Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: duality

47 Duality in Multiobjective Nonlinear Programming under Generalized Second Order (F, b, φ, ρ, θ)− Univex Functions

Authors: Meraj Ali Khan, Falleh R. Al-Solamy


In the present paper, second order duality for multiobjective nonlinear programming are investigated under the second order generalized (F, b, φ, ρ, θ)− univex functions. The weak, strong and converse duality theorems are proved. Further, we also illustrated an example of (F, b, φ, ρ, θ)− univex functions. Results obtained in this paper extend some previously known results of multiobjective nonlinear programming in the literature.

Keywords: duality, multiobjective programming, univex functions, univex

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46 Non-Differentiable Mond-Weir Type Symmetric Duality under Generalized Invexity

Authors: Jai Prakash Verma, Khushboo Verma


In the present paper, a pair of Mond-Weir type non-differentiable multiobjective second-order programming problems, involving two kernel functions, where each of the objective functions contains support function, is formulated. We prove weak, strong and converse duality theorem for the second-order symmetric dual programs under η-pseudoinvexity conditions.

Keywords: non-differentiable multiobjective programming, second-order symmetric duality, efficiency, support function, eta-pseudoinvexity

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45 Optimality Conditions and Duality for Semi-Infinite Mathematical Programming Problems with Equilibrium Constraints, Using Convexificators

Authors: Shashi Kant Mishra


In this paper, we consider semi-infinite mathematical programming problems with equilibrium constraints (SIMPEC). We establish necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for the SIMPEC, using convexificators. We study the Wolfe type dual problem for the SIMPEC under the ∂∗convexity assumptions. A Mond-Weir type dual problem is also formulated and studied for the SIMPEC under the ∂∗-convexity, ∂∗-pseudoconvexity and ∂∗quasiconvexity assumptions. Weak duality theorems are established to relate the SIMPEC and two dual programs in the framework of convexificators. Further, strong duality theorems are obtained under generalized standard Abadie constraint qualification (GS-ACQ).

Keywords: mathematical programming problems with equilibrium constraints, optimality conditions, semi-infinite programming, convexificators

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44 Dual Duality for Unifying Spacetime and Internal Symmetry

Authors: David C. Ni


The current efforts for Grand Unification Theory (GUT) can be classified into General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, String Theory and the related formalisms. In the geometric approaches for extending General Relativity, the efforts are establishing global and local invariance embedded into metric formalisms, thereby additional dimensions are constructed for unifying canonical formulations, such as Hamiltonian and Lagrangian formulations. The approaches of extending Quantum Mechanics adopt symmetry principle to formulate algebra-group theories, which evolved from Maxwell formulation to Yang-Mills non-abelian gauge formulation, and thereafter manifested the Standard model. This thread of efforts has been constructing super-symmetry for mapping fermion and boson as well as gluon and graviton. The efforts of String theory currently have been evolving to so-called gauge/gravity correspondence, particularly the equivalence between type IIB string theory compactified on AdS5 × S5 and N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. Other efforts are also adopting cross-breeding approaches of above three formalisms as well as competing formalisms, nevertheless, the related symmetries, dualities, and correspondences are outlined as principles and techniques even these terminologies are defined diversely and often generally coined as duality. In this paper, we firstly classify these dualities from the perspective of physics. Then examine the hierarchical structure of classes from mathematical perspective referring to Coleman-Mandula theorem, Hidden Local Symmetry, Groupoid-Categorization and others. Based on Fundamental Theorems of Algebra, we argue that rather imposing effective constraints on different algebras and the related extensions, which are mainly constructed by self-breeding or self-mapping methodologies for sustaining invariance, we propose a new addition, momentum-angular momentum duality at the level of electromagnetic duality, for rationalizing the duality algebras, and then characterize this duality numerically with attempt for addressing some unsolved problems in physics and astrophysics.

Keywords: general relativity, quantum mechanics, string theory, duality, symmetry, correspondence, algebra, momentum-angular-momentum

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43 An Examination of Internal Control System, Executive Duality and Audit Alarm Committee of Listed Nigerian Companies

Authors: Mansur Lubabah Kwanbo


Existing literatures have demonstrated the importance of executive duality (ED) and audit committee (AC) in the financial growth of companies. To some extent this points to corporate governance mechanism aiming at addressing makers and implementers of company policies to be centered on promoting only company objectives. However, furthering organizational objectives needs an adequate structure of control to realize that. Recent development in the various industries in Nigeria have indicated the internal control system (ICS)has not been able to adequately address most of the activities that results in ills of sustaining growth for these industries. It is from this premise the study has as one of its objective to determine the extent to which ICS significantly relates to ED and AC in listed Nigerian corporation. Data were sourced from 308 financial statements and accounts of the corporations that made the sample of the study. Logistic regression aided the test of the hypothesis formulated for the study. Findings revealed a significant relationship between the study variables. The study concludes that the internal control system (ICS) is effective despite the bifurcation of executive duality (ED) and the presence of the Audit Committee (AC) to the extent of preventing ills that encourage lack of sustainability of company’s growth. Sustaining legitimate policies that translate into huge earnings, and create value to stake holders should be pursued.

Keywords: audit committee (AC), executive duality (ED), internal control system (ICS), Nigeria

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42 Examining the Notion of Duality: The Interaction between Neo-Academicism and University Teachers' Agency within the Performativity Context Defined by Public Managerialism

Authors: Tien Hui Chiang


Along with the predominant influence of neo-liberalism, public managerialism is viewed as a panacea for curing the institutionalized weakness caused by the monopoly of the public sector. In the name of efficiency, its outcome-led approach acquires a legitimate status and, in turn, it transforms into the discourse of performativity, reformulating the souls of individual members into the form of docile bodies who are willing to demonstrate their own ability in organizational contributions. The evaluation system and the organizational reconstruction are viewed as the crucial means for achieving this mission. Inevitably, university teachers are confined within a rigid and bureaucratic setting, in which they do not have too much latitude but are subject to the commands of senior administrators. However, the notion of duality highlights the interaction between structural constraints and agency. If the actor discovers the rules or properties of social structure, he/she is able to transform structural constraints into resources for developing creative actions, conceptualized as an agency. This study was designed for examining how duality operates within this hierarchical arrangement formed by public managerialism. Fourteen informants were interviewed from February to August 2014. The findings show that the evaluation system created the culture of neo-academicalism, addressing excellence in research and, in turn, motivating academic-oriented teachers. This correspondence provided a gateway for them to win honor, dignity, and prestige in groups. However, unlike the concept of duality, this agency was operating within the institutionalized context, regulated by structural constraint. Furthermore, complying with the rule/property of social structure was able to secure their advantages.

Keywords: public managerialism, social discourse, neo-academicalism, duality, structural constraint, agency

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41 Algebraic Characterization of Sheaves over Boolean Spaces

Authors: U. M. Swamy


A compact Hausdorff and totally disconnected topological space are known as Boolean space in view of the stone duality between Boolean algebras and such topological spaces. A sheaf over X is a triple (S, p, X) where S and X are topological spaces and p is a local homeomorphism of S onto X (that is, for each element s in S, there exist open sets U and G containing s and p(s) in S and X respectively such that the restriction of p to U is a homeomorphism of U onto G). Here we mainly concern on sheaves over Boolean spaces. From a given sheaf over a Boolean space, we obtain an algebraic structure in such a way that there is a one-to-one correspondence between these algebraic structures and sheaves over Boolean spaces.

Keywords: Boolean algebra, Boolean space, sheaf, stone duality

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40 Factors Influencing the Voluntary Disclosure of Vietnamese Listed Companies

Authors: Pham Duc Hieu, Do Thi Huong Lan


The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting the extent of voluntary disclosure by examining the annual reports of 205 industrial and manufacturing companies listing on Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange (HSX) and Hanoi Stock Exchange (HNX) for the year end of 2012. Those factors include company size, profitability, leverage, state ownership, managerial ownership, and foreign ownership, board independence, role duality and type of external auditors. Evidence from this study suggests two main findings. (1) Companies with high foreign ownership have a high level of voluntary disclosure. (2) The company size is an important factor related to the increased level of voluntary disclosure in annual reports made by Vietnamese listed companies. The larger the company, the higher the information is disclosed. However, no significant associations are found between profitability, leverage, state ownership, managerial ownership, board independence, role duality and type of external auditors as hypothesized in this study.

Keywords: voluntary disclosure, Vietnamese listed companies, voluntary, duality

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39 One Nature under God, and Divisible: Augustine’s “Duality of Man” Applied to the Creation Stories of Genesis

Authors: Elizabeth Latham


The notion that women were created as innately inferior to men has yet to be expelled completely from the theological system of humankind. This question and the biblical exegesis it requires are of paramount importance to feminist philosophy—after all, the study can bear little fruit if we cannot even agree on equality within the theological roots of humanity. Augustine’s “Duality of Man” gives new context to the two creation stories in Genesis, texts especially relevant given the billions of people worldwide that ascribe to them as philosophical realities. Each creation story describes the origin of human beings and is matched with one of Augustine’s two orders of mankind. The first story describes the absolute origin of the human soul and is paired with Augustine’s notion of the “spiritual order” of a human being: divine and eternal, fulfilling the biblical idea that human beings were created in the image and likeness of God. The second creation story, in contrast, depicts those aspects of humanity that distinguish and separate us from God: doubt, fear, and sin. It also introduces gender as a concept for the first time in the Bible. This story is better matched with Augustine’s idea of the “natural order” of humanity, that by which he believes women, in fact, are inferior. In the synthesis of the two sources, one can see that the natural order and any inferiority that it implies are incidental and not intended in our creation. Gender inequality is introduced with and belongs in the category of human imperfection and to cite the Bible as encouraging it constitutes a gross misunderstanding of scripture. This is easy to see when we divide human nature into “spiritual” and “natural” and look carefully at where scripture falls.

Keywords: augustine, bible, duality of man, feminism, genesis

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38 Algorithms for Computing of Optimization Problems with a Common Minimum-Norm Fixed Point with Applications

Authors: Apirak Sombat, Teerapol Saleewong, Poom Kumam, Parin Chaipunya, Wiyada Kumam, Anantachai Padcharoen, Yeol Je Cho, Thana Sutthibutpong


This research is aimed to study a two-step iteration process defined over a finite family of σ-asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive nonself-mappings. The strong convergence is guaranteed under the framework of Banach spaces with some additional structural properties including strict and uniform convexity, reflexivity, and smoothness assumptions. With similar projection technique for nonself-mapping in Hilbert spaces, we hereby use the generalized projection to construct a point within the corresponding domain. Moreover, we have to introduce the use of duality mapping and its inverse to overcome the unavailability of duality representation that is exploit by Hilbert space theorists. We then apply our results for σ-asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive nonself-mappings to solve for ideal efficiency of vector optimization problems composed of finitely many objective functions. We also showed that the obtained solution from our process is the closest to the origin. Moreover, we also give an illustrative numerical example to support our results.

Keywords: asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive nonself-mapping, strong convergence, fixed point, uniformly convex and uniformly smooth Banach space

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37 Sensitivity Analysis in Fuzzy Linear Programming Problems

Authors: S. H. Nasseri, A. Ebrahimnejad


Fuzzy set theory has been applied to many fields, such as operations research, control theory, and management sciences. In this paper, we consider two classes of fuzzy linear programming (FLP) problems: Fuzzy number linear programming and linear programming with trapezoidal fuzzy variables problems. We state our recently established results and develop fuzzy primal simplex algorithms for solving these problems. Finally, we give illustrative examples.

Keywords: fuzzy linear programming, fuzzy numbers, duality, sensitivity analysis

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36 Aspects of Diglossia in Arabic Language Learning

Authors: Adil Ishag


Diglossia emerges in a situation where two distinctive varieties of a language are used alongside within a certain community. In this case, one is considered as a high or standard variety and the second one as a low or colloquial variety. Arabic is an extreme example of a highly diglossic language. This diglossity is due to the fact that Arabic is one of the most spoken languages and spread over 22 Countries in two continents as a mother tongue, and it is also widely spoken in many other Islamic countries as a second language or simply the language of Quran. The geographical variation between the countries where the language is spoken and the duality of the classical Arabic and daily spoken dialects in the Arab world on the other hand; makes the Arabic language one of the most diglossic languages. This paper tries to investigate this phenomena and its relation to learning Arabic as a first and second language.

Keywords: Arabic language, diglossia, first and second language, language learning

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35 Impact of Board Characteristics on Financial Performance: A Study of Manufacturing Sector of Pakistan

Authors: Saad Bin Nasir


The research will examine the role of corporate governance (CG) practices on firm’s financial performance. Population of this research will be manufacture sector of Pakistan. For the purposes of measurement of impact of corporate governance practices such as board size, board independence, ceo/chairman duality, will take as independent variables and for the measurement of firm’s performance return on assets and return on equity will take as dependent variables. Panel data regression model will be used to estimate the impact of CG on firm performance.

Keywords: corporate governance, board size, board independence, leadership

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34 Corporate Governance and Bank Performance: A Study on Indian Banks

Authors: Arjun S.


This study examines the impact of corporate governance on financial performance of Indian banks during five years (from 2010 to 2015). Based on 218 observations, a quantitative method of data analysis was employed to investigate the relevance of corporate governance mechanisms. The first finding reveals a significant and negative impact of board size on the performance of Indian banks. The research also finds a significant and negative relationship between CEO duality and bank performance. Finally, the correlation results reveal that there is a significant and negative correlation of Bank size and bank performance.

Keywords: Indian banks, financial performance, corporate governance, banksize

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33 Anomaly: A Case of Babri Masjid Dispute

Authors: Karitikeya Sonker


Religion as a discrete system through its lawful internal working produces an output in the form of realised spatial order with its social logic and a social order with its spatial logic. Thus, it appears to exhibit its duality of spatial and trans-spatial. The components of this system share a relevance forming a collective. This shared relevance creates meaning forming a group where all collectives share one identity. This group with its new social order and its spatial logic revive the already existing spatial order. These religious groups do so having a tendency to expand resulting in the production of space in a situation of encounter where they have found relevance. But an encounter without a lawful internal working of a discrete system results in anomaly because groups do not find relevance due to the absence of collective identity. Events happen all around. One of the main reasons we could say that something became an event is because of conflict. Conflict not in its definitive sense but any occurrence that happens because of an intervention that creates an event worth remembering. The unfolding of such events creates Cities and Urban spaces which exhibit their duality of spatial and trans-spatial by behaving as a discrete system. This system through its lawful internal working produces an output in the form of realized spatial order with its social logic and a social order with spatial logic. The components of this system form a collective through a shared a relevance. This shared relevance creates meaning forming a group where all collectives share one identity. This group with its new social order and its spatial logic revives the already existing spatial order. These groups do so having a tendency to expand resulting in the production of space in a situation of encounter where they have found relevance. But an encounter without a lawful internal working of the discrete system results in anomaly because groups do not find relevance due to the absence of collective identity. This paper makes an effort to explore one such even in the case of Babri Mosque and Ramjanmabhumi, Ayodhya to explain the anomaly as transposition of social and spatial. The paper through the case studies makes an attempt to generate an equation explaining the two different situations of religious encounters, former reviving the social and spatial order and the other resulting in anomaly. Through the case study, it makes an attempt to generate an equation explaining the two different situations of religious encounters, former reviving the social and spatial order and the other resulting in anomaly.

Keywords: Babri Masjid, Ayodhya, conflict, religion

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32 Toward an Appropriate Index for Corporate Governance

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Farzaneh Jalali, Alemeh Yazdanian


This study contributes to identifying the corporate governance indices in previous researches by using content analysis on relevant papers published in 20 top accounting journals according to Google Scholar ranking, dated from 1990 to 2016. For this purpose, 65 papers are scrutinized deeply, and the concepts of corporate governance are coded and categorized. Then extracted indices are clustered into 10 and 51 categories and subcategories, respectively; and their frequencies are determined. Results show that the board of directors’ characteristics is employed more frequently in reviewed papers, and the board of directors’ independency is the most frequent index within the 97 percent of our sample. Duality, board size, and ownership structure have more frequencies in comparison with other extracted corporate governance indices.

Keywords: corporate governance, content analysis, corporate governance index, top accounting journals

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31 The Effect of Corporate Governance on Earnings Management: When Firms Report Increasing Earnings

Authors: Su-Ping Liu, Yue Tian, Yifan Shen


This study investigates the effect of corporate governance on earnings management when firms have reported a long stream of earnings increases (hereafter referred to as earnings beaters). We expect that good quality of corporate governance decreases the probability of income-increasing earnings management. We employ transparent tools to capture firms’ opportunistic management behavior, specifically, the repurchase of stock. In addition, we use corporate governance proxies to measure the degree of corporate governance, including board size, board independence, CEO duality, and the frequency of meeting. The results hold after the controlling of variables that suggested in prior literature. We expect that the simple technique, that is, firms’ degree of corporate governance, to be used as an inexpensive first step in detecting earnings management.

Keywords: corporate governance, earnings management, earnings patterns, stock repurchase

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30 Development of a Risk Governance Index and Examination of Its Determinants: An Empirical Study in Indian Context

Authors: M. V. Shivaani, P. K. Jain, Surendra S. Yadav


Risk management has been gaining extensive focus from international organizations like Committee of Sponsoring Organizations and Financial Stability Board, and, the foundation of such an effective and efficient risk management system lies in a strong risk governance structure. In view of this, an attempt (perhaps a first of its kind) has been made to develop a risk governance index, which could be used as proxy for quality of risk governance structures. The index (normative framework) is based on eleven variables, namely, size of board, board diversity in terms of gender, proportion of executive directors, executive/non-executive status of chairperson, proportion of independent directors, CEO duality, chief risk officer (CRO), risk management committee, mandatory committees, voluntary committees and existence/non-existence of whistle blower policy. These variables are scored on a scale of 1 to 5 with the exception of the variables, namely, status of chairperson and CEO duality (which have been scored on a dichotomous scale with the score of 3 or 5). In case there is a legal/statutory requirement in respect of above-mentioned variables and there is a non-compliance with such requirement a score of one has been envisaged. Though there is no legal requirement, for the larger part of study, in context of CRO, risk management committee and whistle blower policy, still a score of 1 has been assigned in the event of their non-existence. Recognizing the importance of these variables in context of risk governance structure and the fact that the study basically focuses on risk governance, the absence of these variables has been equated to non-compliance with a legal/statutory requirement. Therefore, based on this the minimum score is 15 and the maximum possible is 55. In addition, an attempt has been made to explore the determinants of this index. For this purpose, the sample consists of non-financial companies (429) that constitute S&P CNX500 index. The study covers a 10 years period from April 1, 2005 to March 31, 2015. Given the panel nature of data, Hausman test was applied, and it suggested that fixed effects regression would be appropriate. The results indicate that age and size of firms have significant positive impact on its risk governance structures. Further, post-recession period (2009-2015) has witnessed significant improvement in quality of governance structures. In contrast, profitability (positive relationship), leverage (negative relationship) and growth (negative relationship) do not have significant impact on quality of risk governance structures. The value of rho indicates that about 77.74% variation in risk governance structures is due to firm specific factors. Given the fact that each firm is unique in terms of its risk exposure, risk culture, risk appetite, and risk tolerance levels, it appears reasonable to assume that the specific conditions and circumstances that a company is beset with, could be the biggest determinants of its risk governance structures. Given the recommendations put forth in the paper (particularly for regulators and companies), the study is expected to be of immense utility in an important yet neglected aspect of risk management.

Keywords: corporate governance, ERM, risk governance, risk management

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29 The Impact of Board of Directors on CEO Compensation: Evidence from the UK

Authors: Saleh Alagla, Murya Habbash


The paper investigates whether the board of directors plays a monitoring role or not in CEO compensation for the UK firms during the eve of the recent financial crisis, 2004-2008. The use of heteroscedastic and autocorrelated error consistent estimation of the panel data shows, surprisingly, that four board characteristics variables are found to play a significant role in increasing the level of CEO compensation. This insightful result would suggest evidence of the managerial power theory in general and the cronyism hypothesis in particular. Moreover, the interesting evidence supporting managerial power perspective is that CEO-Chair duality reduces long-term compensation while increasing short-term compensation, thus suggesting that CEOs are risk averse who prefer short-term compensation to long-term compensation. Finally, consistent with the agency perspective board size is found to increase all compensation variables as expected.

Keywords: corporate governance, CEO compensation, board of directors, internal governance mechanisms, agency theory, managerial power theory, cronyism hypothesis

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28 Contemporary Paradoxical Expectations of the Nursing Profession and Revisiting the ‘Nurses’ Disciplinary Boundaries: India’s Historical and Gendered Perspective

Authors: Neha Adsul, Rohit Shah


Background: The global history of nursing is exclusively a history of deep contradictions as it seeks to negotiate inclusion in an already gendered world. Although a powerful 'clinical gaze exists, nurses have toiled to re-negotiate and subvert the 'medical gaze' by practicing the 'therapeutic gaze' to tether back 'care into nursing practice.' This helps address the duality of the 'body' and 'mind' wherein the patient is not just limited to being an object of medical inquiry. Nevertheless, there has been a consistent effort to fit 'nursing' into being an art or an emerging science over the years. Especially with advances in hospital-based techno-centric medical practices, the boundaries between technology and nursing practices are becoming more blurred as the technical process becomes synonymous with nursing, eroding the essence of nursing care. Aim: This paper examines the history of nursing and offers insights into how gendered relations and the ideological belief of 'nursing as gendered work' have propagated to the subjugation of the nursing profession. It further aims to provide insights into the patriarchally imbibed techno-centrism that negates the gendered caregiving which lies at the crux of a nurse's work. Method: A literature search was carried out using Google Scholar, Web of Science and PubMed databases. Search words included: technology and nursing, medical technology and nursing, history of nursing, sociology and nursing and nursing care. The history of nursing is presented in a discussion that weaves together the historical events of the 'Birth of the Clinic' and the shift from 'bed-side medicine' to 'hospital-based medicine' that legitimizes exploitation of the bodies of patients to the 'medical gaze while the emergence of nursing as acquiescent to instrumental, technical, positivist and dominant views of medicine. The resultant power asymmetries, wherein in contemporary nursing, the constant struggle of nurses to juggle between being the physicians "operational right arm" to harboring that subjective understanding of the patients to refrain from de-humanizing nursing-care. Findings: The nursing profession suffers from being rendered invisible due to gendered relations having patrifocal societal roots. This perpetuates a notion rooted in the idea that emphasizes empiricism and has resulted in theoretical and epistemological fragmentation of the understanding of body and mind as separate entities. Nurses operate within this structure while constantly being at the brink of being pushed beyond the legitimate professional boundaries while being labeled as being 'unscientific' as the work does not always corroborate and align with the existing dominant positivist lines of inquiries. Conclusion: When understood in this broader context of how nursing as a practice has evolved over the years, it provides a particularly crucial testbed for understanding contemporary gender relations. Not because nurses like to live in a gendered work trap but because the gendered relations at work are written in a covert narcissistic patriarchal milieu that fails to recognize the value of intangible yet utmost necessary 'caring work in nursing. This research urges and calls for preserving and revering the humane aspect of nursing care alongside the emerging tech-savvy expectations from nursing work.

Keywords: nursing history, technocentric, power relations, scientific duality

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27 Human Action Recognition Using Wavelets of Derived Beta Distributions

Authors: Neziha Jaouedi, Noureddine Boujnah, Mohamed Salim Bouhlel


In the framework of human machine interaction systems enhancement, we focus throw this paper on human behavior analysis and action recognition. Human behavior is characterized by actions and reactions duality (movements, psychological modification, verbal and emotional expression). It’s worth noting that many information is hidden behind gesture, sudden motion points trajectories and speeds, many research works reconstructed an information retrieval issues. In our work we will focus on motion extraction, tracking and action recognition using wavelet network approaches. Our contribution uses an analysis of human subtraction by Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and body movement through trajectory models of motion constructed from kalman filter. These models allow to remove the noise using the extraction of the main motion features and constitute a stable base to identify the evolutions of human activity. Each modality is used to recognize a human action using wavelets of derived beta distributions approach. The proposed approach has been validated successfully on a subset of KTH and UCF sports database.

Keywords: feautures extraction, human action classifier, wavelet neural network, beta wavelet

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26 Crisis of Sinti (Gypsy) Ethnicity and Identity

Authors: Rinaldo Diricchardi


In this paper, author theoretically and empirically explores the ethnic identity of the descendants of the Indian travelers in Slovenia Sinti, who are in modern time, for the researchers, still a "tabula rasa". He investigates the extent to which Sinti ethnic particular identities (e.g. Sinti chiefs, Sinti’s individual political structure…), the Sinti language (dialect, which is topic and it is not allowed to be spoken in public), culture and habits still in the impact of anachronism, moreover, to what extent the community is still “tabula rasa” (to non–Sinti population). The relationships within the Sinti entity: "in se–intra se" is a mirror of duality of the relation of "extra se". Is it possible that the concepts of social/economical relationships are reflecting the Sinti community, moreover, the possible influence of minority from outside to inside? Is the stratification of their ethnicity and their language ethnicism? In addition, is the result of stratification of discourse still inherited and discounted the Indian caste system? In present article, author uses the word Gypsy with high respect and with a large measure of prudentiality, without negative connotations. At the first Gypsy World Congress in 1971 in London the Sinti did not accept unification with Romani, but Sinti and others Gypsies still keep the name Gypsy/Romanichals, Gypsy/Kale, Gypsy/Manouches, Gypsy/Manoesje, Gypsy/Xoraxano, Gypsy/Machaways and Gypsy/Kalderashe. In addition, all of the European documents taken into account respect and use the name Gypsy.

Keywords: Sinti, Gypsy, identity, stratification, inclusion, exclusion

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25 The Conditionality of Financial Risk: A Comparative Analysis of High-Tech and Utility Companies Listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SSE)

Authors: Joseph Paul Chunga


The investment universe is awash with a myriad of financial choices that investors have to opt for, which principally culminates into a duality between aggressive or conservative approaches. Howbeit, it is pertinent to emphasize that the investment vehicles with an aggressive approach tend to take on more risk than the latter group in an effort to generate higher future returns for their respective investors. This study examines the conditionality effect that such partiality in financing has on the High-Tech and Public Utility companies listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SSE). Specifically, it examines the significance of the relationship between capitalization ratios of Total Debt Ratio (TDR), Degree of Financial Leverage (DFL) and profitability ratios of Earnings per Share (EPS) and Returns on Equity (ROE) on the Financial Risk of the two industries. We employ a modified version of the Panel Regression Model used by Rahman (2017) to estimate the relationship. The study finds that there is a significant positive relationship between the capitalization ratios on the financial risk of Public Utility companies more than High-Tech companies and a substantial negative relationship between the profitability ratios and the financial risk of the former than the latter companies. This then spells an important insight for prospective investors with regards to the volatility of earnings of such companies.

Keywords: financial leverage, debt financing, conservative firms, aggressive firms

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24 Duality of Leagility and Governance: A New Normal Demand Network Management Paradigm under Pandemic

Authors: Jacky Hau


The prevalence of emerging technologies disrupts various industries as well as consumer behavior. Data collection has been in the fingertip and inherited through enabled Internet-of-things (IOT) devices. Big data analytics (BDA) becomes possible and allows real-time demand network management (DNM) through leagile supply chain. To enhance further on its resilience and predictability, governance is going to be examined to promote supply chain transparency and trust in an efficient manner. Leagility combines lean thinking and agile techniques in supply chain management. It aims at reducing costs and waste, as well as maintaining responsiveness to any volatile consumer demand by means of adjusting the decoupling point where the product flow changes from push to pull. Leagility would only be successful when collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR) process or alike is in place throughout the supply chain business entities. Governance and procurement of the supply chain, however, is crucial and challenging for the execution of CPFR as every entity has to walk-the-talk generously for the sake of overall benefits of supply chain performance, not to mention the complexity of exercising the polices at both of within across various supply chain business entities on account of organizational behavior and mutual trust. Empirical survey results showed that the effective timespan on demand forecasting had been drastically shortening in the magnitude of months to weeks planning horizon, thus agility shall come first and preferably following by lean approach in a timely manner.

Keywords: governance, leagility, procure-to-pay, source-to-contract

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23 Understanding Europe’s Role in the Area of Liberty, Security, and Justice as an International Actor

Authors: Barrere Sarah


The area of liberty, security, and justice within the European Union is still a work in progress. No one can deny that the EU struggles between a monistic and a dualist approach. The aim of our essay is to first review how the European law is perceived by the rest of the international scene. It will then discuss two main mechanisms at play: the interpretation of larger international treaties and the penal mechanisms of European law. Finally, it will help us understand the role of a penal Europe on the international scene with concrete examples. Special attention will be paid to cases that deal with fundamental rights as they represent an interesting case study in Europe and in the rest of the World. It could illustrate the aforementioned duality currently present in the Union’s interpretation of international public law. On the other hand, it will explore some specific European penal mechanism through mutual recognition and the European arrest warrant in the transnational criminality frame. Concerning the interpretation of the treaties, it will first, underline the ambiguity and the general nature of some treaties that leave the EU exposed to tension and misunderstanding then it will review the validity of an EU act (whether or not it is compatible with the rules of International law). Finally, it will focus on the most complete manifestation of liberty, security and justice through the principle of mutual recognition. Used initially in commercial matters, it has become “the cornerstone” of European construction. It will see how it is applied in judicial decisions (its main event and achieving success is via the European arrest warrant) and how European member states have managed to develop this cooperation.

Keywords: European penal law, international scene, liberty security and justice area, mutual recognition

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22 Ownership, Management Responsibility and Corporate Performance of the Listed Firms in Kazakhstan

Authors: Gulnara Moldasheva


The research explores the relationship between management responsibility and corporate governance of listed companies in Kazakhstan. This research employs firm level data of randomly selected listed non-financial firms and firm level data “operational” financial sector, consisted from banking sector, insurance companies and accumulated pension funds using multivariate regression analysis under fixed effect model approach. Ownership structure includes institutional ownership, managerial ownership and private investor’s ownership. Management responsibility of the firm is expressed by the decision of the firm on amount of leverage. Results of the cross sectional panel study for non-financial firms showed that only institutional shareholding is significantly negatively correlated with debt to equity ratio. Findings from “operational” financial sector show that leverage is significantly affected only by the CEO/Chair duality and the size of financial institutions, and insignificantly affected by ownership structure. Also, the findings show, that there is a significant negative relationship between profitability and the debt to equity ratio for non-financial firms, which is consistent with pecking order theory. Generally, the found results suggest that corporate governance and a management responsibility play important role in corporate performance of listed firms in Kazakhstan.

Keywords: ownership, corporate governance, debt to equity ratio, corporate performance

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21 Portfolio Optimization with Reward-Risk Ratio Measure Based on the Mean Absolute Deviation

Authors: Wlodzimierz Ogryczak, Michal Przyluski, Tomasz Sliwinski


In problems of portfolio selection, the reward-risk ratio criterion is optimized to search for a risky portfolio with the maximum increase of the mean return in proportion to the risk measure increase when compared to the risk-free investments. In the classical model, following Markowitz, the risk is measured by the variance thus representing the Sharpe ratio optimization and leading to the quadratic optimization problems. Several Linear Programming (LP) computable risk measures have been introduced and applied in portfolio optimization. In particular, the Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) measure has been widely recognized. The reward-risk ratio optimization with the MAD measure can be transformed into the LP formulation with the number of constraints proportional to the number of scenarios and the number of variables proportional to the total of the number of scenarios and the number of instruments. This may lead to the LP models with huge number of variables and constraints in the case of real-life financial decisions based on several thousands scenarios, thus decreasing their computational efficiency and making them hardly solvable by general LP tools. We show that the computational efficiency can be then dramatically improved by an alternative model based on the inverse risk-reward ratio minimization and by taking advantages of the LP duality. In the introduced LP model the number of structural constraints is proportional to the number of instruments thus not affecting seriously the simplex method efficiency by the number of scenarios and therefore guaranteeing easy solvability. Moreover, we show that under natural restriction on the target value the MAD risk-reward ratio optimization is consistent with the second order stochastic dominance rules.

Keywords: portfolio optimization, reward-risk ratio, mean absolute deviation, linear programming

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20 Dirty Martini vs Martini: The Contrasting Duality Between Big Bang and BTS Public Image and Their Latest MVs Analysis

Authors: Patricia Portugal Marques de Carvalho Lourenco


Big Bang is like a dirty martini embroiled in a stew of personal individual scandals that have rocked the group’s image and perception, from G-Dragon’s and T.O.P. marijuana episodes in 2011 and 2016, respectively, to Daesung’s building illicit entertainment activities in 2018to the Burning Sun shebang that led to the Titanic sink of Big Bang’s youngest member Seungri in 2019 and the positive sentiment migration to the antithetical side. BTS, on the other hand, are like a martini, clear, clean, attracting as many crowds to their performances and online content as the Pope attracts believers to Sunday Mass in the Vatican, as exemplified by their latest MVs. Big Bang’s 2022 Still Life achieved 16.4 million views on Youtube in 24hours, whilst BTS Permission to Dance achieved 68.5 million in the same period of time. The difference is significant when added Big Bang’s and BTS overall award wins, a total of 117 in contrast to 460. Both groups are uniquely talented and exceptional performers that have been contributing greatly to the dissemination of Korean Pop Music on a global scale in their own inimitable ways. Both are exceptional in their own right and while the artists cannot, ought not, should not be compared for the grave injustice made in comparing one individual planet with one solar system, a contrast is merited and hence done. The reality, nonetheless, is about disengagement from a group that lives life humanly, learning and evolving with each challenge and mistake without a clean, perfect tag attached to it, demonstrating not only an inability to disassociate the person from the artist and the music but also an inability to understand the difference between a private and public life.

Keywords: K-Pop, big bang, BTS, music, public image, entertainment, korean entertainment

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19 Study and Acquisition of the Duality of the Arabic Language

Authors: Oleg Redkin, Olga Bernikova


It is commonly accepted that every language is both pure linguistic phenomenon as well as socially significant communicative system, which exists on the basis of certain society - its collective 'native speaker'. Therefore the language evolution and features besides its own linguistic rules and regulations are also defined by the influence of a number of extra-linguistic factors. The above mentioned statement may be illustrated by the example of the Arabic language which may be characterized by the following peculiarities: - the inner logic of the Arabic language - the 'algebraicity' of its morphological paradigms and grammar rules; - association of the Arabic language with the sacred texts of Islam, its close ties with the pre-Islamic and Islamic cultural heritage - the pre-Islamic poetry and Islamic literature and science; - territorial distribution, which in recent years went far beyond the boundaries of its traditional realm due to the development of new technologies and the spread of mass media, and what is more important, migration processes; - association of the Arabic language with the so called 'Renaissance of Islam'. These peculiarities should be remembered while considering the status of the Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) language or the Classical Arabic (CA) language as well as the Modern Arabic (MA) dialects in synchrony or from the diachronic point of view. Continuity of any system in diachrony on the one hand depends on the level of its ability to adapt itself to changing environment and by its internal ties on the other. Structural durability of language is characterized by its inner logic, hierarchy of paradigms and its grammar rules, as well as continuity of their implementation in acts of everyday communication. Since the Arabic language is both linguistic and social phenomenon the process of the Arabic language acquisition and study should not be focused only on the knowledge about linguistic features or development of communicative skills alone, but must be supplied with the information related to culture, history and religion of peoples of certain region that will expand and enrich competences of the target audience.

Keywords: Arabic, culture, Islam, language

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18 Innovation Outcomes and Competing Agendas in Higher Education: Experimenting with Audio-Video Feedback

Authors: Adina Dudau, Georgios Kominis, Melinda Szocs


This paper links distinct bodies of literature around innovation and public services by examining a case of perceived innovation failure. Through a mixed methodology investigating student attitudes to, and behaviour around, technological innovation in higher education, the paper makes a contribution to the public service innovation literature by focusing on the duality of innovation outcomes, suggestive of an innovation typology in public services. The study was conducted in a UK Russell Group university and it focused on a technological process innovation. The innovation consisted of the provision of feedback to students in the form of a digital video (mp4), tailored to each individual submission, with extended voice-over commentary from the course coordinator and visual cues intended to help students see the relevance of comments to their submissions. The sample of the study consisted of a class of 79 undergraduate students. To investigate student attainment, we designed a field (also known as quasi or natural) experiment, essentially a manipulation of a social setting (in this case, the form of feedback given to students), but as part of a naturally occurring social arrangement (a real course which students attend and in which they are assessed). A two group control group design (see figure 3) was utilised to examine the effectiveness of the feedback innovation (video feedback). Two outcome variables of the service innovation were measured: student satisfaction and student attainment. In other words, the study examined not only students’ perceptions of whether VF was deemed to be beneficial towards their subsequent assignments; but also evidence of actual incremental benefits in students’ performance from one assignment to the next after VF was provided. The results were baffling and indicating competing agendas in higher education.

Keywords: higher education, audio-video, feedback, innovation

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