Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4450

Search results for: earthquake resistant structures

4450 A Brief Overview of Seven Churches in Van Province

Authors: Eylem Güzel, Soner Guler, Mustafa Gulen


Van province which has a very rich historical heritage is located in eastern part of Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. Many civilizations prevailing in Van until today have built up many historical structures such as castles, mosques, churches, bridges, baths, etc. In 2011, a devastating earthquake with magnitude 7.2 Mw, epicenter in Tabanlı Village, occurred in Van, where a large part of the city locates in the first-degree earthquake zone. As a result of this earthquake, 644 people were killed; a lot of reinforced, unreinforced and historical structures were badly damaged. Many historical structures damaged due to this earthquake have been restored. In this study, the damages observed in Seven churches (Yedi Kilise) after 2011 Van earthquake is evaluated with regard to architecture and civil engineering perspective.

Keywords: earthquake, historical structures, Van province, church

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
4449 A Study on the Coefficient of Transforming Relative Lateral Displacement under Linear Analysis of Structure to Its Real Relative Lateral Displacement

Authors: Abtin Farokhipanah


In recent years, analysis of structures is based on ductility design in contradictory to strength design in surveying earthquake effects on structures. ASCE07-10 code offers to intensify relative drifts calculated from a linear analysis with Cd which is called (Deflection Amplification Factor) to obtain the real relative drifts which can be calculated using nonlinear analysis. This lateral drift should be limited to the code boundaries. Calculation of this amplification factor for different structures, comparing with ASCE07-10 code and offering the best coefficient are the purposes of this research. Following our target, short and tall building steel structures with various earthquake resistant systems in linear and nonlinear analysis should be surveyed, so these questions will be answered: 1. Does the Response Modification Coefficient (R) have a meaningful relation to Deflection Amplification Factor? 2. Does structure height, seismic zone, response spectrum and similar parameters have an effect on the conversion coefficient of linear analysis to real drift of structure? The procedure has used to conduct this research includes: (a) Study on earthquake resistant systems, (b) Selection of systems and modeling, (c) Analyzing modeled systems using linear and nonlinear methods, (d) Calculating conversion coefficient for each system and (e) Comparing conversion coefficients with the code offered ones and concluding results.

Keywords: ASCE07-10 code, deflection amplification factor, earthquake engineering, lateral displacement of structures, response modification coefficient

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4448 Parametric Study of the Structures: Influence of the Shells

Authors: Serikma Mourad, Mezidi Amar


The conception (design) of an earthquake-resistant structure is a complex problem seen the necessity of meeting the requirements of security been imperative by the regulations, and of economy been imperative by the increasing costs of the structures. The resistance of a building in the horizontal actions (shares) is mainly ensured by a mixed brace system; for a concrete building, this system is constituted by frame or shells; or both at the same time. After the earthquake of Boumerdes (May 23; 2003) in Algeria, the studies made by experts, ended in modifications of the Algerian Earthquake-resistant Regulation (AER 99). One of these modifications was to widen the use of shells for the brace system. This modification has create a conflict on the quantities, the positions and the type of the shells at adopt. In the present project, we suggest seeing the effect of the variation of the dimensions, the localization and the conditions of rigidity in extremities of shells. The study will be led on a building (F+5) implanted in zone of seismicity average. To do it, we shall proceed to a classic dynamic study of a structure by using 4 alternatives for shells by varying the lengths and number in order to compare the cost of the structure for 4 dispositions of the shells with a technical-economic study of the brace system by the use of different dispositions of shells and to estimate the quantities of necessary materials (concrete and steel).

Keywords: reinforced concrete, mixed brace system, dynamic analysis, beams, shells

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
4447 Reinforced Concrete Design Construction Issues and Earthquake Failure-Damage Responses

Authors: Hasan Husnu Korkmaz, Serra Zerrin Korkmaz


Earthquakes are the natural disasters that threat several countries. Turkey is situated on a very active earthquake zone. During the recent earthquakes, thousands of people died due to failure of reinforced concrete structures. Although Turkey has a very sufficient earthquake code, the design and construction mistakes were repeated for old structures. Lack of the control mechanism during the construction process may be the most important reason of failure. The quality of the concrete and poor detailing of steel or reinforcement is the most important headings. In this paper, the reasons of failure of reinforced concrete structures were summarized with relevant photos. The paper is beneficial for civil engineers as well as architect who are in the process of construction and design of structures in earthquake zones.

Keywords: earthquake, reinforced concrete structure, failure, material

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4446 Earthquake Retrofitting Methods of Steel and Concrete Structures and Investigating Strategies to Deal With Destructive Earthquakes

Authors: Ehsan Sadie


Today, after devastating earthquakes and many deaths due to the destruction of residential buildings, the scientific community has attracted the attention of the existing structures to strengthen and standardize construction. Due to the fact that the existing buildings are sometimes constructed without sufficient knowledge of the correct design, and even the buildings built according to the old standards today need to be reinforced due to changes in some provisions of the regulations. The location of some countries in the seismic zone has always caused a lot of human and economic damage throughout history, and attention to the strengthening of buildings, important facilities, and vital arteries is the result of this situation. Engineers' efforts to design earthquake-resistant buildings began when decades had passed since the development of design criteria and ensuring the safety of buildings against loads. New methods, mass reduction, reducing the weight of the building, use of moving structures to deal with earthquakes, as well as the use of new technologies in this field, including the use of dampers, composites in the reinforcement of structures are discussed, and appropriate solutions have been provided in each of the fields.

Keywords: brace, concrete structure, damper, earthquake, FRP reinforcement, lightweight material, retrofitting, seismic isolator, shear wall, steel structure

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4445 Effect of Wind Braces to Earthquake Resistance of Steel Structures

Authors: H. Gokdemir


All structures are subject to vertical and lateral loads. Under these loads, structures make deformations and deformation values of structural elements mustn't exceed their capacity for structural stability. Especially, lateral loads cause critical deformations because of their random directions and magnitudes. Wind load is one of the lateral loads which can act in any direction and any magnitude. Although wind has nearly no effect on reinforced concrete structures, it must be considered for steel structures, roof systems and slender structures like minarets. Therefore, every structure must be able to resist wind loads acting parallel and perpendicular to any side. One of the effective methods for resisting lateral loads is assembling cross steel elements between columns which are called as wind bracing. These cross elements increases lateral rigidity of a structure and prevent exceeding of deformation capacity of the structural system. So, this means cross elements are also effective in resisting earthquake loads too. In this paper; Effects of wind bracing to earthquake resistance of structures are studied. Structure models (with and without wind bracing) are generated and these models are solved under both earthquake and wind loads with different seismic zone parameters. It is concluded by the calculations that; in low-seismic risk zones, wind bracing can easily resist earthquake loads and no additional reinforcement for earthquake loads is necessary. Similarly; in high-seismic risk zones, earthquake cross elements resist wind loads too.

Keywords: wind bracings, earthquake, steel structures, vertical and lateral loads

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4444 Seismic Resistant Mechanism of Two-by-four Wooden Frame with Vibration Control Device

Authors: Takumi Ito, Kurumi Kurokawa, Dong Hang Wu, Takashi Nagumo, Haruhiko Hirata


The structural system of wooden house by two-by-four method is widely adopted in any countries, and a various type of vibration control system for building structures has been developed on country with frequent earthquake. In this study, a vibration control device called “Scaling Frame” (SF) is suggested, and which is applied to wooden two-by-four method structures. This paper performs the experimental study to investigate the restoring force characteristics of two-by-four with SF device installed. The seismic resistant performance is estimated experimentally, and also the applicability and effectiveness are discussing.

Keywords: two-by-four method, seismic vibration control, horizontally loading test, restoring force characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
4443 Investigation on Correlation of Earthquake Intensity Parameters with Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Semra Sirin Kiris


Nonlinear dynamic analysis is permitted to be used for structures without any restrictions. The important issue is the selection of the design earthquake to conduct the analyses since quite different response may be obtained using ground motion records at the same general area even resulting from the same earthquake. In seismic design codes, the method requires scaling earthquake records based on site response spectrum to a specified hazard level. Many researches have indicated that this limitation about selection can cause a large scatter in response and other charecteristics of ground motion obtained in different manner may demonstrate better correlation with peak seismic response. For this reason influence of eleven different ground motion parameters on the peak displacement of reinforced concrete systems is examined in this paper. From conducting 7020 nonlinear time history analyses for single degree of freedom systems, the most effective earthquake parameters are given for the range of the initial periods and strength ratios of the structures. In this study, a hysteresis model for reinforced concrete called Q-hyst is used not taken into account strength and stiffness degradation. The post-yielding to elastic stiffness ratio is considered as 0.15. The range of initial period, T is from 0.1s to 0.9s with 0.1s time interval and three different strength ratios for structures are used. The magnitude of 260 earthquake records selected is higher than earthquake magnitude, M=6. The earthquake parameters related to the energy content, duration or peak values of ground motion records are PGA(Peak Ground Acceleration), PGV (Peak Ground Velocity), PGD (Peak Ground Displacement), MIV (Maximum Increamental Velocity), EPA(Effective Peak Acceleration), EPV (Effective Peak Velocity), teff (Effective Duration), A95 (Arias Intensity-based Parameter), SPGA (Significant Peak Ground Acceleration), ID (Damage Factor) and Sa (Spectral Response Spectrum).Observing the correlation coefficients between the ground motion parameters and the peak displacement of structures, different earthquake parameters play role in peak displacement demand related to the ranges formed by the different periods and the strength ratio of a reinforced concrete systems. The influence of the Sa tends to decrease for the high values of strength ratio and T=0.3s-0.6s. The ID and PGD is not evaluated as a measure of earthquake effect since high correlation with displacement demand is not observed. The influence of the A95 is high for T=0.1 but low related to the higher values of T and strength ratio. The correlation of PGA, EPA and SPGA shows the highest correlation for T=0.1s but their effectiveness decreases with high T. Considering all range of structural parameters, the MIV is the most effective parameter.

Keywords: earthquake parameters, earthquake resistant design, nonlinear analysis, reinforced concrete

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4442 Investigating the Behavior of Underground Structures in the Event of an Earthquake

Authors: Davoud Beheshtizadeh, Farzin Malekpour


The progress of technology and producing new machinery have made a big change in excavation operations and construction of underground structures. The limitations of space and some other economic, politic and military considerations gained the attention of most developed and developing countries towards the construction of these structures for mine, military, and development objectives. Underground highways, tunnels, subways, oil reservoir resources, fuels, nuclear wastes burying reservoir and underground stores are increasingly developing and being used in these countries. The existence and habitability of the cities depend on these underground installations or in other words these vital arteries. Stopping the flow of water, gas leakage and explosion, collapsing of sewage paths, etc., resulting from the earthquake are among the factors that can severely harm the environment and increase the casualty. Lack of sewage network and complete stoppage of the flow of water in Bam (Iran) is a good example of this kind. In this paper, we investigate the effect of wave orientation on structures and deformation of them and the effect of faulting on underground structures, and then, we study resistance of reinforced concrete against earthquake, simulate two different samples, analyze the result and point out the importance of paying attention to underground installations.

Keywords: underground structures, earthquake, underground installations, axial deformations

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4441 Seismic Vulnerability Mitigation of Non-Engineered Buildings

Authors: Muhammad Tariq A. Chaudhary


The tremendous loss of life that resulted in the aftermath of recent earthquakes in developing countries is mostly due to the collapse of non-engineered and semi-engineered building structures. Such structures are used as houses, schools, primary healthcare centres and government offices. These building are classified structurally into two categories viz. non-engineered and semi-engineered. Non-engineered structures include: adobe, Unreinforced Masonry (URM) and wood buildings. Semi-engineered buildings are mostly low-rise (up to 3 story) light concrete frame structures or masonry bearing walls with reinforced concrete slab. This paper presents an overview of the typical damage observed in non-engineered structures and their most likely causes in the past earthquakes with specific emphasis on the performance of such structures in the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. It is demonstrated that seismic performance of these structures can be improved from life-safety viewpoint by adopting simple low-cost modifications to the existing construction practices. Incorporation of some of these practices in the reconstruction efforts after the 2005 Kashmir earthquake are examined in the last section for mitigating seismic risk hazard.

Keywords: Kashmir earthquake, non-engineered buildings, seismic hazard, structural details, structural strengthening

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4440 Earthquake Resistant Sustainable Steel Green Building

Authors: Arup Saha Chaudhuri


Structural steel is a very ductile material with high strength carrying capacity, thus it is very useful to make earthquake resistant buildings. It is a homogeneous material also. The member section and the structural system can be made very efficient for economical design. As the steel is recyclable and reused, it is a green material. The embodied energy for the efficiently designed steel structure is less than the RC structure. For sustainable green building steel is the best material nowadays. Moreover, pre-engineered and pre-fabricated faster construction methodologies help the development work to complete within the stipulated time. In this paper, the usefulness of Eccentric Bracing Frame (EBF) in steel structure over Moment Resisting Frame (MRF) and Concentric Bracing Frame (CBF) is shown. Stability of the steel structures against horizontal forces especially in seismic condition is efficiently possible by Eccentric bracing systems with economic connection details. The EBF is pin–ended, but the beam-column joints are designed for pin ended or for full connectivity. The EBF has several desirable features for seismic resistance. In comparison with CBF system, EBF system can be designed for appropriate stiffness and drift control. The link beam is supposed to yield in shear or flexure before initiation of yielding or buckling of the bracing member in tension or compression. The behavior of a 2-D steel frame is observed under seismic loading condition in the present paper. Ductility and brittleness of the frames are compared with respect to time period of vibration and dynamic base shear. It is observed that the EBF system is better than MRF system comparing the time period of vibration and base shear participation.

Keywords: steel building, green and sustainable, earthquake resistant, EBF system

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
4439 Seismic Vulnerability of Structures Designed in Accordance with the Allowable Stress Design and Load Resistant Factor Design Methods

Authors: Mohammadreza Vafaei, Amirali Moradi, Sophia C. Alih


The method selected for the design of structures not only can affect their seismic vulnerability but also can affect their construction cost. For the design of steel structures, two distinct methods have been introduced by existing codes, namely allowable stress design (ASD) and load resistant factor design (LRFD). This study investigates the effect of using the aforementioned design methods on the seismic vulnerability and construction cost of steel structures. Specifically, a 20-story building equipped with special moment resisting frame and an eccentrically braced system was selected for this study. The building was designed for three different intensities of peak ground acceleration including 0.2 g, 0.25 g, and 0.3 g using the ASD and LRFD methods. The required sizes of beams, columns, and braces were obtained using response spectrum analysis. Then, the designed frames were subjected to nine natural earthquake records which were scaled to the designed response spectrum. For each frame, the base shear, story shears, and inter-story drifts were calculated and then were compared. Results indicated that the LRFD method led to a more economical design for the frames. In addition, the LRFD method resulted in lower base shears and larger inter-story drifts when compared with the ASD method. It was concluded that the application of the LRFD method not only reduced the weights of structural elements but also provided a higher safety margin against seismic actions when compared with the ASD method.

Keywords: allowable stress design, load resistant factor design, nonlinear time history analysis, seismic vulnerability, steel structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
4438 Weaknesses and Performance Defects of Steel Structures According to the Executive Criteria

Authors: Ehsan Sadie


Despite the experience of heavy losses and damages of recent earthquakes such as 8 km E of Pāhala, Hawaii, 11 km W of Salvaleón de Higüey, Dominican Republic and 49 km SSE of Punta Cana, Dominican Republic earthquakes, the possibility of large earthquakes in most populated areas of any country and the serious need for quality control in the design and implementation of buildings, not enough attention has been paid to the proper construction. Steel structures constitute a significant part of construction in any metropolitan area. This article gives a brief overview of the implementation status of these buildings in urban areas and considers the weaknesses of performance that typically occur due to negligence or insufficient mastery of the building supervisor in the principles of operation of earthquake-resistant buildings, and provide appropriate and possible solutions to improve the construction.

Keywords: bracing member, concentrated load, diaphragm system, earthquake engineering, load-bearing system, shear force, seismic retrofitting, steel building, strip foundation, supervising engineer, vulnerability of building

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
4437 Analysis of Steel Beam-Column Joints Under Seismic Loads

Authors: Mizam Doğan


Adapazarı railway car factory, the only railway car factory of Turkey, was constructed in 1950. It was a steel design and it had filled beam sections and truss beam systems. Columns were steel profiles and box sections. The factory was damaged heavily on Izmit Earthquake and closed. In this earthquake 90% of damaged structures are reinforced concrete, the others are %7 prefabricated and 3% steel construction. As can be seen in statistical data, damaged industrial buildings in this earthquake were generally reinforced concrete and prefabricated structures. Adapazari railway car factory is the greatest steel structure damaged in the earthquake. This factory has 95% of the total damaged steel structure area. In this paper; earthquake damages on beams and columns of the factory are studied by considering TS648 'Turkish Standard Building Code for Steel Structures' and also damaged connection elements as welds, rivets and bolts are examined. A model similar to the damaged system is made and high-stress zones are searched. These examinations, conclusions, suggestions are explained by damage photos and details.

Keywords: column-beam connection, seismic analysis, seismic load, steel structure

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4436 Retrofitting of Historical Structures in Van City

Authors: Eylem Güzel, Mustafa Gülen


Historical structures are the most important symbols of a country that link the past with the future. In order to transfer them in their present conditions to the next generations, maintaining these historical structures are one of our main tasks. Seismic performance of historical structures damaged by the earthquake effects can be enhanced by repair and retrofitting applications. However, repair and retrofitting applications of historical structures are more complicated compared with the traditional structures. For this reason, they need much more attention in repair and retrofitting applications to preserve the spirit of historical structures. In this study, the present condition of selected historical structures built up in Van city that has a very rich historical heritage is given and the necessity of repair and retrofitting applications of historical structures are debated in detail.

Keywords: historical structures, repair, retrofitting, Van city

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
4435 Sustainability: Effect of Earthquake in Micro Hydro Sector, a Case Study of Micro Hydro Projects in Northern Part of Kavre District, Nepal

Authors: Ram Bikram Thapa, Ganesh Lama


The Micro Hydro is one of the successful technology in Rural Nepal. Kavre is one of the pioneer district of sustainability of Micro Hydro Projects. A total of 30 Micro Hydro projects have been constructed with producing 700 KW of energy in northern side of the Kavre district. This study shows that 67% of projects have been affected by devastating earthquake in April and May, 2015. Out of them 23% are completely damaged. Most of the structures are failure like Penstock 71%, forebay 21%, powerhouse 7% have been completely damaged and 91% Canal & 44% Intake structures have been partially damaged by the earthquake. This paper empathizes that the engineering design is the vital component for sustainability of Micro Hydro Projects. This paper recommended that technicians should be considered the safety factor of earthquake and provision of disaster recovery fund during design of Micro Hydro Projects.

Keywords: micro hydro, earthquake, structural failure, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
4434 Damages Inflicted on Steel Structures and Metal Buildings due to Insufficient Supervision and Monitoring and Non-Observance of the Rules of the Regulations

Authors: Ehsan Sadie


Despite the experience of heavy losses and damages of recent earthquakes such as 8 km E of Pāhala, Hawaii, 11 km W of Salvaleón de Higüey, Dominican Republic and 49 km SSE of Punta Cana, Dominican Republic earthquakes, the possibility of large earthquakes in most populated areas of any country and the serious need for quality control in the design and implementation of buildings, not enough attention has been paid to the proper construction. Steel structures constitute a significant part of construction in any metropolitan area. This article gives a brief overview of the implementation status of these buildings in urban areas and considers the weaknesses of performance that typically occur due to negligence or insufficient mastery of the building supervisor in the principles of operation of earthquake-resistant buildings, and provides appropriate and possible solutions to improve the construction.

Keywords: bracing member, concentrated load, diaphragm system, earthquake engineering, load-bearing system, shear force, seismic retrofitting, steel building, strip foundation, supervising engineer, vulnerability of building

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
4433 Shaking Table Test and Seismic Performance Evaluation of Spring Viscous Damper Cable System

Authors: Asad Naeem, Jinkoo Kim


This research proposes a self-centering passive damping system consisting of a spring viscous damper linked with a preloaded tendon. The seismic performance of the spring viscous damper is evaluated by pseudo-dynamic tests, and the results are used for the formulation of an analytical model of the damper in the structural analysis program. The shaking table tests of a two-story steel frame installed with the proposed damping system are carried out using five different earthquake records. The results from the shaking table tests are verified by numerical simulation of the retrofitted structure. The results obtained from experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed damping system with self-centering capability is effective in reducing earthquake-induced displacement and member forces.

Keywords: seismic retrofit, spring viscous damper, shaking table test, earthquake resistant structures

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4432 Translational and Rotational Effect of Earthquake Ground Motion on a Bridge Substructure

Authors: Tauhidur Rahman, Gitartha Kalita


In this study a four span box girder bridge is considered and effect of the rotational and translational earthquake ground motion have been thoroughly investigated. This study is motivated by the fact that in many countries the translational and rotational components of earthquake ground motion, especially rocking, is not adequately considered in analysing the overall response of the structures subjected to earthquake ground excitations. Much consideration is given to only the horizontal components of the earthquake ground motion during the response analysis of structures. In the present research work, P waves, SV waves and Rayleigh wave excitations are considered for different angle of incidence. In the present paper, the four span bridge is model considering the effects of vertical and rocking components of P, SV and Rayleigh wave excitations. Ground responses namely displacement, velocity and acceleration of the substructures of the bridge have been considered for rotational and translational effects in addition to the horizontal ground motion due to earthquake and wind.

Keywords: ground motion, response, rotational effects, translational effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
4431 A Stochastic Model to Predict Earthquake Ground Motion Duration Recorded in Soft Soils Based on Nonlinear Regression

Authors: Issam Aouari, Abdelmalek Abdelhamid


For seismologists, the characterization of seismic demand should include the amplitude and duration of strong shaking in the system. The duration of ground shaking is one of the key parameters in earthquake resistant design of structures. This paper proposes a nonlinear statistical model to estimate earthquake ground motion duration in soft soils using multiple seismicity indicators. Three definitions of ground motion duration proposed by literature have been applied. With a comparative study, we select the most significant definition to use for predict the duration. A stochastic model is presented for the McCann and Shah Method using nonlinear regression analysis based on a data set for moment magnitude, source to site distance and site conditions. The data set applied is taken from PEER strong motion databank and contains shallow earthquakes from different regions in the world; America, Turkey, London, China, Italy, Chili, Mexico...etc. Main emphasis is placed on soft site condition. The predictive relationship has been developed based on 600 records and three input indicators. Results have been compared with others published models. It has been found that the proposed model can predict earthquake ground motion duration in soft soils for different regions and sites conditions.

Keywords: duration, earthquake, prediction, regression, soft soil

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4430 Attribute Index and Classification Method of Earthquake Damage Photographs of Engineering Structure

Authors: Ming Lu, Xiaojun Li, Bodi Lu, Juehui Xing


Earthquake damage phenomenon of each large earthquake gives comprehensive and profound real test to the dynamic performance and failure mechanism of different engineering structures. Cognitive engineering structure characteristics through seismic damage phenomenon are often far superior to expensive shaking table experiments. After the earthquake, people will record a variety of different types of engineering damage photos. However, a large number of earthquake damage photographs lack sufficient information and reduce their using value. To improve the research value and the use efficiency of engineering seismic damage photographs, this paper objects to explore and show seismic damage background information, which includes the earthquake magnitude, earthquake intensity, and the damaged structure characteristics. From the research requirement in earthquake engineering field, the authors use the 2008 China Wenchuan M8.0 earthquake photographs, and provide four kinds of attribute indexes and classification, which are seismic information, structure types, earthquake damage parts and disaster causation factors. The final object is to set up an engineering structural seismic damage database based on these four attribute indicators and classification, and eventually build a website providing seismic damage photographs.

Keywords: attribute index, classification method, earthquake damage picture, engineering structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
4429 Three Dimensional Numerical Analysis for Longitudinal Seismic Response of Tunnels under Asynchronous Earthquake

Authors: Peng Li, Er-xiang Song


Numerical analysis of longitudinal tunnel seismic response due to spatial variation of earthquake ground motion is an important issue that cannot be ignored in the design and safety evaluation of tunnel structures. In this paper, numerical methods for analysis of tunnel longitudinal response under asynchronous seismic wave is extensively studied, including the improvement of the 1D time-domain finite element method, three dimensional numerical simulation technique for the site asynchronous earthquake response as well as the 3-D soil-tunnel structure interaction analysis. The study outcome will be beneficial to aid further research on the nonlinear meticulous numerical analysis and seismic response mechanism of tunnel structures under asynchronous earthquake motion.

Keywords: asynchronous input, longitudinal seismic response, tunnel structure, numerical simulation, traveling wave effect

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4428 Design and Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Corrugated-GFRP Infill Panels

Authors: Woo Young Jung, Sung Min Park, Ho Young Son, Viriyavudh Sim


This study presents a way to reduce earthquake damage and emergency rehabilitation of critical structures such as schools, high-tech factories, and hospitals due to strong ground motions associated with climate changes. Regarding recent trend, a strong earthquake causes serious damage to critical structures and then the critical structure might be influenced by sequence aftershocks (or tsunami) due to fault plane adjustments. Therefore, in order to improve seismic performance of critical structures, retrofitted or strengthening study of the structures under aftershocks sequence after emergency rehabilitation of the structures subjected to strong earthquakes is widely carried out. Consequently, this study used composite material for emergency rehabilitation of the structure rather than concrete and steel materials because of high strength and stiffness, lightweight, rapid manufacturing, and dynamic performance. Also, this study was to develop or improve the seismic performance or seismic retrofit of critical structures subjected to strong ground motions and earthquake aftershocks, by utilizing GFRP-Corrugated Infill Panels (GCIP).

Keywords: aftershock, composite material, GFRP, infill panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
4427 Examples from a Traditional Sismo-Resistant Architecture

Authors: Amira Zatir, Abderahmane Mokhtari, Amina Foufa, Sara Zatir


It exists in several regions in the world, of numerous historic monuments, buildings and housing environment, built in traditional ways which survive for earthquakes, even in zones where the seismic risk is particularly raised. These constructions, stemming from vernacular architecture, allow, through their resistances in the time earthquakes, to identify the various sismo-resistant "local" techniques. Through the examples and the experiences presented, the remark which can be made, is that in the traditional built, two major principles in a way opposite, govern the constructions in earthquake-resistant. It is about the very big flexibility, whom answer very light constructions, like the Japanese wooden constructions, Turkish and even Chinese; that of the very big rigidity to which correspond constructions in masonry in particular stone, more or less heavy and massive, which we meet in particular in the Mediterranean Basin, and in the historic sanctuary of Machu Pacchu. In it sensible and well-reflected techniques of construction are added, of which the use of the humble materials such as the earth and the adobe. The ancient communities were able to face the seismic risks, thanks to them know-how reflected in their intelligently designed constructions, testifying of a local seismic culture.

Keywords: earthquake, architecture, traditional, construction, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
4426 Effects of Various Wavelet Transforms in Dynamic Analysis of Structures

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Sadegh Balaghi, Ehsan Khojastehfar


Time history dynamic analysis of structures is considered as an exact method while being computationally intensive. Filtration of earthquake strong ground motions applying wavelet transform is an approach towards reduction of computational efforts, particularly in optimization of structures against seismic effects. Wavelet transforms are categorized into continuum and discrete transforms. Since earthquake strong ground motion is a discrete function, the discrete wavelet transform is applied in the present paper. Wavelet transform reduces analysis time by filtration of non-effective frequencies of strong ground motion. Filtration process may be repeated several times while the approximation induces more errors. In this paper, strong ground motion of earthquake has been filtered once applying each wavelet. Strong ground motion of Northridge earthquake is filtered applying various wavelets and dynamic analysis of sampled shear and moment frames is implemented. The error, regarding application of each wavelet, is computed based on comparison of dynamic response of sampled structures with exact responses. Exact responses are computed by dynamic analysis of structures applying non-filtered strong ground motion.

Keywords: wavelet transform, computational error, computational duration, strong ground motion data

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
4425 Seismic Performance of Nuclear Power Plant Structures Subjected to Korean Earthquakes

Authors: D. D. Nguyen, H. S. Park, S. W. Yang, B. Thusa, Y. M. Kim, T. H. Lee


Currently, the design response spectrum (i.e., Nuclear Regulatory Commission - NRC 1.60 spectrum) with the peak ground acceleration (PGA) 0.3g (for Safe Shutdown Earthquake level) is specified for designing the new nuclear power plant (NPP) structures in Korea. However, the recent earthquakes in the region such as the 2016 Gyeongju and the 2017 Pohang earthquake showed that the possible PGA of ground motions can be larger than 0.3g. Therefore, there is a need to analyze the seismic performance of the existing NPP structures under these earthquakes. An NPP model, APR-1400, which is designed and built in Korea was selected for a case study. The NPP structure is numerically modeled in terms of lumped-mass stick elements using OpenSees framework. The floor acceleration and displacement of components are measured to quantify the responses of components. The numerical results show that the floor spectral accelerations are significantly amplified in the components subjected to Korean earthquakes. A comparison between floor response spectra of Korean earthquakes and the NRC design motion highlights that the seismic design level of NPP components under an earthquake should be thoroughly reconsidered. Additionally, a seismic safety assessment of the equipment and relays attached to main structures is also required.

Keywords: nuclear power plant, floor response spectra, Korean earthquake, NRC spectrum

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4424 The Simultaneous Effect of Horizontal and Vertical Earthquake Components on the Seismic Response of Buckling-Restrained Braced Frame

Authors: Mahdi Shokrollahi


Over the past years, much research has been conducted on the vulnerability of structures to earthquakes, which only horizontal components of the earthquake were considered in their seismic analysis and vertical earthquake acceleration especially in near-fault area was less considered. The investigation of the mappings shows that vertical earthquake acceleration can be significantly closer to the maximum horizontal earthquake acceleration, and even exceeds it in some cases. This study has compared the behavior of different members of three steel moment frame with a buckling-restrained brace (BRB), one time only by considering the horizontal component and again by considering simultaneously the horizontal and vertical components under the three mappings of the near-fault area and the effect of vertical acceleration on structural responses is investigated. Finally, according to the results, the vertical component of the earthquake has a greater effect on the axial force of the columns and the vertical displacement of the middle of the beams of the different classes and less on the lateral displacement of the classes.

Keywords: vertical earthquake acceleration, near-fault area, steel frame, horizontal and vertical component of earthquake, buckling-restrained brace

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4423 Vulnerability Assessment of Vertically Irregular Structures during Earthquake

Authors: Pranab Kumar Das


Vulnerability assessment of buildings with irregularity in the vertical direction has been carried out in this study. The constructions of vertically irregular buildings are increasing in the context of fast urbanization in the developing countries including India. During two reconnaissance based survey performed after Nepal earthquake 2015 and Imphal (India) earthquake 2016, it has been observed that so many structures are damaged due to the vertically irregular configuration. These irregular buildings are necessary to perform safely during seismic excitation. Therefore, it is very urgent demand to point out the actual vulnerability of the irregular structure. So that remedial measures can be taken for protecting those structures during natural hazard as like earthquake. This assessment will be very helpful for India and as well as for the other developing countries. A sufficient number of research has been contributed to the vulnerability of plan asymmetric buildings. In the field of vertically irregular buildings, the effort has not been forwarded much to find out their vulnerability during an earthquake. Irregularity in vertical direction may be caused due to irregular distribution of mass, stiffness and geometrically irregular configuration. Detailed analysis of such structures, particularly non-linear/ push over analysis for performance based design seems to be challenging one. The present paper considered a number of models of irregular structures. Building models made of both reinforced concrete and brick masonry are considered for the sake of generality. The analyses are performed with both help of finite element method and computational method.The study, as a whole, may help to arrive at a reasonably good estimate, insight for fundamental and other natural periods of such vertically irregular structures. The ductility demand, storey drift, and seismic response study help to identify the location of critical stress concentration. Summarily, this paper is a humble step for understanding the vulnerability and framing up the guidelines for vertically irregular structures.

Keywords: ductility, stress concentration, vertically irregular structure, vulnerability

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4422 Earthquakes and Buildings: Lesson Learnt from Past Earthquakes in Turkey

Authors: Yavuz Yardım


The most important criteria for structural engineering is the structure’s ability to carry intended loads safely. The key element of this ability is mathematical modeling of really loadings situation into a simple loads input to use in structure analysis and design. Amongst many different types of loads, the most challenging load is earthquake load. It is possible magnitude is unclear and timing is unknown. Therefore the concept of intended loads and safety have been built on experience of previous earthquake impact on the structures. Understanding and developing these concepts is achieved by investigating performance of the structures after real earthquakes. Damage after an earthquake provide results of thousands of full-scale structure test under a real seismic load. Thus, Earthquakes reveille all the weakness, mistakes and deficiencies of analysis, design rules and practice. This study deals with lesson learnt from earthquake recoded last two decades in Turkey. Results of investigation after several earthquakes exposes many deficiencies in structural detailing, inappropriate design, wrong architecture layout, and mainly mistake in construction practice.

Keywords: earthquake, seismic assessment, RC buildings, building performance

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4421 Introduction of the Harmfulness of the Seismic Signal in the Assessment of the Performance of Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures

Authors: Kahil Amar, Boukais Said, Kezmane Ali, Hannachi Naceur Eddine, Hamizi Mohand


The principle of the seismic performance evaluation methods is to provide a measure of capability for a building or set of buildings to be damaged by an earthquake. The common objective of many of these methods is to supply classification criteria. The purpose of this study is to present a method for assessing the seismic performance of structures, based on Pushover method, we are particularly interested in reinforced concrete frame structures, which represent a significant percentage of damaged structures after a seismic event. The work is based on the characterization of seismic movement of the various earthquake zones in terms of PGA and PGD that is obtained by means of SIMQK_GR and PRISM software and the correlation between the points of performance and the scalar characterizing the earthquakes will be developed.

Keywords: seismic performance, pushover method, characterization of seismic motion, harmfulness of the seismic

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