yield moment capacity, parametric study, ABAQUS, bolted joints, flush end plates, moment vs rotation curves

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924 Data and Model-based Metamodels for Prediction of Performance of Extended Hollo-Bolt Connections

Authors: M. Cabrera, W. Tizani, J. Ninic, F. Wang


Open section beam to concrete-filled tubular column structures has been increasingly utilized in construction over the past few decades due to their enhanced structural performance, as well as economic and architectural advantages. However, the use of this configuration in construction is limited due to the difficulties in connecting the structural members as there is no access to the inner part of the tube to install standard bolts. Blind-bolted systems are a relatively new approach to overcome this limitation as they only require access to one side of the tubular section to tighten the bolt. The performance of these connections in concrete-filled steel tubular sections remains uncharacterized due to the complex interactions between concrete, bolt, and steel section. Over the last years, research in structural performance has moved to a more sophisticated and efficient approach consisting of machine learning algorithms to generate metamodels. This method reduces the need for developing complex, and computationally expensive finite element models, optimizing the search for desirable design variables. Metamodels generated by a data fusion approach use numerical and experimental results by combining multiple models to capture the dependency between the simulation design variables and connection performance, learning the relations between different design parameters and predicting a given output. Fully characterizing this connection will transform high-rise and multistorey construction by means of the introduction of design guidance for moment-resisting blind-bolted connections, which is currently unavailable. This paper presents a review of the steps taken to develop metamodels generated by means of artificial neural network algorithms which predict the connection stress and stiffness based on the design parameters when using Extended Hollo-Bolt blind bolts. It also provides consideration of the failure modes and mechanisms that contribute to the deformability as well as the feasibility of achieving blind-bolted rigid connections when using the blind fastener.

Keywords: blind-bolted connections, concrete-filled tubular structures, finite element analysis, metamodeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
923 Numerical Prediction of Bearing Strength on Composite Bolted Joint Using Three Dimensional Puck Failure Criteria

Authors: M. S. Meon, M. N. Rao, K-U. Schröder


Mechanical fasteners especially bolting is commonly used in joining carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite structures due to their good joinability and easy for maintenance characteristics. Since this approach involves with notching, a proper progressive damage model (PDM) need to be implemented and verified to capture existence of damages in the structure. A three dimensional (3D) failure criteria of Puck is established to predict the ultimate bearing failure of such joint. The failure criteria incorporated with degradation scheme are coded based on user subroutine executed in Abaqus. Single lap joint (SLJ) of composite bolted joint is used as target configuration. The results revealed that the PDM adopted here could sufficiently predict the behaviour of composite bolted joint up to ultimate bearing failure. In addition, mesh refinement near holes increased the accuracy of predicted strength as well as computational effort.

Keywords: bearing strength, bolted joint, degradation scheme, progressive damage model

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
922 Through-Bolt Moment Connection in HSS Column

Authors: Bardia Khafaf, Mehrdad Ghaffari, Amir Hussein Samakar


It is currently desirable to use Hollow Square Sections (HSS) in moment resistant structures in construction of building because they offer fewer restrictions for designing and more useful space while adhering to build design codes. This paper present a through bolt connection in HSS column. This connection meets building code standards that require the moment resistant connections to deflect and absorb energy resulting from gravity and seismic loads. Connection through bolts is installed and pretension to provide the connection strength needed to make a beam–column moment rigid zone. A rigid joint is typically used to resist lateral forces by holding columns and beams fixed in relation to one another. With bolted moment frames using HSS columns, a through–bolt connection could be used to secure the beam and end plate to the column. However, when multiple columns and beams are used to span a length of building, the use of through-bolts would necessities aligning multiple beams simultaneously to the columns. In the case of a linear span, the assembly process requires the holes of a first beam end plate to be aligned with through bolt holes in a column and aligning the holes of a second, opposing beam plate with the column through bolt, then inserting the through bolts in each hole for tightening with nuts and washers. In moment resistant building, a problem arises when assembling beams to columns where multiple beams and columns are required. Through bolt, moment connections are among the economical, practical and not difficult rigid steel connection for HSS column building. In this paper, the results of numerous analytical studies performed for moment structures with HSS columns with through bolt based on AISC standard codes are shown.

Keywords: through bolt, moment resistant connection, HSS columns section, construction engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
921 Experimental Model of the Behaviour of Bolted Angles Connections with Stiffeners

Authors: Abdulkadir Cuneyt Aydin, Mahyar Maali, Mahmut Kılıç, Merve Sağıroğlu


The moment-rotation curves of semi-rigid connections are the visual expressions of the actual behaviour discovered in beam-to-column connections experiments. This research was to determine the behaviour of the connection using full-scale experiments under statically loaded. The stiffeners which are typically attached to beams web or flanges to control local buckling and to increase shear capacity in a beam web are almost always used in modern designs. They must also provide sufficient moment of inertia to control out of plane deformations. This study was undertaken to analyse the influence of stiffeners in the angles and beams on the behaviour of the beam-to-column joints. In addition, the aim was to provide necessary data to improve the Eurocode 3. The main parameters observed are the evolution of the resistance, the stiffness, the rotation capacity, the ductility of a joint and the Energy Dissipation. Experimental tests show that the plastic flexural resistance and the energy dissipation increased when thickness of stiffener beam, thickness of stiffener angles were increased in the test specimens. And also, while stiffness of joints, the bending moment capacity and the maximum bending moment increased with the increasing thickness of stiffener beam, these values decreased with the increasing thickness of stiffener angles. So, it is observed that the beam stiffener of angles are important in improving resistance moment of beam-to-column semi-rigid joints.

Keywords: bolted angles connection, semi-rigid joints, ductility of a joint, angles and beams stiffeners

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
920 The Experimental Study of Cold-Formed Steel Truss Connections Capacity: Screw and Adhesive Connection

Authors: Indra Komara, Kıvanç Taşkin, Endah Wahyuni, Priyo Suprobo


A series of connection tests that were composed of Cold-Formed Steel (CFS) sections were made to investigate the capacity of connections in a roof truss frame. The connection is controlled by using the two-different type of connection i.e. screws connection and adhesive. The variation of screws is also added applying 1 screw, 2 screws, and 3 screws. On the other hand, the percentage of adhesively material is increased by the total area of screws connection which is 50%, 75%, and 100%. Behaviors illustrated by each connection are examined, and the design capacities projected from the current CFS design codes are appealed to the experimental results of the connections. This research analyses the principal factors assisting in the ductile response of the CFS truss frame connection measured to propose recommendations for connection design, and novelty so that the connection respond plastically with a significant capacity for no brittle failure. Furthermore, the comparison connection was considered for the analysis of the connection capacity, which was estimated from the specimen’s maximum load capacity and the load-deformation behavior.

Keywords: adhesive, bolts, capacity, cold-formed steel, connections, truss

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
919 An Experimental Investigation of Rehabilitation and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete T-Beams Under Static Monotonic Increasing Loading

Authors: Salem Alsanusi, Abdulla Alakad


An experimental investigation to study the behaviour of under flexure reinforced concrete T-Beams. Those Beams were loaded to pre-designated stress levels as percentage of calculated collapse loads. Repairing these beans by either reinforced concrete jacket, or by externally bolted steel plates were utilized. Twelve full scale beams were tested in this experimental program scheme. Eight out of the twelve beams were loaded under different loading levels. Tests were performed for the beams before and after repair with Reinforced Concrete Jacket (RCJ). The applied Load levels were 60%, 77% and 100% of the calculated collapse loads. The remaining four beams were tested before and after repair with Bolted Steel Plate (BSP). Furthermore, out previously mentioned four beams two beams were loaded to the calculated failure load 100% and the remaining two beams were not subjected to any load. The eight beams recorded for the RCJ test were repaired using reinforced concrete jacket. The four beams recorded for the BSP test were all repaired using steel plate at the bottom. All the strengthened beams were gradually loaded until failure occurs. However, in each loading case, the beams behaviour, before and after strengthening, were studied through close inspection of the cracking propagation, and by carrying out an extensive measurement of deformations and strength. The stress-strain curve for reinforcing steel and the failure strains measured in the tests were utilized in the calculation of failure load for the beams before and after strengthening. As a result, the calculated failure loads were close to the actual failure tests in case of beams before repair, ranging from 85% to 90% and also in case of beams repaired by reinforced concrete jacket ranging from 70% to 85%. The results were in case of beams repaired by bolted steel plates ranging from (50% to 85%). It was observed that both jacketing and bolted steel plate methods could effectively restore the full flexure capacity of the damaged beams. However, the reinforced jacket has increased the failure load by about 67%, whereas the bolted steel plates recovered the failure load.

Keywords: rehabilitation, strengthening, reinforced concrete, beams deflection, bending stresses

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918 Some Classes of Lorentzian Alpha-Sasakian Manifolds with Respect to Quarter-Symmetric Metric Connection

Authors: Santu Dey, Arindam Bhattacharyya


The object of the present paper is to study a quarter-symmetric metric connection in a Lorentzian α-Sasakian manifold. We study some curvature properties of Lorentzian α-Sasakian manifold with respect to quarter-symmetric metric connection. We investigate quasi-projectively at, Φ-symmetric, Φ-projectively at Lorentzian α-Sasakian manifolds with respect to quarter-symmetric metric connection. We also discuss Lorentzian α-Sasakian manifold admitting quartersymmetric metric connection satisfying P.S = 0, where P denote the projective curvature tensor with respect to quarter-symmetric metric connection.

Keywords: quarter-symmetric metric connection, Lorentzian alpha-Sasakian manifold, quasi-projectively flat Lorentzian alpha-Sasakian manifold, phi-symmetric manifold

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
917 A Methodology of Testing Beam to Column Connection under Lateral Impact Load

Authors: A. Al-Rifaie, Z. W. Guan, S. W. Jones


Beam to column connection can be considered as the most important structural part that affects the response of buildings to progressive collapse. However, many studies were conducted to investigate the beam to column connection under accidental loads such as fire, blast and impact load to investigate the connection response. The study is a part of a PhD plan to investigate different types of connections under lateral impact load. The conventional test setups, such as cruciform setup, were designed to apply shear forces and bending moment on the connection, whilst, in the lateral impact case, the connection is subjected to combined tension and moment. Hence, a review is presented to introduce the previous test setup that is used to investigate the connection behaviour. Then, the design and fabrication of the novel test setup is presented. Finally, some trial test results to investigate the efficiency of the proposed setup are discussed. The final results indicate that the setup was efficient in terms of the simplicity and strength.

Keywords: connections, impact load, drop hammer, testing methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
916 Structure Analysis of Text-Image Connection in Jalayrid Period Illustrated Manuscripts

Authors: Mahsa Khani Oushani


Text and image are two important elements in the field of Iranian art, the text component and the image component have always been manifested together. The image narrates the text and the text is the factor in the formation of the image and they are closely related to each other. The connection between text and image is an interactive and two-way connection in the tradition of Iranian manuscript arrangement. The interaction between the narrative description and the image scene is the result of a direct and close connection between the text and the image, which in addition to the decorative aspect, also has a descriptive aspect. In this article the connection between the text element and the image element and its adaptation to the theory of Roland Barthes, the structuralism theorist, in this regard will be discussed. This study tends to investigate the question of how the connection between text and image in illustrated manuscripts of the Jalayrid period is defined according to Barthes’ theory. And what kind of proportion has the artist created in the composition between text and image. Based on the results of reviewing the data of this study, it can be inferred that in the Jalayrid period, the image has a reference connection and although it is of major importance on the page, it also maintains a close connection with the text and is placed in a special proportion. It is not necessarily balanced and symmetrical and sometimes uses imbalance for composition. This research has been done by descriptive-analytical method, which has been done by library collection method.

Keywords: structure, text, image, Jalayrid, painter

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
915 Analytical Study on the Shape of T-Type Girder Modular Bridge Connection by Using Parametric

Authors: Jongho Park, Jinwoong Choi, Sungnam Hong, Seung-Kyung Kye, Sun-Kyu Park


Recently, to cope with the rapidly changing construction trend because of aging infrastructures, modular bridge technology has been studied actively. Modular bridge is easily constructed by assembling standardized precast structure members in the field. It will be possible to construct rapidly and reduce construction cost efficiently. However, the shape examination of the transverse connection of T-type girder newly developed between the segmented modules is not performed. Therefore, the investigation of the connection shape is needed. In this study, shape of the modular T-girder bridge transverse connection was analyzed by finite element model that was verified in study which was verification of model for transverse connection using Abaqus. Connection angle was chosen as the parameter. The result of analyses showed that optimal value of angle is 130 degree.

Keywords: modular bridge, optimal transverse shape, parameter, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 516
914 New Moment Rotation Model of Single Web Angle Connections

Authors: Zhengyi Kong, Seung-Eock Kim


Single angle connections, which are bolted to the beam web and the column flange, are studied to investigate moment-rotation behavior. Elastic–perfectly plastic material behavior is assumed. ABAQUS software is used to analyze the nonlinear behavior of a single angle connection. The same geometric and material conditions with Yanglin Gong’s test are used for verifying finite element models. Since Kishi and Chen’s Power model and Lee and Moon’s Log model are accurate only for a limited range, simpler and more accurate hyperbolic function models are proposed. The equation for calculating rotation at ultimate moment is first proposed.

Keywords: finite element method, moment and rotation, rotation at ultimate moment, single-web angle connections

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
913 The Influence of Steel Connection on Fire Resistance of Composite Steel-Framed Buildings

Authors: Mohammed Kadhim, Zhaohui Huang


Steel connections can play an important role in enhancing the robustness of structures under fire conditions. Therefore, it is significant to examine the influence of steel connections on the fire resistance of composite steel-framed buildings. In this paper, both the behavior of steel connections and their influence on composite steel frame are analyzed using the non-linear finite element computer software VULCAN at ambient and elevated temperatures. The chosen frame is subjected to ISO834 fire. The comparison between end plate connections, pinned connection, and rigid connection has been carried out. By applying different compartment fires, some cases are studied to show the behavior of steel connection when the fire is applied at certain beams. In addition, different plate thickness and deferent applied loads have been analyzed to examine the behavior of chosen steel connection under ISO834 fire. It was found from the analytical results that the beam with extended end plate is stronger and has better performance in terms of axial forces than those beams with flush end plate connection. It was also found that extended end plate connection has highest limiting temperatures compared to the flush end plate connection. In addition, it was found that the performance of end-plate connections is very close to rigid connection and very far from pinned connections. Furthermore, plate thickness has less effect on the influence of steel connection on fire resistance. In conclusion, the behavior of composite steel framed buildings is largely dependent on the steel connection due to their high impact under fire condition. It is recommended to consider the extended end-plate in the design proposes because of its higher properties compared to the flush end plate connection. Finally, this paper shows a steel connection has an important effect on the fire resistance of composite steel framed buildings.

Keywords: composite steel-framed buildings, connection behavior, end-plate connections, finite element modeling, fire resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
912 Analytical Modelling of the Moment-Rotation Behavior of Top and Seat Angle Connection with Stiffeners

Authors: Merve Sagiroglu


The earthquake-resistant steel structure design is required taking into account the behavior of beam-column connections besides the basic properties of the structure such as material and geometry. Beam-column connections play an important role in the behavior of frame systems. Taking into account the behaviour of connection in analysis and design of steel frames is important due to presenting the actual behavior of frames. So, the behavior of the connections should be well known. The most important force which transmitted by connections in the structural system is the moment. The rotational deformation is customarily expressed as a function of the moment in the connection. So, the moment-rotation curves are the best expression of behaviour of the beam-to-column connections. The designed connections form various moment-rotation curves according to the elements of connection and the shape of placement. The only way to achieve this curve is with real-scale experiments. The experiments of some connections have been carried out partially and are formed in the databank. It has been formed the models using this databank to express the behavior of connection. In this study, theoretical studies have been carried out to model a real behavior of the top and seat angles connections with angles. Two stiffeners in the top and seat angle to increase the stiffness of the connection, and two stiffeners in the beam web to prevent local buckling are used in this beam-to-column connection. Mathematical models have been performed using the database of the beam-to-column connection experiments previously by authors. Using the data of the tests, it has been aimed that analytical expressions have been developed to obtain the moment-rotation curve for the connection details whose test data are not available. The connection has been dimensioned in various shapes and the effect of the dimensions of the connection elements on the behavior has been examined.

Keywords: top and seat angle connection, stiffener, moment-rotation curves, analytical study

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
911 Transversal Connection Strengthening of T Section Beam Bridge with Brace System

Authors: Chen Chen


T section beam bridge has been widely used in China as it is low cost and easy to erect. Some of T section beam bridges only have end diagrams and the adjacent girders are connected by wet-joint along span, which leads to the damage of transversal connection becomes a serious problem in operation and maintenance. This paper presents a brace system to strengthen the transversal connection of T section beam bridge. The strengthening effect was discussed by experiments and finite element analysis. The results show that the proposed brace system can improve load transfer between adjacent girders. Based on experiments and FEA model, displacement of T section beam with proposed brace system reduced 14.9% and 19.1% respectively. Integral rigidity increased 19.4% by static experiments. The transversal connection of T section beam bridge can be improved efficiently.

Keywords: experiment, strengthening, T section beam bridge, transversal connection

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910 Switched Ultracapacitors for Maximizing Energy Supply

Authors: Nassouh K. Jaber


Supercapacitors (S.C.) are presently attracting attention for driving general purpose (12VDC to 220VAC) inverters in renewable energy systems. Unfortunately, when the voltage of the S.C supplying the inverter reaches the minimal threshold of 7-8VDC the inverter shuts down leaving the remaining 40% of the valuable energy stored inside the ultracapacitor un-usable. In this work a power electronic circuit is proposed which switches 2 banks of supercapacitors from parallel connection when both are fully charged at 14VDC to serial connection when their voltages drop down to 7 volts, thus keeping the inverter working within its operating limits for a longer time and advantageously tapping almost 92% of the stored energy in the supercapacitors.

Keywords: ultra capacitor, switched ultracapacitors, inverter, supercapacitor, parallel connection, serial connection, battery limitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
909 Evaluation of Current Methods in Modelling and Analysis of Track with Jointed Rails

Authors: Hossein Askarinejad, Manicka Dhanasekar


In railway tracks, two adjacent rails are either welded or connected using bolted jointbars. In recent years the number of bolted rail joints is reduced by introduction of longer rail sections and by welding the rails at location of some joints. However, significant number of bolted rail joints remains in railways around the world as they are required to allow for rail thermal expansion or to provide electrical insulation in some sections of track. Regardless of the quality and integrity of the jointbar and bolt connections, the bending stiffness of jointbars is much lower than the rail generating large deflections under the train wheels. In addition, the gap or surface discontinuity on the rail running surface leads to generation of high wheel-rail impact force at the joint gap. These fundamental weaknesses have caused high rate of failure in track components at location of rail joints resulting in significant economic and safety issues in railways. The mechanical behavior of railway track at location of joints has not been fully understood due to various structural and material complexities. Although there have been some improvements in the methods for analysis of track at jointed rails in recent years, there are still uncertainties concerning the accuracy and reliability of the current methods. In this paper the current methods in analysis of track with a rail joint are critically evaluated and the new advances and recent research outcomes in this area are discussed. This research is part of a large granted project on rail joints which was defined by Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) for Rail Innovation with supports from Australian Rail Track Corporation (ARTC) and Queensland Rail (QR).

Keywords: jointed rails, railway mechanics, track dynamics, wheel-rail interaction

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908 Experimental Study on Connection Method of Precast Beam-Column Using CFRPS

Authors: Harmonis Rante, Rudy Djamaluddin, Herman Parung, Victor Sampebulu


Many research of FRP strengthening on beam-column joint have been done. They used FRP as a strengthening material but not as a connection method. This paper presents a result of experimental-study on connection method of precast beam-column using CFRP sheet to investigate the possibility of CFRP sheet to be a connecting material. Six specimens were prepared and tested to investigate the behavior of CFRP-s connection capacity. The performance of two-connection method is presented in this paper. Three specimens have been tested so far, they were specimen without belt, specimen using one belt and monolith specimen as a control specimen. Result indicated that FRP joint system without belt reached higher capacity than joint system using one belt, but both are lower than monolith joint. Capacity of joint system without belt is 90.6% and 62.5% for the joint system using one belt, respectively compared to the control specimen.

Keywords: belt, CFRP-s, connection method, strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
907 A Numerical Study on the Connection of an SC Wall to an RC Foundation

Authors: Siamak Epackachi, Andrew S. Whittaker, Amit H. Varma


There are a large number of methods to connect SC walls to RC foundations. An experimental study of the cyclic nonlinear behavior of SC walls in the NEES laboratory at the University at Buffalo used a connection detail involving the post-tensioning of a steel baseplate to the SC wall to a RC foundation. This type of connection introduces flexibility that influenced substantially the global response of the SC walls. The assumption of a rigid base, which would be commonly made by practitioners, would lead to a substantial overestimation of initial stiffness. This paper presents an analytical approach to characterize the rotational flexibility and to predict the initial stiffness of flexure-critical SC wall piers with baseplate connection. The good agreement between the analytical and test results confirmed the utility of the proposed method for calculating the initial stiffness of an SC wall with baseplate connection.

Keywords: steel-plate composite shear wall, flexure-critical wall, cyclic loading, analytical model

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906 Ductility of Slab-Interior Column Connections Transferring Shear and Moment

Authors: Omar M. Ben-Sasi


Ductility of slab-column connections of flat slab structures is a desirable property that should be considered when designing such connections which are susceptible to punching failure around their columns. Tests to failure on six half-scale specimens were conducted for slab-interior column connections transferring shear force and unbalanced moment. The influences on connection ductility of four parameters; namely, the moment to shear force ratio, the ratio of column side length to slab effective depth, the aspect ratio of the column cross section, and the presence of four square openings located next to column corners were investigated. The study revealed marked effects of these parameters on connection ductility. Increasing the first and second parameters, were found to be in favor of increasing connection ductility, while the third and fourth parameters were found to have negative effects on the connection ductility. These findings should, hopefully, help in designing interior connections of flat slab structures.

Keywords: ductility, flat slab, failure, shear force, moment, unbalanced moment, punching failure, connection, interior-column connection

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905 Comparisons of Individual and Group Replacement Policies for a Series Connection System with Two Machines

Authors: Wen Liang Chang, Mei Wei Wang, Ruey Huei Yeh


This paper studies the comparisons of individual and group replacement policies for a series connection system with two machines. Suppose that manufacturer’s production system is a series connection system which is combined by two machines. For two machines, when machines fail within the operating time, minimal repair is performed for machines by the manufacturer. The manufacturer plans to a preventive replacement for machines at a pre-specified time to maintain system normal operation. Under these maintenance policies, the maintenance cost rate models of individual and group replacement for a series connection system with two machines is derived and further, optimal preventive replacement time is obtained such that the expected total maintenance cost rate is minimized. Finally, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the influences of individual and group replacement policies to the maintenance cost rate.

Keywords: individual replacement, group replacement, replacement time, two machines, series connection system

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904 Elastoplastic and Ductile Damage Model Calibration of Steels for Bolt-Sphere Joints Used in China’s Space Structure Construction

Authors: Huijuan Liu, Fukun Li, Hao Yuan


The bolted spherical node is a common type of joint in space steel structures. The bolt-sphere joint portion almost always controls the bearing capacity of the bolted spherical node. The investigation of the bearing performance and progressive failure in service often requires high-fidelity numerical models. This paper focuses on the constitutive models of bolt steel and sphere steel used in China’s space structure construction. The elastoplastic model is determined by a standard tensile test and calibrated Voce saturated hardening rule. The ductile damage is found dominant based on the fractography analysis. Then Rice-Tracey ductile fracture rule is selected and the model parameters are calibrated based on tensile tests of notched specimens. These calibrated material models can benefit research or engineering work in similar fields.

Keywords: bolt-sphere joint, steel, constitutive model, ductile damage, model calibration

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903 Finite Element Study of Coke Shape Deep Beam to Column Moment Connection Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: Robel Wondimu Alemayehu, Sihwa Jung, Manwoo Park, Young K. Ju


Following the aftermath of the 1994 Northridge earthquake, intensive research on beam to column connections is conducted, leading to the current design basis. The current design codes require the use of either a prequalified connection or a connection that passes the requirements of large-scale cyclic qualification test prior to use in intermediate or special moment frames. The second alternative is expensive both in terms of money and time. On the other hand, the maximum beam depth in most of the prequalified connections is limited to 900mm due to the reduced rotation capacity of deeper beams. However, for long span beams the need to use deeper beams may arise. In this study, a beam to column connection detail suitable for deep beams is presented. The connection detail comprises of thicker-tapered beam flange adjacent to the beam to column connection. Within the thicker-tapered flange region, two reduced beam sections are provided with the objective of forming two plastic hinges within the tapered-thicker flange region. In addition, the length, width, and thickness of the tapered-thicker flange region are proportioned in such a way that a third plastic hinge forms at the end of the tapered-thicker flange region. As a result, the total rotation demand is distributed over three plastic zones. Making it suitable for deeper beams that have lower rotation capacity at one plastic hinge. The effectiveness of this connection detail is studied through finite element analysis. For the study, a beam that has a depth of 1200mm is used. Additionally, comparison with welded unreinforced flange-welded web (WUF-W) moment connection and reduced beam section moment connection is made. The results show that the rotation capacity of a WUF-W moment connection is increased from 2.0% to 2.2% by applying the proposed moment connection detail. Furthermore, the maximum moment capacity, energy dissipation capacity and stiffness of the WUF-W moment connection is increased up to 58%, 49%, and 32% respectively. In contrast, applying the reduced beam section detail to the same WUF-W moment connection reduced the rotation capacity from 2.0% to 1.50% plus the maximum moment capacity and stiffness of the connection is reduced by 22% and 6% respectively. The proposed connection develops three plastic hinge regions as intended and it shows improved performance compared to both WUF-W moment connection and reduced beam section moment connection. Moreover, the achieved rotation capacity satisfies the minimum required for use in intermediate moment frames.

Keywords: connections, finite element analysis, seismic design, steel intermediate moment frame

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902 SMRF Seismic Response: Unequal Beam Depths

Authors: Babak H. Mamaqani, Alimohammad Entezarmahdi


There are many researches on parameters affecting seismic behavior of steel moment frames. Great deal of these researches considers cover plate connections with or without haunch and direct beam to column connection for exterior columns. Also there are experimental results for interior connections with equal beam depth on both sides but not much research has been performed on the seismic behavior of joints with unequal beam depth. Based on previous experimental results, a series of companion analyses have been set up considering different beam height and connection detailing configuration to investigate the seismic behavior of the connections. Results of this study indicate that when the differences between beams height on both side increases, use of haunch connection system leads to significant improvement in the seismic response whereas other configurations did not provide satisfying results.

Keywords: analytical modeling, Haunch connection, seismic design, unequal beam depth

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