Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7306

Search results for: sanitation systems

7306 Assessment of Sustainable Sanitation Systems: Urban Slums

Authors: Ali Hamza, Bertug Akintug


Having an appropriate plan of sanitation systems is one of the critical issues for global urban slums. Poor sanitation systems in urban slums outcomes an enhanced vulnerability of severe diseases, low hygiene and environmental risks within our environment. Mentioning human excreta being one of the most highly risked pollutants among all the other major contributors of sanitation pollutants is increasing public health risks and amounts of pollution loads within the slum environment. Higher population growth, urge of urbanization and illegal status of urban slums makes it impossible to increase the level of performance of sanitation systems in urban slums. According to Sustainable Sanitation Alliance, design parameters for sanitation systems were set up to ensure sustainable environment. This paper reviews the characteristics of human excreta at present, treatment technologies, and procedures of processes that can be adopted feasibly in the urban slums. Keeping these factors as our significant concern of study, assessment of sustainable sanitation systems is done using sanitation chain concept in accordance to the pre-determined sustainability indicators and criteria which reflect the potential and feasible application of waterless sanitation systems bringing sustainable sanitation systems in urban slums.

Keywords: human excreta, sanitation chain, sustainable sanitation systems, urban slums

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7305 Gender Responsiveness of Water, Sanitation Policies and Legal Frameworks at Makerere University

Authors: Harriet Kebirungi, Majaliwa Jackson-Gilbert Mwanjalolo, S. Livingstone Luboobi, Richard Joseph Kimwaga, Consolata Kabonesa


This paper assessed gender responsiveness of water and sanitation policies and legal frameworks at Makerere University, Uganda. The objectives of the study were to i) examine the gender responsiveness of water and sanitation related policies and frameworks implemented at Makerere University; and ii) assess the challenges faced by the University in customizing national water and sanitation policies and legal frameworks into University policies. A cross-sectional gender-focused study design was adopted. A checklist was developed to analyze national water and sanitation policies and legal frameworks and University based policies. In addition, primary data was obtained from Key informants at the Ministry of Water and Environment and Makerere University. A gender responsive five-step analytical framework was used to analyze the collected data. Key findings indicated that the policies did not adequately address issues of gender, water and sanitation and the policies were gender neutral consistently. The national policy formulation process was found to be gender blind and not backed by situation analysis of different stakeholders including higher education institutions like Universities. At Makerere University, due to lack of customized and gender responsive water and sanitation policy and implementation framework, there were gender differences and deficiencies in access to and utilization of water and sanitation facilities. The University should take advantage of existing expertise within them to customize existing national water policies and gender, and water and sanitation sub-sector strategy. This will help the University to design gender responsive, culturally acceptable and environmental friendly water and sanitation systems that provide adequate water and sanitation facilities that address the needs and interests of male and female students.

Keywords: gender, Makerere University, policies, water, sanitation

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7304 Assessment of Access to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, in Relation to the SDG 6, in Small Towns in Senegal: The Case of the Town of Foundiougne

Authors: Elhadji Mamadou Sonko, Ndiogou Sankhare, Jean Birane Gning, Cheikh Diop


In Senegal, small towns have problems of access to water, hygiene, and sanitation. This study aims to assess the situation in Foundiougne. The methodology includes a literature review, semi-structured interviews with stakeholders, surveys of 100 households, and observation. The results show that 35% of households have unimproved water services, 46% have limited service, and 19% have basic service. Regarding sanitation, 77% of households have basic sanitation services, and 23% have limited sanitation services. Manual emptying alone is practiced by 4% of households, while 17% combine it with mechanical emptying. Household wastewater is disposed of in streets, vacant land, and concession yards. The emptied sludge is discharged into the environment without treatment. Hand washing is practiced by 98% of households. These results show that there is real work to be done at the small towns level to close the water and sanitation gap in order to achieve SDG 6 targets in Senegal.

Keywords: foundiougne, SDG 6, senegal, small towns, water sanitation ang hygiene

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7303 Spatially Referenced Checklist Model Dedicated to Professional Actors for a Good Evaluation and Management of Networks

Authors: Abdessalam Hijab, Hafida Boulekbache, Eric Henry


The objective of this article is to explain the use of geographic information system (GIS) and information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the real-time processing and analysis of data on the status of an urban sanitation network by integrating professional actors in sanitation for sustainable management in urban areas. Indeed, it is a smart geo-collaboration based on the complementarity of ICTs and GIS. This multi-actor reflection was built with the objective of contributing to the development of complementary solutions to the existing technologies to better protect the urban environment, with the help of a checklist with the spatial reference "E-Géo-LD" dedicated to the "professional/professional" actors in sanitation, for intelligent monitoring of liquid sanitation networks in urban areas. In addition, this research provides a good understanding and assimilation of liquid sanitation schemes in the "Lamkansa" sampling area of the city of Casablanca, and spatially evaluates these schemes. Downstream, it represents a guide to assess the environmental impacts of the liquid sanitation scheme.

Keywords: ICT, GIS, spatial checklist, liquid sanitation, environment

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7302 An Investigation on the Need to Provide Environmental Sanitation Facilities to Informal Settlement in Shagari Low-Cost Katsina State for Sustainable Built Environment

Authors: Abdullahi Mannir Rawayau


This paper identifies the problems that have aided the decoy to adequate basic infrastructural amenities, sub-standard housing, over-crowding, poor ventilation in homes and work places, sanitation, and non-compliance with building bye-laws and regulation. The paper also asserts the efficient disposal of solid and liquid waste is one of the challenges in the informal areas due to threats on the environment and public health. Sanitation services in the informal settlements have been found to be much lower compared to the average for unban. Bearing in mind a factor which prevents sustainable sanitation in informal areas which include low incomes, insecure tenure, low education levels, difficulty topography and transitory populations, and this study aim to identify effective strategies for achieving sustainable sanitation with specific reference to the informal settlement. Using the Shanghai Low-Cost as a case study. The primary data collected was through observation and interview method. Similarly, the secondary data used for the study was collected through literature reviews from extent studies with specific reference to informal settlement. A number of strategies towards achieving sustainable sanitation in the study were identified here in classified into three (3):- Advocacy and capacity building, infrastructural provision and institutionalization of systems and processes. The paper concludes with the premise on the need to build alliances between the government and stakeholders concerned with sanitation provision through the creation of sanitation and employ adaptable technology. Provision of sanitation facilities in public areas and to establish a statutory body for timely response to sanitation waste management in Katsina. It is imperative to check and prevent further decay for harmonious living and sustainable development.

Keywords: built environment, sanitation, facilities, settlement

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7301 Scope of Public Policies in Promoting Resource-Recovery Sanitation Systems to Answer the Open Defecation Challenges of Indian Cities: Case of Ahmedabad

Authors: Isalyne Gennaro


The lack of access to basic sanitation services and improper water infrastructure pollute the environment and expose people to water-borne diseases. In 2014, to address these concerns, the central government of India launched five-years urban development and sanitation programs. The national vision seemed to encourage the use of technologies which recycle and reuse wastewater for achieving open defecation free cities. As we approach 2019, it is time to reflect on these objectives. This research critically looked at the actual scope and limitations of policies and regulations to promote resource-recovery sanitation systems. This study was based on the case of the fast-growing city of Ahmedabad, Gujarat. The analysis examined the actions and priorities, financial and institutional arrangements and technologies promoted at the national, sub-national and local levels. The research work concluded that a paradigm shift is required, from providing infrastructures in a supply-driven manner to creating inclusive planning framework which focuses on local challenges and generates a demand-responsiveness from the potential users targeted.

Keywords: India, public policy, resource-recovery, urban sanitation

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7300 Strategic Thinking to Change Behavior and Improve Sanitation in Jodipan and Kesatrian, Malang, East Java, Indonesia

Authors: Prasanti Widyasih Sarli, Prayatni Soewondo


Greater access to sanitation in developing countries is urgent. However even though sanitation is crucial, overall budget for sanitation is limited. With this budget limitation, it is important to (1) allocate resources strategically to maximize impact and (2) take into account communal agency to potentially be a source for sanitation improvements. The Jodipan and Kesatrian Project in Malang, Indonesia is an interesting alternative for solving the sanitation problem in which resources were allocated strategically and communal agency was also observed. Although the projects initial goal was only to improve visually the situation in the slums, it became a new tourist destination, and the economic benefit that came with it had an effect also on the change of behavior of the residents and the government towards sanitation. It also grew from only including the Kesatrian Village to expanding to the Jodipan Village in the course of less than a year. To investigate the success of this project, in this paper a descriptive model will be used and data will be drawn from intensive interviews with the initiators of the project, residents affected by the project and government officials. In this research it is argued that three points mark the success of the project: (1) the strategic initial impact due to choice of location, (2) the influx of tourists that triggered behavioral change among residents and, (3) the direct economic impact which ensured its sustainability and growth by gaining government officials support and attention for more public spending in the area for slum development and sanitation improvement.

Keywords: behaviour change, sanitation, slum, strategic thinking

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7299 Provision of Basic Water and Sanitation Services in South Africa through the Municipal Infrastructure Grant Programme

Authors: Elkington Sibusiso Mnguni


Although South Africa has made good progress in providing basic water and sanitation services to its citizens, there is still a large section of the population that has no access to these services. This paper reviews the performance of the government’s municipal infrastructure grant programme in providing basic water and sanitation services which are part of the constitutional requirements to the citizens. The method used to gather data and information was a desk top study which sought to review the progress made in rolling out the programme. The successes and challenges were highlighted and possible solutions were identified that can accelerate the elimination of the remaining backlogs and improve the level of service to the citizens. Currently, approximately 6.5 million citizens are without access to basic water services and approximately 10 million are without access to basic sanitation services.

Keywords: grant, municipal infrastructure, sanitation, services, water

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7298 Rural Sanitation in India: Special Context in the State of Odisa

Authors: Monalisha Ghosh, Asit Mohanty


The lack of sanitation increases living costs, decreases spend on education and nutrition, lowers income earning potential, and threatens safety and welfare. This is especially true for rural India. Only 32% of rural households have their own toilets and that less than half of Indian households have a toilet at home. Of the estimated billion people in the world who defecate in the open, more than half reside in rural India. It is empirically established that poor sanitation leads to high infant mortality rate and low income generation in rural India. In India, 1,600 children die every day before reaching their fifth birthday and 24% of girls drop out of school as the lack of basic sanitation. Above all, lack of sanitation is not a symptom of poverty but a major contributing factor. According to census 2011, 67.3% of the rural households in the country still did not have access to sanitation facilities. India’s sanitation deficit leads to losses worth roughly 6% of its gross domestic product (GDP) according to World Bank estimates by raising the disease burden in the country. The dropout rate for girl child is thirty percent in schools in rural areas because of lack of sanitation facilities for girl students. The productivity loss per skilled labors during a year is calculated at Rs.44, 160 in Odisha. The performance of the state of Odisha has not been satisfactory in improving sanitation facilities. The biggest challenge is triggering behavior change in vast section of rural population regarding need to use toilets. Another major challenge is funding and implementation for improvement of sanitation facility. In an environment of constrained economic resources, Public Private Partnership in form of performance based management or maintenance contract will be all the more relevant to improve the sanitation status in rural sector.

Keywords: rural sanitation, infant mortality rate, income, granger causality, pooled OLS method test public private partnership

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7297 A Study of Food Safety Perception of Undergraduate Students in Taiwan

Authors: K. Y. Shih, H. M. Lin, S. Y. Lee, T. L. Hong


Recently a number of food safety scandals have been on the news. In view of the fact that in Taiwan the majority of undergraduate college students reside in the dorms and dine out, the problem of restaurant sanitation is of utmost importance in their lives. The purpose of this study is to analyze students' dining habit and their perception of food safety. Four universities in the city of Tainan were randomly selected, and from each selected university a class was then chosen to receive 50 questionnaires. The total of 200 questionnaires yielded 144 usable returns. Students were asked to respond to questions, and each question was graded on a scale from 1 to 5 according to the importance. There were 32 questions ranging over various aspects: cleanliness of surroundings, washroom, food sanitation, serving temperature, kitchen sanitation, and service personnel cleanliness. It is found that the food sanitation received the highest score, while the service personnel ranked the lowest. An incidental finding is that the students tend to dine out in groups and as such their choice of restaurants are mostly dictated by consensus.

Keywords: food safety, restaurant, risk perception, sanitation

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7296 Mural Exhibition as a Promotive Strategy to Proper Hygiene and Sanitation Practices among Children: A Case Study from Urban Slum Schools in Nairobi, Kenya

Authors: Abdulaziz Kikanga, Kellen Muchira, Styvers Kathuni, Paul Saitoti


Background: Provision of adequate levels of water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools is a strategic objective in achieving universal primary education among children in low and middle-income countries. However, lack of proper sanitation and hygiene practices in schools, especially those in informal settlement has resulted to an increased rate of school absenteeism thereby affecting the education and health outcomes of the children in those setting. Intervention or Response: Catholic Relief Services in Kenya supports five schools in informal settlements of Nairobi by painting of key hygiene messages on school walls to promote proper hygiene and sanitation practices among the school children. The mural exhibitions depict the essence of proper hygiene practices, proper latrine use, and hand washing after visiting the latrine. The artwork is context specific and its aimed at improving the uptake of proper hygiene and sanitation practices among the school children. Review of project related documents was conducted including interviews with the school children. Thematic analysis was used to interpret the qualitative information generated. Results and Lessons Learnt: 12 school children have interviewed on proper hygiene and sanitation practices and the exercise revealed that painted murals were the best communication platforms for creating awareness on proper sanitation on issues relating to water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools. The painting mural provided a strong knowledge base for the formation of healthy habits in both the school and informal settlement. In addition, these sanitation messages on the school walls empower the children to share these practices with their siblings, parents, and other family members thereby acting as agents of change to proper hygiene and sanitation in those informal settlements. The findings revealed that by adopting proper sanitation and hygiene practices, there has been a reduction of school absenteeism due to a decrease in disease related to inadequate sanitation and hygiene in schools. Conclusion: The adoption of proper sanitation in schools entails more than just a painted mural wall. Insights revealed that to have a lasting sanitation and hygiene intervention, there is a need to invest in effective hygiene educational programming that encourages the formation of proper hygiene habits and promotes changes in behavior.

Keywords: education outcomes, informal settlement, mural exhibition, school hygiene and sanitation

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7295 Leading with Skill Development: A Collaborative and Community Based Approach to Ending Open Defecation in Rural India via Computerized Technical Vocational Education and Training

Authors: Srividya Sheshadri, Christopher Coley, Roa. R. Bhavani


India currently accounts for 60 percent of the open defecation that is practiced globally. While research in the domain of sanitation development makes it apparent that girls and women living in rural India are disproportionately affected, interventions to address this dilemma are lacking. An important but relatively unexplored connection with poor sanitation is that women living in rural India are not only the largest marginalized group without access to adequate sanitation facilities, they also represent a majority of India’s unskilled workers. By training women to build their own toilets, through an approach that has demonstrated success in empowering marginalized communities through technical and vocational education and training (TVET), a collaborative dynamic emerges that can engage entire communities in the movement towards total sanitation. Designed and implemented by Amrita University, this technology-enhanced, community-based approach to skill development, known as Amrita computerized Vocational Education and Training (or Amrita cVET), has begun to show promise in addressing the struggle to end open defecation, and raise sanitation awareness, as well as strengthen personal and community development among women living in rural India. While Amrita cVET project, known as Women Empowerment: Sanitation, is currently in implementation in seven states throughout India, this paper will discuss early stages of the intervention in rural villages within the Indian states of: Karnataka and Goa, where previous sanitation efforts have failed to take hold.

Keywords: community based development, empowerment studies, sanitation in India, computerized vocational training

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7294 Investigating the Strategies for Managing On-plot Sanitation Systems’ Faecal Waste in Developing Regions: The Case of Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Olasunkanmi Olapeju


A large chunk of global population are not yet connected to water borne faecal management systems that rely on flush mechanisms and sewers networks that are linked with a central treatment plant. Only about 10% of sub-Saharan African countries are connected to central sewage systems. In Nigeria, majority of the population do not only depend on on-plot sanitation systems, a huge chunk do not also have access to safe and improved toilets. Apart from the organizational challenges and technical capacity, the other major factors that account for why faecal waste management is yet unimproved in developing countries are faulty planning frameworks that fail to maintain balance between urbanization dynamics and infrastructures, and misconceptions about what modern sanitation is all about. In most cases, the quest to implement developmental patterns that integrate modern sewers based sanitation systems have huge financial and political costs. Faecal waste management in poor countries largely lacks the needed political attention and budgetary prioritization. Yet, the on-plot sanitation systems being mainly relied upon the need to be managed in a manner that is sustainable and healthy, pending when development would embrace a more sustainable off-site central sewage system. This study is aimed at investigating existing strategies for managing on-plot sanitation systems’ faecal waste in Ogun state, Nigeria, with the aim of recommending sustainable sanitation management systems. The study adopted the convergent parallel variant of the mixed-mode technique, which involves the adoption of both quantitative and qualitative method of data collection. Adopting a four-level multi-stage approach, which is inclusive of all political divisions in the study area, a total of 330 questionnaires were respectively administered in the study area. Moreover, the qualitative data adopted the purposive approach in scoping down to 33 key informants. SPSS software (Version 22.0) was employed for descriptively analysis. The study shows that about 52% of households adopt the non-recovery management (NRM) means of burying their latrines with sand sludge shrinkage with chemicals such as carbides. The dominance of the non-recovery management means seriously constrains the quest for faecal resource recovery. Essentially, the management techniques adopted by households depend largely on the technology of their sanitary containments, emptying means available, the ability of households to pay for the cost of emptying, and the social acceptability of the reusability of faecal waste, which determines faecal resource recoverability. The study suggests that there is a need for municipal authorities in the study area to urgently intervene in the sanitation sector and consider it a key element of the planning process. There is a need for a comprehensive plan that would ensure a seamless transition to the adoption of a modern sanitation management system.

Keywords: faecal, management, planning, waste, sanitation, sustainability

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7293 Reviewing Performance Assessment Frameworks for Urban Sanitation Services in India

Authors: Gaurav Vaidya, N. R. Mandal


UN Summit, 2000 had resolved to provide access to sanitation to whole humanity as part of ‘Millennium Development Goals -2015’. However, more than one third of world’s population still did not have the access to basic sanitation facilities by 2015. Therefore, it will be a gigantic challenge to achieve goal-6 of ‘UN Sustainable Development Goal’ to ensure availability and sustainable management of sanitation for all by the year 2030. Countries attempt to find out own ways of meeting this challenge of providing access to safe sanitation and as part of monitoring the actions have prepared varied types of ‘performance assessment frameworks (PAF)’. India introduced Service Level Benchmarking (SLB) in 2010 to set targets and achieve the goals of NUSP. Further, a method of reviewing performance was introduced as ‘Swachh Sarvekshan’ (Cleanliness Surveys) in 2016 and in 2017 guidelines for the same was revised. This study, as a first step, reviews the documents in use in India with a conclusion that the frameworks adopted are based on target setting, financial allocation and performance in achieving the targets set. However, it does not focus upon sanitation needs holistically i.e., areas and aspects not targeted through projects are not covered in the performance assessment. In this context, as a second step, this study reviews literature available on performance assessment frameworks for urban sanitation in selected other countries and compares the same with that in India. The outcome of the comparative review resulted in identification of unaddressed aspects as well as inadequacy of parameters in Indian context. Thirdly, in an attempt to restructure the performance assessment process and develop an index in urban sanitation, researches done in other urban services such as health and education were studied focusing on methods of measuring under-performance. As a fourth step, a tentative modified framework is suggested with the help of understanding drawn from above for urban sanitation using stages of Urban Sanitation Service Chain Management (SSCM) and modified set of parameters drawn from the literature review in the first and second steps. This paper reviews existing literature on SSCM procedures, Performance Index in sanitation and other urban services and identifies a tentative list of parameters and a framework for measuring under-performance in sanitation services. This may aid in preparation of a Service Delivery Under-performance Index (SDUI) in future.

Keywords: assessment, performance, sanitation, services

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7292 The Problem of Access to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Small Island Towns: The Case of Foundiougne in Senegal

Authors: El Hadji Mamadou Sonko, Ndiogou Sankhare, Maïmouna Lo, Jean Birane Gning, Cheikh Diop


In Senegal, access to water, hygiene, and sanitation in small island towns is a particular problem, which is still poorly understood by the public authorities and development aid actors. The main objective of this study carried out in the Municipality of Foundiougne is to contribute to the knowledge of the problems related to the supply of drinking water, access to sanitation, and hygiene in small island towns in Senegal. The methodology adopted consisted of a literature review and quantitative surveys of a sample of 100 households in the Municipality. Semi-structured interviews using interview guides and informal interviews were also conducted with mechanical and manual emptiers, municipal authorities, public toilet managers, and neighbourhood leaders. Direct observation with photography was also used. The results show that, with regard to access to drinking water, 35% of households have unimproved water services, 46% have a limited level of service, and 19% have a basic level of service. Regarding sanitation, 77% of households are considered to have access to basic sanitation services, compared to 23% with limited sanitation services. However, these figures hide the dysfunctions of the sanitation system. Indeed, manual emptying is practiced exclusively by 4% of households, while 17% of households combine it with mechanical emptying. In addition, domestic wastewater is mainly evacuated outside the sanitation facilities, and all the sludge extracted from the pits is discharged directly into the environment without treatment. As a matter of fact, the surveys showed that 52% of households do not have access to a basic level of hygiene-related to handwashing when leaving the toilet. These results show that there is real work to be done at the level of small urban centres if we want to achieve MDG 6.

Keywords: Foundiougne, Senegal, small island, small town, water-sanitation, hygiene

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7291 Impact of Social Stress on Mental Health: A Study on Sanitation Workers of India and Social Work

Authors: Farhat Nigar


Social stress is stress which arises from one's relationships with others and from the social environment. When a person finds that they are not capable of coping with a situation, stress arises. Sanitation workers faces a lot of discrimination from the society which leads to stress and have severe impact on their mental health. Sanitation workers face lot of work pressure which sometimes leads to mental health problems, but there is lack of proper data of sanitation workers dealing with mental health problems which is a big obstacle before evolving policies for the welfare of sewage and septic tank workers which needs attention. The objective of the study is to find out the effect of social stress on the mental health of sanitation workers and to explore the scope of social work in coping with mental health problems of workers. This descriptive and analytical study was conducted on 100 sanitation workers of Aligarh city through convenience sampling. Data were collected from respondents by schedule and interview method. Most of the respondents said that they don’t enjoy equal status in society and at the workplace as well which leads to stress. Many of them said that social stress leads to poor performance in the workplace. Some of the workers feel depressed when their work is not appreciated and recognized in society. Majority of respondents has stress in financial and employment-related difficulties. Thus it can be said that social stress has several impacts on mental health which leads to poor performance, lack of confidence, and motivation which sometimes leads to depression. Social work can play a very important and challenging role in overcoming these difficulties by providing education, motivation and guiding them and by making them aware of their rights and duties.

Keywords: discrimination, health, stress, sanitation workers

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7290 The Pitfalls of Empowerment Initiatives in India: Overcoming Male Resistance to Women Empowerment Through Community Outreach, TVET, and Improved Sanitation

Authors: Christopher Coley, Srividya Sheshadri, Rao R. Bhavani


Empowering marginalized populations, especially women, with greater economic, social, and other leadership roles has been shown to have a profound effect on entire communities. There are discernible links between sustainable development, poverty reduction, and skill training for empowerment; however, one of the major challenges with implementing empowerment programs is to establish an understanding within the community that investing in women’s education carries the potential of high return for everyone. Effective strategies that can both empower women, and overcome the complex social issues normally faced, need to be developed and shared across stakeholders. Amrita University’s AMMACHI Labs, a research lab engaged in women empowerment through Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET), has launched a new initiative, WE: Sanitation, a project aiming to train women to build their own toilets and promote healthy sanitation practices in rural villages across India. While in some cases, the community has come together and toilets are being built, there has been resistance by the community, especially men, in many places. This paper will explore the experiences of field workers and the initial results of the WE: Sanitation project, including observations on the trends of community dynamics, raise important questions for the direction of development work in general, and especially for sanitation projects in rural India.

Keywords: community-based development, gender dynamics, Indian sanitation, women empowerment, TVET

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7289 Recognition of Sanitation as a Human Right: An Overview of Unresolutions and Reports That Recognizes the Human Right to Sanitation in South-Asian Countries

Authors: Anju Vaidya


Sanitation is concerned with proper disposal of human excreta, waste water and promotion of hygiene. Lack of sanitation impacts our environment affecting our finance, schooling, health, and thus exacerbating poverty, discrimination and exclusion of the marginalized group. Sanitation can be a route and one of the most important factor to reach the goals of all Millennium Development goals. This study aims at exploring what are the rights to sanitation of the people, how it is enacted and what challenges are being faced while implementing the right to sanitation in South-Asian countries (India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Srilanka) at government, non-government and international level. This study also aims at finding how right sanitation is interlinked with children rights. The available reports submitted by government and civil society organizations working in South-Asian countries from the website of the Office of High Commissioner for Human Rights that were submitted under International covenant on economic, social and cultural rights and Convention on rights of the child have been selected and analyzed. The study uses Literature review to analyze these UN documents submitted from 2000 to 2015 in the context of South-Asian countries. Preliminary insight reveals that sanitation is recognized as one of the important factor to attain adequate standard of living. It has been found that inadequate sanitation has been a major factor that affects all aspects of life and one of its devastating impacts is increased child mortality. Many efforts have been made at national and international level in South-Asian countries to improve the state of sanitation and sanitation services. Various approaches such as Community led Total Sanitation, School led Total Sanitation, establishing Open Defecation free zone, water supply services and other sanitation and hygiene awareness programs are being launched. Despite different efforts and programs being implemented, sanitation and hygiene practices and behavior change remains to be a big challenge. Disparity in access and imbalance between urban and rural services and geographical regions, inadequate financing, clear policy framework and fragile functionality are some of the significant challenges faced while implementing these programs. Children are one of the most vulnerable group that are affected to a large extent. The study brings into light varied approaches that are being made and challenges that are being faced by government, non-government and civil society organizations while implementing the programs and strategies related to sanitation. It also highlights the relation of sanitation as a human right with child rights. This can help the stakeholders and policymakers better understand that improving sanitation situation is a process that requires learning, planning and behavior change and achieving sanitation coverage targets and motivating behavior change requires additional tools based on participation, non-discrimination and process approaches for planning and feedback.

Keywords: challenges, child rights, open defecation, sanitation as a human right

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7288 Study of Village Scale Community Based Water Supply and Sanitation Program (Pamsimas) in Indonesia

Authors: Reza Eka Putra


Pamsimas is a community based drinking water supply and sanitation program which is contributed by local community, local government, central government, and World Bank with the aim of achieving Water Supply and Sanitation - the Millennium Development Goals (WSS-MDGs) target. This program is supported by the Ministry of Public Works as the executing agency with the cooperation of Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Health. Field observations were conducted in two rural samples of 2009 beneficiaries Pamsimas West Java, which is in Ponggang Village, Subang District. The study was evaluated through several parameters, including technical, health, and empowerment aspect. Evaluation was done by comparing the parameters of success that has been set by Pamsimas through Pamsimas book manuals with the parameters from Sanitation & Infrastructure course regarding the appropriate application of technology in society. The result of the study is that the potency of the community before the program is implemented in the village is the determining factor. Stronger cooperation pattern in Ponggang Vilage results in a successful program. Both villages showed a pattern of behavior changes from indiscriminate defecation to sanitary latrine use. Besides, there is a decline in the number of cases of diarrheal disease since the year of Pamsimas implementation.

Keywords: millenium development goals, community develpoment, water supply, sanitation

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7287 Weighing the Economic Cost of Illness Due to Dysentery and Cholera Triggered by Poor Sanitation in Rural Faisalabad, Pakistan

Authors: Syed Asif Ali Naqvi, Muhammad Azeem Tufail


Inadequate sanitation causes direct costs of treating illnesses and loss of income through reduced productivity. This study estimated the economic cost of health (ECH) due to poor sanitation and factors determining the lack of access to latrine for the rural, backward hamlets and slums of district Faisalabad, Pakistan. Cross sectional data were collected and analyzed for the study. As the population under study was homogenous in nature, it is why a simple random sampling technique was used for the collection of data. Data of 440 households from 4 tehsils were gathered. The ordinary least square (OLS) model was used for health cost analysis, and the Probit regression model was employed for determining the factors responsible for inaccess to toilets. The results of the study showed that condition of toilets, situation of sewerage system, access to adequate sanitation, Cholera, diarrhea and dysentery, Water and Sanitation Agency (WASA) maintenance, source of medical treatment can plausibly have a significant connection with the dependent variable. Outcomes of the second model showed that the variables of education, family system, age, and type of dwelling have positive and significant sway with the dependent variable. Variable of age depicted an insignificant association with access to toilets. Variable of monetary expenses would negatively influence the dependent variable. Findings revealed the fact, health risks are often exacerbated by inadequate sanitation, and ultimately, the cost on health also surges. Public and community toilets for youths and social campaigning are suggested for public policy.

Keywords: sanitation, toilet, economic cost of health, water, Punjab

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7286 Effect of Climate Change and Water Sources: Sustainability of Rural Water Sanitation and Hygiene of Tanahun District

Authors: Bharat Sapkota


Nepal is the one of the victim country of climate change. Decreasing snow line, sometimes higher and sometime non-rain fall are common phenomena in hill area. Natural flood disaster and drought is also common every year in certain place of the country. So this paper analyze the effect of climate and natural water sources for sustainability of water sanitation and hygiene of Tanahun district. It is one of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project Western Nepal Phase-II (RWSSP-WN Phase-II) project district out of 14 project districts of western and mid-western Nepal. RWSSP-WN II is a bilateral development cooperation of governments of Nepal and Finland. Big investment is still going on in water sanitation and hygiene sector but sustainability is still a challenge throughout the country. So RWSSP-WN has started the strengthen of the capacity of local Governments to deliver services in water supply, sanitation and hygiene and its sustainability through the implementation of cross cutting approach of climate change and disaster risk reduction. The study shows that the average yield in 685 natural point sources were around 0.045 l/s in 2014 but it was twice as high in 2004 i.e. 0.09 l/s. The maximum measured yield in 2014 was 1.87 l/s, whereas, the maximum yield was 3 l/s in 2004. Likewise, spring source mean and maximum yield measured in 2014 were 0.16 l/s and 3.33 l/s respectively, whereas, mean and maximum yields in 2004 were 0.204 l/s and 3 l/s respectively. Small streams average yield measured in 2014 was 0.32 l/s with the maximum of around 4.99 l/s. In 2004, mean and maximum yields of streams were 0.485 l/s and 5 l/s respectively. The overall climate between years 2002 to 2013 and measured yield data between 2004 and 2014 shows climate as one of the causes of water source decline. The temperature is rising with pace of 0.041°C per year and rainfall is decreased by 16.8 mm/year. The Khosla’s empirical formula shows decrease of 1.7 cm/year in runoff. At present sustainability of water, sanitation and hygiene is more challenge due to sources decreasing in the district. Sanitation and hygiene total behavior change and watershed conservation as well as design and implementation of recharge pound construction are the way forward of sustainability of water, sanitation and hygiene.

Keywords: water sanitation, hygiene, sustainability, climate change

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7285 Brazilian Constitution and the Fundamental Right to Sanitation

Authors: Michely Vargas Delpupo, José Geraldo Romanello Bueno


The right to basic sanitation, was elevated to the category of fundamental right by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 to protect the ecologically balanced environment, ensuring social rights to health and adequate housing warranting dignity of the human person as a principle of the Brazilian Democratic State. Because of their essentiality to the Brazilian population, this article seeks to understand why universal access to basic sanitation is a goal so difficult to achieve in Brazil. Therefore, this research uses the deductive and analytical method. Given the nature of the research literature, research techniques were centered in specialized books on the subject, journals, theses and dissertations, laws, relevant law case and raising social indicators relating to the theme. The relevance of the topic stems, among other things, the fact that sanitation services are essential for a dignified life, i.e. everyone is entitled to the maintenance of the necessary existence conditions are satisfied. However, the effectiveness of this right is undermined in society, since Brazil has huge deficit in sanitation services, denying thus a worthy life to most of the population. Thus, it can be seen that the provision of water and sewage services in Brazil is still characterized by a large imbalance, since the municipalities with lower population index have greater disability in the sanitation service. The truth is that the precariousness of water and sewage services in Brazil is still very concentrated in the North and Northeast regions, limiting the effective implementation of the Law 11.445/2007 in the country. Therefore, there is urgent need for a positive service by the State in the provision of sanitation services in order to prevent and control disease, improve quality of life and productivity of individuals, besides preventing contamination of water resources. More than just social and economic necessity, there is even a an obligation of the government to implement such services. In this sense, given the current scenario, to achieve universal access to basic sanitation imposes many hurdles. These are mainly in the field of properly formulated and implemented public policies, i.e. it requires an excellent institutional organization, management services, strategic planning, social control, in order to provide answers to complex challenges.

Keywords: fundamental rights, health, sanitation, universal access

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7284 The Causes and Effects of Poor Household Sanitation: Case Study of Kansanga Parish

Authors: Rosine Angelique Uwacu


Poor household sanitation is rife in Uganda, especially in Kampala. This study was carried out with he goal of establishing the main causes and effects of poor household sanitation in Kansanga parish. The study objectively sought to: To identify various ways through which wastes are generated and disposed of in Kansanga parish, identify different hygiene procedures/behaviors of waste handling in Kansanga parish and assess health effects of poor household sanitation and suggest the recommended appropriate measures of addressing cases of lack of hygiene in Kansanga parish. The study used a survey method where cluster sampling was employed. This is because there is no register of population or sufficient information, or geographic distribution of individuals is widely scattered. Data was collected through the use of interviews accompanied by observation and questionnaires. The study involved a sample of 100 households. The study revealed that; some households use wheeled bin collection, skip hire and roll on/off contained others take their wastes to refuse collection vehicles. Surprisingly, majority of the households submitted that they use polythene bags 'Kavera' and at times plastic sacs to dispose of their wastes which are dumped in drainage patterns or dustbins and other illegal dumping site. The study showed that washing hands with small jerrycans after using the toilet was being adopted by most households as there were no or few other alternatives. The study revealed that the common health effects that come as a result of poor household sanitation in Kansanga Parish are diseases outbreaks such as malaria, typhoid and diarrhea. Finally, the study gave a number of recommendations or suggestions on maintaining and achieving an adequate household sanitation in Kansanga Parish such as sensitization of community members by their leaders like Local Counselors could help to improve the situation, establishment of community sanitation days for people to collectively and voluntarily carry out good sanitation practices like digging trenches, burning garbage and proper waste management and disposal. Authorities like Kampala Capital City Authority should distribute dumping containers or allocate dumping sites where people can dispose of their wastes preferably at a minimum cost for proper management.

Keywords: household sanitation, kansanga parish, Uganda, waste

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7283 Manual Pit Emptiers and Their Heath: Profiles, Determinants and Interventions

Authors: Ivy Chumo, Sheillah Simiyu, Hellen Gitau, Isaac Kisiangani, Caroline Kabaria Kanyiva Muindi, Blessing Mberu


The global sanitation workforce bridges the gap between sanitation infrastructure and the provision of sanitation services through essential public service work. Manual pit emptiers often perform the work at the cost of their dignity, safety, and health as their work requires repeated heavy physical activities such as lifting, carrying, pulling, and pushing. This exposes them to occupational and environmental health hazards and risking illness, injury, and death. The study will extend the studies by presenting occupational health risks and suggestions for improvement in informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. This is a qualitative study conducted among sanitation stakeholders in Korogocho, Mukuru and Kibera informal settlements in Nairobi. Data were captured using digital voice recorders, transcribed and thematically analysed. The discussion notes were further supported by observational notes made during the interviews. These formed the basis for a robust picture of occupational health of manual pit emptiers; a lack or inappropriate use of protective clothing, and prolonged duration of working hours were described to contribute to the occupational health hazard. To continue working, manual pit emptiers had devised coping strategies which include working in groups, improvised protective clothing, sharing the available protective clothing, working at night and consuming alcohol drinks while at work. Many of these strategies are detrimental to their health. Occupational health hazards among pit emptiers are key for effective working and is as a result of a lack of collaboration amongst stakeholders linked to health, safety and lack of PPE of pit emptiers. Collaborations amongst sanitation stakeholders is paramount for health, safety, and in ensuring the provision and use of personal protective devices.

Keywords: sanitation, occupational health, manual emptiers, informal settlements

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7282 Achieving the Status of Total Sanitation in the Rural Nepalese Context: A Case Study from Amarapuri, Nepal

Authors: Ram Chandra Sah


Few years back, naturally a very beautiful country Nepal was facing a lot of problems related to the practice of open defecation (having no toilet) by almost 98% people of the country. Now, the scenario is changed. Government of Nepal set the target of achieving the situation of basic level sanitation (toilets) facilities by 2017 AD for which the Sanitation and Hygiene Master Plan (SHMP) was brought in 2011 AD with the major beauty as institutional set up formation, local formal authority leadership, locally formulated strategic plan; partnership, harmonized and coordinated approach to working; no subsidy or support at a blanket level, community and local institutions or organizations mobilization approaches. Now, the Open Defecation Free (ODF) movement in the country is at a full swing. The Sanitation and Hygiene Master Plan (SHMP) has clearly defined Total Sanitation which is accepted to be achieved if all the households of the related boundary have achieved the 6 indicators such as the access and regular use of toilet(s), regular use of soap and water at the critical moments, regular practice of use of food hygiene behavior, regular practice of use of water hygiene behavior including household level purification of locally available drinking water, maintenance of regular personal hygiene with household level waste management and the availability of the state of overall clean environment at the concerned level of boundary. Nepal has 3158 Village Development Committees (VDC's) in the rural areas. Amarapuri VDC was selected for the purpose of achieving Total Sanitation. Based on the SHMP; different methodologies such as updating of Village Water Sanitation and Hygiene Coordination Committee (V-WASH-CC), Total Sanitation team formation including one volunteer for each indicator, campaigning through settlement meetings, midterm evaluation which revealed the need of ward level 45 (5 for all 9 wards) additional volunteers, ward wise awareness creation with the help of the volunteers, informative notice boards and hoarding boards with related messages at important locations, management of separate waste disposal rings for decomposable and non-decomposable wastes, related messages dissemination through different types of local cultural programs, public toilets construction and management by community level; mobilization of local schools, offices and health posts; reward and recognition to contributors etc. were adopted for achieving 100 % coverage of each indicator. The VDC was in a very worse situation in 2010 with just 50, 30, 60, 60, 40, 30 percent coverage of the respective indicators and became the first VDC of the country declared with Total Sanitation. The expected result of 100 percent coverage of all the indicators was achieved in 2 years 10 months and 19 days. Experiences of Amarapuri were replicated successfully in different parts of the country and many VDC's have been declared with the achievement of Total Sanitation. Thus, Community Mobilized Total Sanitation Movement in Nepal has supported a lot for achieving a Total Sanitation situation of the country with a minimal cost and it is believed that the approach can be very useful for other developing or under developed countries of the world.

Keywords: community mobilized, open defecation free, sanitation and hygiene master plan, total sanitation

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7281 Quantitative Evaluation on Community Perceptions of Sanitation and Hygiene in Rural Guatemala

Authors: Akudo Ejelonu, Sarah Willig, J. Anthony Sauder, Heather Murphy, Frances Shofer


Background: The high prevalence of diarrheal diseases in the village of Tzununá, Guatemala is linked to lack of sanitation facilities and handwashing practices. Diarrheal diseases are preventable and improved access to latrines, hygiene education and clean water may improve sanitation by reducing the spread of disease. Objective: Between May 2015-January 2017, the University of Pennsylvania Chapter of Engineers Without Border (PennEWB) and local partners designed an intervention to reduce diarrheal disease by building pour flush latrines in 50 individual households and providing education on the importance of handwashing practice. Design/Methods: Through convenient sampling, we surveyed 45 households to evaluate the community’s knowledge of diarrheal disease, handwashing practices, and maintenance of the latrines. Results: 92% of the study participants experienced decrease of new cases of diarrheal disease after receiving a latrine. Only 11% washed their hands after defecating in the latrine. There was gap in understanding the health outcome of latrine sanitation and handwashing education. The respondents did not connect the reduction of diarrheal disease with latrine use and maintenance. Instead, they associated their motivation for latrine use with aesthetics, proximity to their home, ease and comfort, and reduction of shame. We recommend that PennEWB adopt UNICEF or WHO education on hand washing practice. Conclusion: Social interaction and social pressure drove the household use of latrines. The latrines are being valued and cleaned. The education that the residents received did not target norms and behaviors. Latrines could be used to create a new social norm that supports behavioral change.

Keywords: diarrheal disease, latrine, open defecation, water, sanitation and hygiene

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7280 Probabilistic Life Cycle Assessment of the Nano Membrane Toilet

Authors: A. Anastasopoulou, A. Kolios, T. Somorin, A. Sowale, Y. Jiang, B. Fidalgo, A. Parker, L. Williams, M. Collins, E. J. McAdam, S. Tyrrel


Developing countries are nowadays confronted with great challenges related to domestic sanitation services in view of the imminent water scarcity. Contemporary sanitation technologies established in these countries are likely to pose health risks unless waste management standards are followed properly. This paper provides a solution to sustainable sanitation with the development of an innovative toilet system, called Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT), which has been developed by Cranfield University and sponsored by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The particular technology converts human faeces into energy through gasification and provides treated wastewater from urine through membrane filtration. In order to evaluate the environmental profile of the NMT system, a deterministic life cycle assessment (LCA) has been conducted in SimaPro software employing the Ecoinvent v3.3 database. The particular study has determined the most contributory factors to the environmental footprint of the NMT system. However, as sensitivity analysis has identified certain critical operating parameters for the robustness of the LCA results, adopting a stochastic approach to the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) will comprehensively capture the input data uncertainty and enhance the credibility of the LCA outcome. For that purpose, Monte Carlo simulations, in combination with an artificial neural network (ANN) model, have been conducted for the input parameters of raw material, produced electricity, NOX emissions, amount of ash and transportation of fertilizer. The given analysis has provided the distribution and the confidence intervals of the selected impact categories and, in turn, more credible conclusions are drawn on the respective LCIA (Life Cycle Impact Assessment) profile of NMT system. Last but not least, the specific study will also yield essential insights into the methodological framework that can be adopted in the environmental impact assessment of other complex engineering systems subject to a high level of input data uncertainty.

Keywords: sanitation systems, nano-membrane toilet, lca, stochastic uncertainty analysis, Monte Carlo simulations, artificial neural network

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7279 Challenges for the Implementation of Community Led Total Sanitation in Rural Malawi

Authors: Save Kumwenda, Khumbo Kalulu, Kondwani Chidziwisano, Limbani Kalumbi, Vincent Doyle, Bagrey Ngwira


Introduction: The Malawi Government in partnership with Non-Governmental Organizations adopted Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in 2008 as an approach in sanitation and hygiene promotion with an aim of declaring Malawi Open Defeacation Free (ODF) by 2015. While there is a significant body of research into CLTS available in public domain, there is little research done on challenges faced in implementing CLTS in Malawi. Methods: A cross-sectional qualitative study was carried out in three districts of Ntcheu, Balaka, and Phalombe. Data was collected using Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Key informant interviews (KII) and analysed manually. Results: In total, 96 people took part in FGDs and 9 people in KII. It was shown that choice of leaders after triggering was commonly done by chiefs, facilitators, and VHC without following CLTS principles as opposed to identifying individuals who showed leadership skills. Despite capacity building initiatives involving District Coordinating Teams, lack of resources to undertake follow-ups contributed to failure to sustain ODF in the community. It was also found that while most respondents appreciating the need for no subsidies, the elderly and those with disabilities felt the need for external support because do not have money for buying strong logs, slabs for durable toilet floor and also to hire people to build latrines for them. Conclusion: Effective implementation of CLTS requires comprehensive consideration of various issues that may affect its success.

Keywords: open defecation, community-led, sanitation, faecal matter, hygiene, Malawi

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7278 Evaluation of Feasibility of Ecological Sanitation in Central Nepal

Authors: K. C. Sharda


Introduction: In the world, almost half of the population are lacking proper access to improved sanitation services. In Nepal, large number of people are living without access to any sanitation facility. Ecological sanitation toilet which is defined as water conserving and nutrient recycling system for use of human urine and excreta in agriculture would count a lot to utilize locally available resources, to regenerate soil fertility, to save national currency and to achieve the goal of elimination open defecation in country like Nepal. The objectives of the research were to test the efficacy of human urine for improving crop performance and to evaluate the feasibility of ecological sanitation in rural area of Central Nepal. Materials and Methods: The field investigation was carried out at Palung Village Development Committee (VDC) of Makawanpur District, Nepal from March – August, 2016. Five eco-san toilets in two villages (Angare and Bhot Khoriya) were constructed and questionnaire survey was carried out. During the questionnaire survey, respondents were asked about socio-economic parameters, farming practices, awareness of ecological sanitation and fertilizer value of human urine and excreta in agriculture. In prior to a field experiment, soil was sampled for analysis of basic characteristics. In the field experiment, cauliflower was cultivated for a month in the two sites to compare the fertilizer value of urine with chemical fertilizer and no fertilizer with three replications. The harvested plant samples were analyzed to understand the nutrient content in plant with different treatments. Results and Discussion: Eighty three percent respondents were engaged in agriculture growing mainly vegetables, which may raise the feasibility of ecological sanitation. In the study area, water deficiencies in dry season, high demand of chemical fertilizer, lack of sanitation awareness were found to be solved. The soil at Angare has sandier texture and lower nitrogen content compared to that in Bhot Khoriya. While the field experiment in Angare showed that the aboveground biomass of cauliflower in the urine fertilized plot were similar with that in the chemically fertilized plot and higher than those in the non-fertilized plots, no significant difference among the treatments were found in Bhot Khoriya. The more distinctive response of crop growth to the three treatments in the former might be attributed to the poorer soil productivity, which in turn could be caused by the poorer inherent soil fertility and the poorer past management by the farmer in Angare. Thus, use of urine as fertilizer could help poor farmers with low quality soil. The significantly different content of nitrogen and potassium in the plant samples among three treatments in Bhot Khoriya would require further investigation. When urine is utilized as a fertilizer, the productivity could be increased and the money to buy chemical fertilizer would be utilized in other livelihood activities. Ecological sanitation is feasible in the area with similar socio-economic parameter.

Keywords: cauliflower, chemical fertilizer, ecological sanitation, Nepal, urine

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7277 Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Relation to Arsenic Contamination in Drinking Water in Liberia: Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal of Ensuring Clean Water and Sanitation

Authors: Victor Emery David Jr., Jiang Wenchao, Daniel Mmereki, Yasinta John


The fundamentals of public health are access to safe and clean drinking water. The presence of arsenic and other contaminants in drinking water leads to the potential risk to public health and the environment particularly in most developing countries where there’s inadequate access to safe and clean water and adequate sanitation. Liberia has taken steps to improve its drinking water status so as to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) target of ensuring clean water and effective sanitation but there is still a lot to be done. The Sustainable Development Goals are a United Nation initiative also known as transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. It contains seventeen goals with 169 targets to be met by respective countries. Liberia is situated within in the gold belt region where there exist the presence of arsenic and other contaminants in the underground water due to mining and other related activities. While there are limited or no epidemiological studies conducted in Liberia to confirm illness or death as a result of arsenic contamination in Liberia, it remains a public health concern. This paper assesses the drinking water quality, the presence of arsenic in groundwater/drinking water in Liberia, and proposes strategies for mitigating contaminants in drinking water and suggests options for improvement with regards to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals of ensuring clean water and effective sanitation in Liberia by 2030.

Keywords: arsenic, action plan, contaminants, environment, groundwater, sustainable development goals (SDGs), Monrovia, Liberia, public health, drinking water

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