Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: Wael M Albadri

32 Developing a New Relationship between Undrained Shear Strength and Over-Consolidation Ratio

Authors: Wael M Albadri, Hassnen M Jafer, Ehab H Sfoog

Abstract:

Relationship between undrained shear strength (Su) and over consolidation ratio (OCR) of clay soil (marine clay) is very important in the field of geotechnical engineering to estimate the settlement behaviour of clay and to prepare a small scale physical modelling test. In this study, a relationship between shear strength and OCR parameters was determined using the laboratory vane shear apparatus and the fully automatic consolidated apparatus. The main objective was to establish non-linear correlation formula between shear strength and OCR and comparing it with previous studies. Therefore, in order to achieve this objective, three points were chosen to obtain 18 undisturbed samples which were collected with an increasing depth of 1.0 m to 3.5 m each 0.5 m. Clay samples were prepared under undrained condition for both tests. It was found that the OCR and shear strength are inversely proportional at similar depth and at same undrained conditions. However, a good correlation was obtained from the relationships where the R2 values were very close to 1.0 using polynomial equations. The comparison between the experimental result and previous equation from other researchers produced a non-linear correlation which has a similar pattern with this study.

Keywords: shear strength, over-consolidation ratio, vane shear test, clayey soil

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31 Genome Analyses of Pseudomonas Fluorescens b29b from Coastal Kerala

Authors: Wael Ali Mohammed Hadi

Abstract:

Pseudomonas fluorescens B29B, which has asparaginase enzymatic activity, was isolated from the surface coastal seawater of Trivandrum, India. We report the complete Pseudomonas fluorescens B29B genome sequenced, identified, and annotated from a marine source. We find the genome at most minuscule a 7,331,508 bp single circular chromosome with a GC content of 62.19% and 6883 protein-coding genes. Three hundred forty subsystems were identified, including two predicted asparaginases from the genome analysis of P. fluorescens B29B for further investigation. This genome data will help further industrial biotechnology applications of proteins in general and asparaginase as a target.

Keywords: pseudomonas, marine, asparaginases, Kerala, whole-genome

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30 Predicting Groundwater Areas Using Data Mining Techniques: Groundwater in Jordan as Case Study

Authors: Faisal Aburub, Wael Hadi

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Data mining is the process of extracting useful or hidden information from a large database. Extracted information can be used to discover relationships among features, where data objects are grouped according to logical relationships; or to predict unseen objects to one of the predefined groups. In this paper, we aim to investigate four well-known data mining algorithms in order to predict groundwater areas in Jordan. These algorithms are Support Vector Machines (SVMs), Naïve Bayes (NB), K-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) and Classification Based on Association Rule (CBA). The experimental results indicate that the SVMs algorithm outperformed other algorithms in terms of classification accuracy, precision and F1 evaluation measures using the datasets of groundwater areas that were collected from Jordanian Ministry of Water and Irrigation.

Keywords: classification, data mining, evaluation measures, groundwater

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29 Photocatalytic Conversion of Water/Methanol Mixture into Hydrogen Using Cerium/Iron Oxides Based Structures

Authors: Wael A. Aboutaleb, Ahmed M. A. El Naggar, Heba M. Gobara

Abstract:

This research work reports the photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water-methanol mixture using three different 15% ceria/iron oxide catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by physical mixing, precipitation, and ultrasonication methods and labeled as catalysts A-C. The structural and texture properties of the obtained catalysts were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET-surface area analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic activity of the three catalysts towards hydrogen generation was then tested. Promising hydrogen productivity was obtained by the three catalysts however different gases compositions were obtained by each type of catalyst. Specifically, catalyst A had produced hydrogen mixed with CO₂ while the composite structure (catalyst B) had generated only pure H₂. In the case of catalyst C, syngas made of H₂ and CO was revealed, as a novel product, for the first time, in such process.

Keywords: hydrogen production, water splitting, photocatalysts, clean energy

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28 Establishing the Optimum Location of a Single Tower Crane Using a Smart Mathematical Model

Authors: Yasser Abo El-Magd, Wael Fawzy Mohamed

Abstract:

Due to the great development in construction and building field, there are many projects and huge works appeared which consume many construction materials. Accordingly, that causes difficulty in handling traditional transportation means (ordinary cranes) due to their limited capacity; there is an urgent need to use high capacity cranes such as tower cranes. However, with regard to their high expense, we have to take into consideration selecting what type of cranes to be utilized which has been discussed by many researchers. In this research, a proposed technique was created to select the suitable type of crane and the best place for crane erection, in addition to minimum radius for requested crane in order to minimize cost. To fulfill that target, a computer program is designed to numerate these problems, demonstrating an example explaining how to apply program and the result donated the best place.

Keywords: tower crane, jib length, operating time, location, feasible area

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27 ANFIS Approach for Locating Faults in Underground Cables

Authors: Magdy B. Eteiba, Wael Ismael Wahba, Shimaa Barakat

Abstract:

This paper presents a fault identification, classification and fault location estimation method based on Discrete Wavelet Transform and Adaptive Network Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for medium voltage cable in the distribution system. Different faults and locations are simulated by ATP/EMTP, and then certain selected features of the wavelet transformed signals are used as an input for a training process on the ANFIS. Then an accurate fault classifier and locator algorithm was designed, trained and tested using current samples only. The results obtained from ANFIS output were compared with the real output. From the results, it was found that the percentage error between ANFIS output and real output is less than three percent. Hence, it can be concluded that the proposed technique is able to offer high accuracy in both of the fault classification and fault location.

Keywords: ANFIS, fault location, underground cable, wavelet transform

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26 Numerical Investigation of Mixed Convection for Rarefied Gases in Square Enclosures

Authors: Wael Al-Kouz

Abstract:

Numerical simulations to study heat transfer and flow characteristics of mixed convection for rarefied gas in a square enclosure are utilized. Effect of the geometry in terms of the location of the inlet and exit openings are investigated. Moreover, effect of Knudsen number on the flow and heat transfer characteristics is illustrated and discussed. Results of the simulations show that there is a configuration that yields better heat transfer. This configuration is found to be the geometry in which the inlet opening is in the top left corner and the exit opening is at the bottom right corner. In addition, it is found that by increasing Knudsen number, Nusselt number will decrease.

Keywords: Knudsen number, mixed convection, rarefied gas, square enclosure

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25 Considering the Reliability of Measurements Issue in Distributed Adaptive Estimation Algorithms

Authors: Wael M. Bazzi, Amir Rastegarnia, Azam Khalili

Abstract:

In this paper we consider the issue of reliability of measurements in distributed adaptive estimation problem. To this aim, we assume a sensor network with different observation noise variance among the sensors and propose new estimation method based on incremental distributed least mean-square (IDLMS) algorithm. The proposed method contains two phases: I) Estimation of each sensors observation noise variance, and II) Estimation of the desired parameter using the estimated observation variances. To deal with the reliability of measurements, in the second phase of the proposed algorithm, the step-size parameter is adjusted for each sensor according to its observation noise variance. As our simulation results show, the proposed algorithm considerably improves the performance of the IDLMS algorithm in the same condition.

Keywords: adaptive filter, distributed estimation, sensor network, IDLMS algorithm

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24 Measuring the Effect of the Privatization of the Kuwait Stock Exchange on Its Performance

Authors: Mohamad H. Atyeh, Wael Alrashed, Steven Telford

Abstract:

The main objective of this research is to measure if there have been any notable changes in the trading actives of the Kuwait stock Exchange (KSE) after the privatization process that took place on the 25th of April 2016. The data that are used to test if there is any change in the KSE market performance are the daily indices for the period from the 25th of April 2016 till the 24th of October 2016 (after privatization) and a similar six months period before the date of the privatization from the 24th of October 2015 till the 24th of April 2016. In addition, as a control, the study included a period that is a period parallel to the six months period after the privatization. The results indicate that privatization is associated with lower variability for the majority of variables, but that the observed switch in slope direction is not actually a product of privatization, but rather one of serial correlation.

Keywords: privatization, Kuwait stock exchange (KSE), market capitalization (MCAP), capital markets authority (CMA), Boursa Kuwait securities company (BKSC)

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23 Acute Phase Proteins as Biomarkers of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in Dairy Cattle

Authors: Wael El-Deeb

Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic importance of acute phase proteins in urinary tract infection (UTI) in cattle. We describe the clinical, bacteriological and biochemical findings in 99 lactating cows. Blood and urine samples from diseased (n=84) and control healthy cows (n=15) were submitted to laboratory investigations. The urine analysis revealed hematuria and pyuria in UTI group. The isolated bacteria were E.coli (43/84) Corynebacterium spp, (31/84), Proteus spp. (6/84) and Streptococcus spp (4/84). The concentrations of Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), α1-Acid glycoprotein (AGP), fibrinogen (Fb), total protein, albumen, and globulin were higher in cows with UTI when compared to healthy ones. Fifty-one of 84 cows with UTI were successfully treated. The levels of Hp, SAA, AGP, total protein, and globulin were associated with the odds of treatment failure. Conclusively, acute phase proteins could be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cows with UTI.

Keywords: cows, urinary, infections, haptoglobin, serum Amyloid A

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22 A Modelling Analysis of Monetary Policy Rule

Authors: Wael Bakhit, Salma Bakhit

Abstract:

This paper employs a quarterly time series to determine the timing of structural breaks for interest rates in USA over the last 60 years. The Chow test is used for investigating the non-stationary, where the date of the potential break is assumed to be known. Moreover, an empirical examination of the financial sector was made to check if it is positively related to deviations from an assumed interest rate as given in a standard Taylor rule. The empirical analysis is strengthened by analysing the rule from a historical perspective and a look at the effect of setting the interest rate by the central bank on financial imbalances. The empirical evidence indicates that deviation in monetary policy has a potential causal factor in the build-up of financial imbalances and the subsequent crisis where macro prudential intervention could have beneficial effect. Thus, our findings tend to support the view which states that the probable existence of central banks has been a source of global financial crisis since the past decade.

Keywords: Taylor rule, financial imbalances, central banks, econometrics

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21 PID Sliding Mode Control with Sliding Surface Dynamics based Continuous Control Action for Robotic Systems

Authors: Wael M. Elawady, Mohamed F. Asar, Amany M. Sarhan

Abstract:

This paper adopts a continuous sliding mode control scheme for trajectory tracking control of robot manipulators with structured and unstructured uncertain dynamics and external disturbances. In this algorithm, the equivalent control in the conventional sliding mode control is replaced by a PID control action. Moreover, the discontinuous switching control signal is replaced by a continuous proportional-integral (PI) control term such that the implementation of the proposed control algorithm does not require the prior knowledge of the bounds of unknown uncertainties and external disturbances and completely eliminates the chattering phenomenon of the conventional sliding mode control approach. The closed-loop system with the adopted control algorithm has been proved to be globally stable by using Lyapunov stability theory. Numerical simulations using the dynamical model of robot manipulators with modeling uncertainties demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed approach in high speed trajectory tracking problems.

Keywords: PID, robot, sliding mode control, uncertainties

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20 Cloning and Analysis of Nile Tilapia Toll-like receptors Type-3 mRNA

Authors: Abdelazeem Algammal, Reham Abouelmaatti, Xiaokun Li, Jisheng Ma, Eman Abdelnaby, Wael Elfeil

Abstract:

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best understood of the innate immune receptors that detect infections in vertebrates. However, the fish TLRs also exhibit very distinct features and a large diversity, which is likely derived from their diverse evolutionary history and the distinct environments that they occupy. Little is known about the fish immune system structure. Our work was aimed to identify and clone the Nile tilapiaTLR-3 as a model of freshwater fish species; we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) TLR-3 and according to our knowledge, it is the first report illustrating tilapia TLR-3. The complete cDNA sequence of Nile tilapia TLR-3 was 2736 pair base and it encodes a polypeptide of 912 amino acids. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that Nile tilapia TLR-3 has typical structural features and main components of proteins belonging to the TLR family. Our results illustrate a complete and functional Nile tilapia TLR-3 and it is considered an ortholog of the other vertebrate’s receptor.

Keywords: Nile tilapia, TLR-3, cloning, gene expression

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19 The Involvement of Viruses and Fungi in the Pathogenesis of Dental Infections

Authors: Wael Khalil, Elias Rahal, Ghassan Matar

Abstract:

Tooth related infections or commonly named dental infections have been described as the most common causes of tooth loss in adults. These pathologies were mostly periodontitis, pericoronitis, and periapical infection. The involvement of various bacteria in the pathogenesis of these pathologies has been thoroughly mentioned and approved in the literature. However, the variability in the severity and prognosis of these lesions among patients suggests the association of other pathogens, like viruses and fungi, in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Several studies in the literature investigated the association of multiple viruses and fungi with the above-mentioned lesions, yet, a vast controversy was reached concerning this subject.Aim: Our study aims to fill the gap in the literature concerning the contribution of adenovirus, HPV-16, EBV, fungi, and candida in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, pericoronitis, and periapical infection. For this purpose, we utilized the quantitative PCR for pathogen detection in saliva, gingival, and lesions samples of involved subjects. Results: Some of these pathogens appeared to have an association with the investigated dental pathologies, while others showed no contribution to the pathogenesis of these lesions. Further investigation is required in order to identify the subtype of the involved pathogens in these tooth related oral pathology.

Keywords: periodontitis, pericoronitis, dental abscess, PCR, microbiology

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18 Vibration Control of a Tracked Vehicle Driver Seat via Magnetorheological Damper

Authors: Wael Ata

Abstract:

Tracked vehicles are exposed to severe operating conditions during their battlefield. The suspension system of such vehicles plays a crucial role in the mitigation of vibration transmitted from unevenness to vehicle hull and consequently to the crew. When the vehicles are crossing the road with high speeds, the driver is subjected to a high magnitude of vibration dose. This is because of the passive suspension system of the tracked vehicle lack the effectiveness to withstand induced vibration from irregular terrains. This paper presents vibration control of a semi-active seat suspension incorporating Magnetorheological (MR) damper fitted to a driver seat of an amphibious tracked vehicle (BMP-1). A half vehicle model featuring the proposed semi-active seat suspension is developed and its governing equations are derived. Two controllers namely; skyhook and fuzzy logic skyhook based to suppress the vibration dose at driver’s seat are formulated. The results show that the controlled MR suspension seat along with the vehicle model has substantially suppressed vibration levels at the driver’s seat under bump and sinusoidal excitations

Keywords: Tracked Vehicles, MR dampers, Skyhook controller, fuzzy logic controller

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17 Quasi-Static Resistance Function Quantification for Lightweight Sandwich Panels: Experimental Study

Authors: Yasser A. Khalifa, Michael J. Tait, A. M. Asce, Wael W. El-Dakhakhni, M. Asce

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The quasi-static resistance functions for orthogonal corrugated core sandwich panels were determined experimentally. According to the American and Canadian codes for blast resistant designs of buildings UFC 3-340-02, ASCE/SEI 59-11, and CSA/ S850-12 the dynamic behavior is related to the static behavior under uniform loading. The target was to design a lightweight, relatively cheap, and quick sandwich panel to be employed as a sacrificial cladding for important buildings. For that an available corrugated cold formed steel sheet profile in North America was used as a core for the sandwich panel, in addition to using a quick, relatively low cost fabrication technique in the construction process. Six orthogonal corrugated core sandwich panels were tested and the influence of core sheet gauge on the behavior of the sandwich panels was explored using two different gauges. Failure modes, yield forces, ultimate forces, and corresponding deformations were determined and discussed.

Keywords: cold formed steel, lightweight structure, sandwich panel, sacrificial cladding, uniform loading

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16 An Analytical Study of FRP-Concrete Bridge Superstructures

Authors: Wael I. Alnahhal

Abstract:

It is a major challenge to build a bridge superstructure that has long-term durability and low maintenance requirements. A solution to this challenge may be to use new materials or to implement new structural systems. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have continued to play an important role in solving some of persistent problems in infrastructure applications because of its high specific strength, light weight, and durability. In this study, the concept of the hybrid FRP-concrete structural systems is applied to a bridge superstructure. The hybrid FRP-concrete bridge superstructure is intended to have durable, structurally sound, and cost effective hybrid system that will take full advantage of the inherent properties of both FRP materials and concrete. In this study, two hybrid FRP-concrete bridge systems were investigated. The first system consists of trapezoidal cell units forming a bridge superstructure. The second one is formed by arch cells. The two systems rely on using cellular components to form the core of the bridge superstructure, and an outer shell to warp around those cells to form the integral unit of the bridge. Both systems were investigated analytically by using finite element (FE) analysis. From the rigorous FE studies, it was concluded that first system is more efficient than the second.

Keywords: bridge superstructure, hybrid system, fiber reinforced polymer, finite element analysis

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15 Characterization of the Catalytic and Structural Roles of the Human Hexokinase 2 in Cancer Progression

Authors: Mir Hussain Nawaz, Lyudmila Nedyalkova, Haizhong Zhu, Wael M. Rabeh

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In this study, we aim to biochemically and structurally characterize the interactions of human HK2 with the mitochondria in addition to the role of its N-terminal domain in catalysis and stability of the full-length enzyme. Here, we solved the crystal structure of human HK2 in complex with glucose and glucose-6-phosphate (PDB code: 2NZT), where it is a homodimer with catalytically active N- and C-terminal domains linked by a seven-turn α-helix. Different from the inactive N-terminal domains of isozymes 1 and 3, the N- domain of HK2 not only capable to catalyze a reaction but it is responsible for the thermodynamic stabilizes of the full-length enzyme. Deletion of first α-helix of the N-domain that binds to the mitochondria altered the stability and catalytic activity of the full-length HK2. In addition, we found the linker helix between the N- and C-terminal domains to play an important role in controlling the catalytic activity of the N-terminal domain. HK2 is a major step in the regulation of glucose metabolism in cancer making it an ideal target for the development of new anticancer therapeutics. Characterizing the structural and molecular mechanisms of human HK2 and its role in cancer metabolism will accelerate the design and development of new cancer therapeutics that are safe and cancer specific.

Keywords: cancer metabolism, enzymology, drug discovery, protein stability

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14 A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Aluminum Production Process

Authors: Alaa Al Hawari, Mohammad Khader, Wael El Hasan, Mahmoud Alijla, Ammar Manawi, Abdelbaki Benamour

Abstract:

The production of aluminium alloys and ingots -starting from the processing of alumina to aluminium, and the final cast product- was studied using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The studied aluminium supply chain consisted of a carbon plant, a reduction plant, a casting plant, and a power plant. In the LCA model, the environmental loads of the different plants for the production of 1 ton of aluminium metal were investigated. The impact of the aluminium production was assessed in eight impact categories. The results showed that for all of the impact categories the power plant had the highest impact only in the cases of Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) the reduction plant had the highest impact and in the Marine Aquatic Eco-Toxicity Potential (MAETP) the carbon plant had the highest impact. Furthermore, the impact of the carbon plant and the reduction plant combined was almost the same as the impact of the power plant in the case of the Acidification Potential (AP). The carbon plant had a positive impact on the environment when it comes to the Eutrophication Potential (EP) due to the production of clean water in the process. The natural gas based power plant used in the case study had 8.4 times less negative impact on the environment when compared to the heavy fuel based power plant and 10.7 times less negative impact when compared to the hard coal based power plant.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, aluminium production, supply chain, ecological impacts

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13 Antitumor Activity of Gold Nanorods against Mammary Gland and Skin Carcinoma in Dogs and Cats

Authors: Abdoon A.S., El Ashkar E.A., Kandil O.M., Wael H. Eisa, Shaban A.M., Khaled H.M., El Ashkar M.R., El Shaer M., Hussein H., Shaalan A.H., El Sayed M.

Abstract:

Cancer is a major obstacle to human health and development worldwide. Conventional strategies for cancer intervention include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Recently, plasmon photothermal therapy (PPTT) was introduced as a promising treatment for the management of cancer and several non-cancerous diseases that are generally characterized by overgrowth of abnormal cells. The present work was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic efficacy and toxicity of gold nanorods (AuNRs) in dogs and cats suffering from spontaneous mammary gland. AuNRs was injected intratumoral (IT, n=10, dose of 75 p.p.m/kg body weight) or by using spray method after surgical removal of cancer tissue (n=2) in dogs and cats. Then exposed to laser light after 60 min. Treated animals were observed every 2 days and the morphological changes in tumor size and shape were recorded. Blood samples were collected before and after treatment for checking CBC, liver and kidney functions. Results revealed that AuNRs successfully treat mammary gland tumor in dogs and cats (adenocarcinoma type 1 to IV). AuNRs induced sloughing of carcinogenic tissue within 5 to 15 days. AuNRs have no toxic effect on blood profile and the toxicity studies still under evaluation. Conclusion, AuNRs can be used for treatment of mammary gland carcinoma in dogs and cats.

Keywords: pet animals, mammary gland tumor, AuNRs, photothermal therapy, toxicity studies

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12 A Transient Coupled Numerical Analysis of the Flow of Magnetorheological Fluids in Closed Domains

Authors: Wael Elsaady, S. Olutunde Oyadiji, Adel Nasser

Abstract:

The non-linear flow characteristics of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in MR dampers are studied via a coupled numerical approach that incorporates a two-phase flow model. The approach couples the Finite Element (FE) modelling of the damper magnetic circuit, with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the flow field in the damper. The two-phase flow CFD model accounts for the effect of fluid compressibility due to the presence of liquid and gas in the closed domain of the damper. The dynamic mesh model included in ANSYS/Fluent CFD solver is used to simulate the movement of the MR damper piston in order to perform the fluid excitation. The two-phase flow analysis is studied by both Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) model and mixture model that are included in ANSYS/Fluent. The CFD models show that the hysteretic behaviour of MR dampers is due to the effect of fluid compressibility. The flow field shows the distributions of pressure, velocity, and viscosity contours. In particular, it shows the high non-Newtonian viscosity in the affected fluid regions by the magnetic field and the low Newtonian viscosity elsewhere. Moreover, the dependence of gas volume fraction on the liquid pressure inside the damper is predicted by the mixture model. The presented approach targets a better understanding of the complicated flow characteristics of viscoplastic fluids that could be applied in different applications.

Keywords: viscoplastic fluid, magnetic FE analysis, computational fluid dynamics, two-phase flow, dynamic mesh, user-defined functions

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11 Synergistic Effect of Doxorubicin-Loaded Silver Nanoparticles – Polymeric Conjugates on Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Nancy M. El-Baz, Laila Ziko, Rania Siam, Wael Mamdouh

Abstract:

Cancer is one of the most devastating diseases, and has over than 10 million new cases annually worldwide. Despite the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents, their systemic toxicity and non-selective anticancer actions represent the main obstacles facing cancer curability. Due to the effective enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect of nanomaterials, nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as drug nanocarriers providing targeted cancer drug delivery systems. In addition, several inorganic nanoparticles such as silver (AgNPs) nanoparticles demonstrated a potent anticancer activity against different cancers. The present study aimed at formulating core-shell inorganic NPs-based combinatorial therapy based on combining the anticancer activity of AgNPs along with doxorubicin (DOX) and evaluating their cytotoxicity on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These inorganic NPs-based combinatorial therapies were designed to (i) Target and kill cancer cells with high selectivity, (ii) Have an improved efficacy/toxicity balance, and (iii) Have an enhanced therapeutic index when compared to the original non-modified DOX with much lower dosage The in-vitro cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that the NPs-based combinatorial therapy achieved the same efficacy of non-modified DOX on breast cancer cell line, but with 96% reduced dose. Such reduction in DOX dose revealed that the combination between DOX and NPs possess a synergic anticancer activity against breast cancer. We believe that this is the first report on a synergic anticancer effect at very low dose of DOX against MCF-7 cells. Future studies on NPs-based combinatorial therapy may aid in formulating novel and significantly more effective cancer therapeutics.

Keywords: nanoparticles-based combinatorial therapy, silver nanoparticles, doxorubicin, breast cancer

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10 Acute Phase Proteins, Proinflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Sheep with Pneumonic Pasteurellosis

Authors: Wael M. El-Deeb

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to assess the pathophysiological importance of lipid profile, acute phase proteins, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in sheep with pneumonic pasteurellosis. Blood samples were collected from 36 Pasteurellamultocida-infected sheep, together with 20 healthy controls. Samples for bacteriological examination (nasal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage) were collected from all animals and subjected to bacteriological examinations. Moreover, heart blood and lung samples were collected from the dead pneumonic sheep and subjected also to bacteriological examinations. A lipid profile was determined, along with a blood picture and other biochemical parameters. The acute phase proteins (fibrinogen, haptoglobin, serum amyloid A), the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6), interferon-gamma and the oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde, super oxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase were also measured. The examined biochemical parameters were increased in the pneumonic sheep, except for cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), which were significantly lower than control group. Acute phase proteins and cytokines were significantly higher in the pneumonic sheep when compared to the healthy sheep. There was a significant increase in the levels of malondialdehyde; however, a significant decrease in the levels of super oxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase was observed. The present study shed the light on the possible pathphysiological role of lipid profile, acute phase proteins (APPs), proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in pneumonic pasteurelosis in sheep.

Keywords: acute phase proteins, sheep, pasteurella, interleukins, stress

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9 Combined Cervical Headache Snag with Cervical Snag Half Rotation Techniques on Cervicogenic Headache Patients

Authors: Wael Salah Shendy, Moataz Mohamed EL Semary, Hosam Salah Murad, Adham A. Mohamed

Abstract:

Background: Cervicogenic headache is a major problem in many people suffering from upper cervical dysfunction with a great conflict in its physical therapy management. Objectives: To determine the effect of C1-C2 Mulligan SNAGs mobilizations on cervicogenic headache and associated dizziness symptoms. Methods: Forty-eight patients with cervicogenic headache included in the study; from the outpatient clinic of Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, and New Cairo outpatient clinics, were randomly assigned into three equal groups; group A ( Headache SNAG), group B (C1-C2 SNAG rotation) and group C (combined). Their mean age was (29.37 ± 2.6), (29.31 ± 2.54) and (29.68 ± 2.65). Neck Disability Index used to examine neck pain intensity and CEH symptoms. 6 Items Headache Impact test '6-HIT' scale used to examine headache severity and its adverse effects on social life and functions. Flexion-Rotation Test 'FRT' also used to assess rotation ROM at the level of C1-C2 by 'CROM' device. Dizziness Handicap Inventory 'DHI' scale was used to evaluate dizziness symptoms. Evaluation is done pre and post treatment, and comparison between groups was quantified. Correlations between the examined parameters were also measured. Headache SNAG and C1-C2 Rotation SNAGs were done separately in group (A- B) and combined in group C as a treatment intervention. Results: Group C has Significant improvement in whole parameters compared to group A and B, positive correlation was found between NDI and 6-HIT scores compared to negative correlation between NDI and DHI scores. Conclusion: SNAGs mobilizations used in the study were effective in reducing cervicogenic headache and dizziness symptoms in all groups with a noticeable improvement in the combined group.

Keywords: cervicogenic headache, cervical headache snag, cervical snag half rotation, cervical dizziness

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8 Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Post Burn Scars

Authors: Mahmoud S. Zaghloul, Mohammed M. Khalaf, Wael N. Thabet, Haidy N. Asham

Abstract:

Background. Hypertrophic scarring is a difficult problem for burn patients, and scar management is an essential aspect of outpatient burn therapy. Post-burn pathologic scars involve functional and aesthetic limitations that have a dramatic influence on the patient’s quality of life. The aim was to investigate the use of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT), which targets the fibroblasts in scar tissue, as an effective modality for scar treatment in burn patients. Subjects and methods: forty patients with post-burn scars were assigned randomly into two equal groups; their ages ranged from 20-45 years. The study group received ESWT and traditional physical therapy program (deep friction massage, stretching exercises). The control group received traditional physical therapy program (deep friction massage, stretching exercises). All groups received two sessions per week for six successful weeks. The data were collected before and after the same period of treatment for both groups. Evaluation procedures were carried out to measure scar thickness using ultrasonography and Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) was completed before and after treatment. Results: Post-treatment results showed that there was a significant improvement difference in scar thickness in both groups in favor of the study group. Percentage of improvement in scar thickness in the study group was 42.55%, while it was 12.15% in the control group. There was also a significant improvement difference between results obtained using VSS in both groups in favor of the study group. Conclusion: ESWT is effective in management of pathologic post burn scars.

Keywords: extracorporeal shock wave therapy, post-burn scars, ultrasonography, Vancouver scar scale

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7 Study of Synergetic Effect by Combining Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma and Photocatalysis for Abatement of Pollutants in Air Mixture System: Influence of Some Operating Conditions and Identification of Byproducts

Authors: Wala Abou Saoud, Aymen Amine Assadi, Monia Guiza, Abdelkrim Bouzaza, Wael Aboussaoud, Abdelmottaleb Ouederni, Dominique Wolbert

Abstract:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) constitute one of the most important families of chemicals involved in atmospheric pollution, causing damage to the environment and human health, and need, consequently, to be eliminated. Among the promising technologies, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma - photocatalysis coupling reveals very interesting prospects in terms of process synergy of compounds mineralization’s, with low energy consumption. In this study, the removal of organic compounds such butyraldehyde (BUTY) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) (exhaust gasses from animal quartering centers.) in air mixture using DBD plasma coupled with photocatalysis was tested, in order to determine whether or not synergy effect was present. The removal efficiency of these pollutants, a selectivity of CO₂ and CO, and byproducts formation such as ozone formation were investigated in order to evaluate the performance of the combined process. For this purpose, a series of experiments were carried out in a continuous reactor. Many operating parameters were also investigated such as the specific energy of discharge, the inlet concentration of pollutant and the flowrate. It appears from this study that, the performance of the process has enhanced and a synergetic effect is observed. In fact, we note an enhancement of 10 % on removal efficiency. It is interesting to note that the combined system leads to better CO₂ selectivity than for plasma. Consequently, intermediates by-products have been reduced due to various other species (O•, N, OH•, O₂•-, O₃, NO₂, NOx, etc.). Additionally, the behavior of combining DBD plasma and photocatalysis has shown that the ozone can be easily also decomposed in presence of photocatalyst.

Keywords: combined process, DBD plasma, photocatalysis, pilot scale, synergetic effect, VOCs

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6 Vitamin C Enhances Growth and Productivity of Sunflower Plants Grown under Newly-Reclaimed Saline Soil Conditions

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Mostafa M. Rady, Wael M. Semida

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during the two successive seasons of 2012 and 2013 in the Experimental Farm (newly-reclaimed saline soil; EC = 7.8 dS m-1), Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt to investigate the effect of vitamin C foliar application at the rates of 1, 2, 3 and 4 mM on the possibility of improving growth, seed and oil yields, and some chemical constituents of Helianthus annuus L. plants under the adverse conditions of the selected soil. Significant positive influences of all vitamin C treatments were observed on growth, seed and oil yields and some chemical constituents in both seasons. Compared to unsprayed plants (control), spraying plants with various rates of vitamin C significantly increased vegetative growth traits (i.e. plant height, No. of leaves plant-1, leaf area leaf-1, total leaves area plant-1, and dry weights of leaves and shoot plant-1) and seed and oil yields and their components (i.e. head diameter, seed weight head-1, 100-seed weight, seed yield feddan-1 and oil yield feddan-1). In addition, the concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophylls, total carotenoids and total phenols in fresh leaves, and total carbohydrates, total soluble sugars, free proline and some nutrients (i.e. N, P, K, Fe, Mn, and Zn) in dry leaves were also increased significantly with all vitamin C applications. Vitamin C treatment at the rate of 3 mM was generated the best results. These results are important as the potential of vitamin C to alleviate the harmful effects of salt stress offer an opportunity to increase the resistance of sunflower plants to grow under saline conditions of the newly-reclaimed soils.

Keywords: sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., ascorbic acid, salinity, growth, seed yield, oil content, chemical composition

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5 Assessment Proposal to Establish the First Geo-Park in Egypt at Abu-Roash Area, Cairo

Authors: Kholoud Abdelmaksoud, Mahmoud Emam, Wael Al-Metwaly

Abstract:

Egypt is known as cradle of civilization due to its ancient history and archeological sites, but Egypt possess also a cradle of Geo-sites, which qualify it to be listed as one of the most important Geo-heritage sites all over the country. Geology and landscape in Abu-Roash area is considered as one of the most important geological places (geo-sites) inside Cairo which help us to know and understand geology and geologic processes, so the area is used mainly for geological education purposes, also the area contain an archeological sites; pyramid complex, tombs, and Coptic monastery which give the area unique importance. Abu-Roash area is located inside Cairo 9 km north of the Giza Pyramids, which make the accessibility to the area easy and safe, the geology of Abu-Roash constitutes a complex Cretaceous sedimentary succession mass with showing outstanding tectonic features (Syrian Arc system event), these features are considered as a Geo-heritage, which will be the main designation of ‘Geo-parks’ establishing. The research is dealing with the numerous geo-sites found in the area, and its geologic and archeological importance, the relation between geo-sites and archeology, also the research proposed a detailed maps for these sites depicting Geo-routes and the hazardous places surrounding Abu-Roash area. The research is proposing a new proposal not applied in Egypt before, establishing a Geo-park, to promote this unique geo-heritage from hazardous factors and anthropogenic effects, also it will offer geo-educational opportunities to the general public and to the scientific community, enhancement of Geo-tourism which will be linked easily with the Ancient Egyptian tourism, it will also provide a significant economic benefit to Abu-Roash residential area. Finally, the research recommends that The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations promote conservation of geological and geo-morphological heritage to list this area for its importance under the umbrella of geo-parks.

Keywords: geo-park, geo-sites, Abu-roash, archaeological sites, geo-tourism

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4 Establishing a Genetic Link between Fat Mass and Obesity Associated and Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Obesity in the Emirati Population

Authors: Saad Mahmud Khan, Sarah El Hajj Chehadeh, Mehera Abdulrahman, Wael Osman, Habiba Al Safar

Abstract:

Obesity is a non-communicable disease that is widely prevalent with approximately 600 million people classified as obese worldwide. Its etiology is multifactorial and involves a complex interplay between genes and the environment. Over the past few decades, obesity rates among the Emirati population have been increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene SNP rs9939609 and Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) gene SNP rs1544410, with obesity in the UAE population. Methods: This is a case-control study in which 414 individuals were enrolled during their routine visit to endocrinology clinics in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates between the period of June 2012 and December 2013. Several biochemical tests and clinical assessments along with a lifestyle questionnaire for each participant were completed at the clinic. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva samples of 201 obese, 114 overweight and 99 normal subjects. Genotyping for the variants was performed using TaqMan assay. Results: The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) ± SD for the obese, overweight, and normal subjects was 35.76 ± 4.54, 27.53 ± 1.45 and 22.69 ± 1.84 kg/m2, respectively. Increasing BMI values were associated with an increase in values for systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c, and triglycerides. The SNP rs9939609 in the FTO gene was found to be significantly associated with the BMI (p=0.028), with the minor allele A having a clear additive effect on BMI values. No significant association was detected between BMI and rs1544410 of the VDR gene. Conclusions: Our study findings indicate that the minor allele A of the rs9939609 has a significant association with increasing BMI values. In addition, our findings support the fact that increasing BMI is associated with increasing risks of other comorbidities such as higher blood pressure, poorer glycemic control and higher triglycerides.

Keywords: body mass index, FTO gene, obesity, rs9939609, United Arab Emirates

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3 Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Red and Green Emitting Luciferase Enzymes

Authors: Wael M. Rabeh, Cesar Carrasco-Lopez, Juliana C. Ferreira, Pance Naumov

Abstract:

Bioluminescence, the emission of light from a biological process, is found in various living organisms including bacteria, fireflies, beetles, fungus and different marine organisms. Luciferase is an enzyme that catalyzes a two steps oxidation of luciferin in the presence of Mg2+ and ATP to produce oxyluciferin and releases energy in the form of light. The luciferase assay is used in biological research and clinical applications for in vivo imaging, cell proliferation, and protein folding and secretion analysis. The luciferase enzyme consists of two domains, a large N-terminal domain (1-436 residues) that is connected to a small C-terminal domain (440-544) by a flexible loop that functions as a hinge for opening and closing the active site. The two domains are separated by a large cleft housing the active site that closes after binding the substrates, luciferin and ATP. Even though all insect luciferases catalyze the same chemical reaction and share 50% to 90% sequence homology and high structural similarity, they emit light of different colors from green at 560nm to red at 640 nm. Currently, the majority of the structural and biochemical studies have been conducted on green-emitting firefly luciferases. To address the color emission mechanism, we expressed and purified two luciferase enzymes with blue-shifted green and red emission from indigenous Brazilian species Amydetes fanestratus and Phrixothrix, respectively. The two enzymes naturally emit light of different colors and they are an excellent system to study the color-emission mechanism of luciferases, as the current proposed mechanisms are based on mutagenesis studies. Using a vapor-diffusion method and a high-throughput approach, we crystallized and solved the crystal structure of both enzymes, at 1.7 Å and 3.1 Å resolution respectively, using X-ray crystallography. The free enzyme adopted two open conformations in the crystallographic unit cell that are different from the previously characterized firefly luciferase. The blue-shifted green luciferase crystalized as a monomer similar to other luciferases reported in literature, while the red luciferases crystalized as an octamer and was also purified as an octomer in solution. The octomer conformation is the first of its kind for any insect’s luciferase, which might be relate to the red color emission. Structurally designed mutations confirmed the importance of the transition between the open and close conformations in the fine-tuning of the color and the characterization of other interesting mutants is underway.

Keywords: bioluminescence, enzymology, structural biology, x-ray crystallography

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