Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 197

Search results for: purchasing

197 The Moderation Effect of Critical Item on the Strategic Purchasing: Quality Performance Relationship

Authors: Kwong Yeung

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Theories about strategic purchasing and quality performance are underdeveloped. Understanding the evolving role of purchasing from reactive to proactive is a pressing strategic issue. Using survey responses from 176 manufacturing and electronics industry professionals, we study the relationships between strategic purchasing and supply chain partners’ quality performance to answer the following questions: Can transaction cost economics be used to elucidate the strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship? Is this strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship moderated by critical item analysis? The findings indicate that critical item analysis positively and significantly moderates the strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship.

Keywords: critical item analysis, moderation, quality performance, strategic purchasing, transaction cost economics

Procedia PDF Downloads 448
196 Education of Purchasing Professionals in Austria: Competence Based View

Authors: Volker Koch

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This paper deals with the education of purchasing professionals in Austria. In this education, equivalent and measurable criteria are collected in order to create a comparison. The comparison shows the problem. To make the aforementioned comparison possible, methodologies such as KODE-Competence Atlas or presentations in a matrix form are used. The result shows the content taught and whether there are any similarities or interesting differences in the current Austrian purchasers’ formations. Purchasing professionals learning competencies are also illustrated in the study result.

Keywords: competencies, education, purchasing professional, technological-oriented

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
195 Cooperative Replenishment through Bidding

Authors: Behzad Hezarkhani, Greys Sosic

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Collaborative purchasing and replenishment have proven to be beneficial in supply chain management. This talk addresses the situation where buyers, potentially in possession of private procurement channels, carry out cooperative purchasing by submitting their bids to a coordinator. The collaborative organization is faced with two basic decisions: (1) who will be allocated with the products, and (2) how much each party should pay. We discuss mechanisms that could achieve desirable outcomes in this settings with special attention to the strategic behavior of the buyers.

Keywords: supply chain management, group purchasing organizations, game theory, mechanism design

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
194 The Advertising Channels Affecting to Consumer Purchasing Decisions: Case Study of Hair-Care Market in Thailand

Authors: Narong Anurak

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This study aimed to find out the hair-care purchasing behavior at hypermarkets and to investigate two factors, package design and advertising channels, that influenced hair-care purchasing behavior. The subjects of the study consisted of 100 housewives aged between 20-60 who usually shopped at Big C Tiwanon. They were selected by accidental sampling, and were asked to complete a questionnaire. The main findings of the survey were that the majority of respondents regarding their brand selection of hair-care products, they gave priority to the product quality followed by a reasonable price, and fragrance, respectively. Besides, more than half of the respondents had brand loyalty while the rest were attracted by an attractive package design and advertising promotion campaigns. The respondents who were attracted by the package design said that the information on the labels influenced their purchasing decision the most, and television was a medium that best reached them as well.

Keywords: advertising channels, consumer purchasing decisions, hair-care market, package design

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
193 The Study of Consumer Behavior towards Online Travel Agents in Purchasing Tourism Related Products and Services

Authors: Punrapha Praditpong, Surangkana Pipatchokchaiyo

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The objectives of this study were to study the consumer behavior of the Baby boomers, the X & the Y generation towards Online Travel Agents in purchasing tourism-related products and services. The research methodology of this research used the quantitative study and the sample size consisted of 400 questionnaires in five districts of Bangkok. The data was analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean and SD. Moreover, all the hypotheses were tested by One-Way ANOVA and Pearson-Correlation statistics. The research findings were as follows: 1) There were significant effects to the purchasing decision making process towards purchasing tourism related products and services via OTAs; 2) There were different consumer behaviors from the Baby boomers, the X generation and the Y generation towards purchasing tourism related products and services via OTAs, which are explained in detail in finding. The research offers a discussion and presents some recommendations for the OTA websites.

Keywords: consumer behavior, online travel agent, x generations, y generations

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
192 Organization of the Purchasing Function for Innovation

Authors: Jasna Prester, Ivana Rašić Bakarić, Božidar Matijević

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Various prominent scholars and substantial practitioner-oriented literature on innovation orientation have shown positive effects on firm performance. There is a myriad of factors that influence and enhance innovation but it has been found in the literature that new product innovations accounted for an average of 14 percent of sales revenues for all firms. If there is one thing that has changed in innovation management during the last decade, it is the growing reliance on external partners. As a consequence, a new task for purchasing arises, as firms need to understand which suppliers actually do have high potential contributing to the innovativeness of the firm and which do not. Purchasing function in an organization is extremely important as it deals on an average of 50% or more of a firm's expenditures. In the nineties the purchasing department was largely seen as a transaction-oriented, clerical function but today purchasing integration provides a formal interface mechanism between purchasing and other firm functions that services other functions within the company. Purchasing function has to be organized differently to enable firm innovation potential. However, innovations are inherently risky. There are behavioral risk (that some partner will take advantage of the other party), technological risk in terms of complexity of products and processes of manufacturing and incoming materials and finally market risks, which in fact judge the value of the innovation. These risks are investigated in this work since it has been found in the literature that the higher the technological risk, higher will be the centralization of the purchasing function as an interface with other supply chain members. Most researches on organization of purchasing function were done by case study analysis of innovative firms. This work actually tends to prove or discard results found in the literature based on case study method. A large data set of 1493 companies, from 25 countries collected in the GMRG 4 survey served as a basis for analysis.

Keywords: purchasing function organization, innovation, technological risk, GMRG 4 survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
191 Customers' Attitudes towards Marketing Mix Affecting Purchasing Behavior of Starbucks Coffee (Thailand) Customers in Bangkok

Authors: Polamorn Tamprateep, Warapong Thakanun

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This researchs' objectives are: 1. To study the customer demographics that affects the purchasing behavior; 2. To study the marketing mix that affects the purchasing behavior; 3. To study the relationship between purchasing behavior and customers’ perception of Brand Equity. Population of this research is Starbucks Coffee (Thailand) customers in Bangkok. The tool used in this study was questionnaire created from concepts, theories and related researches. The study showed that, of 400 respondents, overall opinion received high score (xˉ= 3.77). When each item is considered, it was found that ‘Staff are knowledgeable in providing service.’, ‘ Staff are friendly.’, ‘Staff possess good communication skill with customers.’, ‘Staff know all types of coffee well.’, and ‘Staff are enthusiastic in giving service.’, all these items received high score with a mean of 3.92, 3.87, 3.77, 3.71 and 3.63, respectively.

Keywords: mix attitude of the product, consumer, buying behavior, Starbucks

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
190 Key Factors Influencing the Purchasing Decisions of Low Emission Cars: A Comparative Study between Egypt and Slovenia

Authors: O. Alaa, D. Ahmed, R. Baher, K. Matjaz

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This paper provides a study of the factors influencing the purchasing of low emission vehicles. In order to achieve the objectives of the paper, and in the light of the pool of literature and availability of data, the authors relied on qualitative methods to offers a comparison between Egypt as a developing country and Slovenia as a developed country, through analysing a survey that involves an Egyptian sample and Slovenian samples, it also studies the effect of different push and pull methods on different buyers in order to help the governments as well as the manufacturers to understand the most significant factors that affect the purchasing behaviour of LEV in the future. The results of this paper show the important vehicle performance factors, financial considerations, and environmental considerations along with the gender and age of the consumer show that consumers are more interested in the total price of the car than in different taxes.

Keywords: low emission vehicles, purchasing behavior, developed countries, developing countries

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
189 Factors Determining the Purchasing Intentions towards Online Shopping: An Evidence from Twin Cities of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Waiz, Rana Maruf Tahir, Fatima Javaid

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Technology in the recent times is available for everyone in the world that no one is left behind. After getting technology into our daily routine, there is a need to study the different factors regarding online shopping. This study examines the impact of online reviews, mobile shopping and computer literacy on online purchasing intention. The sample size was 200 from which 167 complete questionnaires were collected from students and employees of twin cities. SPSS programming software was used to analyze the impact of different factors on purchasing intention. The results of this study showed that those websites which have good ratings and have online shopping application will attract more customers towards them whereas the results showed that the computer literacy has no impact on online purchasing intention. Findings may help for those who want to increase their sales or to start a new online business. Future research, limitations, and implications are discussed.

Keywords: computer literacy, mobile shopping, online purchase intention, online reviews, theory of planned behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
188 Consumers’ Perceptions of Non-Communicable Diseases and Perceived Product Value Impacts on Healthy Food Purchasing Decisions

Authors: Khatesiree Sripoothon, Usanee Sengpanich, Rattana Sittioum

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The objective of this study is to examine the factors influencing consumer purchasing decisions about healthy food. This model consists of two latent variables: Consumer Perception relating to NCDs and Consumer Perceived Product Value. The study was conducted in the northern provinces of Thailand, which are popular with tourists and have received support from the government for health tourism. A survey was used as the data collection method, and the questionnaire was applied to 385 tourists. An accidental sampling method was used to identify the sample. The statistics of frequency, percentage, mean, and structural equation model were used to analyze the data obtained. Additionally, all factors had a significant positive influence on healthy food purchasing decisions (p<0.01) and were predictive of healthy food purchasing decisions at 46.20 (R2=0.462). Also, these findings seem to underline a supposition that consumer perceptions of NCDs and perceived product value are key variables that strengthens the competitive effects of a healthy-friendly business entrepreneur. Moreover, reduce the country's public health costs for treating patients with the disease of NCDs in Thailand.

Keywords: healthy food, perceived product value, perception of non-communicable diseases, purchasing decisions

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
187 Word of Mouth and Its Impact on Marketing

Authors: Fatima Naz, Ayesha Tariq

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In view of growing of the internet users for e-commerce and taking into account, the emergent impact of word of mouth phenomenon this research has different aims. The aims of this study were built following dissimilar discussion with teachers and colleagues enlightening that word of mouth information for online purchasing do not have the same effect for everybody. Then they were born following dissimilar researchers together with what was already done in previous researches and what was completed. As a result different aims were drawn; the initial aim of this research is to study the attention of the customers in the word of mouth to power their online purchasing activities. The next aim is to analyze the people influenced by the interest of word of mouth. The following aim is to examine the marketing behavior bearing in mind the internet progress and word of mouth, their consideration for word of mouth marketing. In the form of research questions the aims of the study are: 1) How community utilizes and multiplies word of mouth information about online purchasing experience? 2) How communities perceive the word of mouth marketing? 3) How marketers take the word of mouth phenomenon and how they handle it?

Keywords: belief, power, inspiration, self-expression, positive attitude to online marketing, forwarding of contents, purchasing decision, standard marketing

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
186 Describing Professional Purchasers' Performance Applying the 'Big Five Inventory': Findings from a Survey in Austria

Authors: Volker Koch, Sigrid Swobodnik, Bernd M. Zunk

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The success of companies on globalized markets is significantly influenced by the performance of purchasing departments and, of course, the individuals employed as professional purchasers. Nonetheless, this is generally accepted in practice, in literature as well as in empirical research, only insufficient attention was given to the assessment of this relationship between the personality of professional purchasers and their individual performance. This paper aims to describe the relationship against the background of the 'Big Five Inventory'. Based on the five dimensions of a personality (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) a research model was designed. The research model divides the individual performance of professional purchasers into two major dimensions: operational and strategic. The operational dimension consists of the items 'cost', 'quality delivery' and 'flexibility'; the strategic dimension comprises the positions 'innovation', 'supplier satisfaction' as wells as 'purchasing and supply management integration in the organization'. To test the research model, a survey study was performed, and an online questionnaire was sent out to purchasing professionals in Austrian companies. The data collected from 78 responses was used to test the research model applying a group comparison. The comparison points out that there is (i) an influence of the purchasers’ personality on the individual performance of professional purchasers and (ii) a link between purchasers’ personality to a high or a low individual performance of professional purchasers. The findings of this study may help human resource managers during staff recruitment processes to identify the 'right performing personality' for an operational and/or a strategic position in purchasing departments.

Keywords: big five inventory, individual performance, personality, purchasing professionals

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
185 A Social Decision Support Mechanism for Group Purchasing

Authors: Lien-Fa Lin, Yung-Ming Li, Fu-Shun Hsieh

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With the advancement of information technology and development of group commerce, people have obviously changed in their lifestyle. However, group commerce faces some challenging problems. The products or services provided by vendors do not satisfactorily reflect customers’ opinions, so that the sale and revenue of group commerce gradually become lower. On the other hand, the process for a formed customer group to reach group-purchasing consensus is time-consuming and the final decision is not the best choice for each group members. In this paper, we design a social decision support mechanism, by using group discussion message to recommend suitable options for group members and we consider social influence and personal preference to generate option ranking list. The proposed mechanism can enhance the group purchasing decision making efficiently and effectively and venders can provide group products or services according to the group option ranking list.

Keywords: social network, group decision, text mining, group commerce

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
184 Fitness Apparel and Body Cathexis of Women Consumers When and after Using Virtual Fitting Room

Authors: Almas Athif Fathin Wiyantoro, Fransiskus Xaverius Ivan Budiman, Fithra Faisal Hastiadi

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The growth of clothing and technology as a marketing tool has a great influence on online business owners to know how much the characteristics and psychology of consumers in influencing purchasing decisions made by Indonesian women consumers. One of the most important issues faced by Indonesian women consumers is the suitability of clothing. The suitability of clothing can affect the body cathexis, identity, and confidence. So the thematic analysis of clothing fitness and body cathexis of women consumers when and after using virtual fitting room technology to purchase decision is important to do. This research using group method of pre-post treatment and considers how the recruitment technique of snowball sampling, which uses interpersonal relations and connections between people, both includes and excludes individuals into 39 participants' social networks to access specific populations. The results obtained from the study that the results of body scans and photos of virtual fitting room results can be made an intervention in women consumers in assessing their body cathexis objectively in the process of making purchasing decisions. The study also obtained a regression equation Y = 0.830 + 0.290X1 + 0.292X2, showing a positive relationship between suitability of clothing and body cathexis which influenced purchasing decisions on women consumers and after (personal and psychological factors) using virtual fitting room, meaning that all independent variables influence Positive towards the purchasing decision of the women consumers.

Keywords: body cathexis, clothing fitness, purchasing decision making and virtual fitting room

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
183 The Effect of Brand Mascots on Consumers' Purchasing Behaviors

Authors: Isari Pairoa, Proud Arunrangsiwed

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Brand mascots are the cartoon characters, which are mainly designed for advertising or other related marketing purposes. Many brand mascots are extremely popular, since they were presented in commercial advertisements and Line Stickers. Brand Line Stickers could lead the users to identify with the brand and brand mascots, where might influence users to become loyal customers, and share the identity with the brand. The objective of the current study is to examine the effect of brand mascots on consumers’ decision and consumers’ intention to purchase the product. This study involved 400 participants, using cluster sampling from 50 districts in Bangkok metropolitan area. The descriptive analysis shows that using brand mascot causes consumers' positive attitude toward the products, and also heightens the possibility to purchasing the products. The current study suggests the new type of marketing strategy, which is brand fandom. This study has also contributed the knowledge to the area of integrated marketing communication and identification theory.

Keywords: brand mascot, consumers’ behavior, marketing communication, purchasing

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
182 Customers’ Intention to Use Electronic Payment System for Purchasing

Authors: Wanida Suwunniponth

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The purpose of this research was to study the factors of characteristic of business, website quality and trust affected intention to use electronic payment systems for online purchasing. This survey research used questionnaire as a tool to collect the data of 300 customers who purchased online products and used an electronic payment system. The descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze data. The results revealed that customers had a good opinion towards the characteristic of the business and website quality. However, they have a moderate opinion towards trust and intention to repurchase. In addition, the characteristics of the business affected the purchase intention the most, followed by website quality and the trust with statistical significance at 0.05 level. For particular, the terms of reputation, communication, information quality, perceived risk and word of mouth affected the intention to use the electronic payment system. In contrast, the terms of size, system quality and service quality did not affect intention to use an electronic payment system.

Keywords: electronic payment, intention, online purchasing, trust

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
181 Is Fashion Consumption Ageless? A Study of Differences in Fashion Consumption Behavior of Generation X, Y, and Z Females

Authors: Vaishali Joshi, Pallav Joshi

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The main objective of this study is to examine the fashion consumption behavior of females with respect to their age group. Differences were studied in the pre-purchase, purchase and post-purchase behavior of females belonging to three age cohorts such as Generation X, Generation Y, and Generation Z. Quantitative approach was used to conduct this research. Data was collected through structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three sections. Section one included a question of the source of information of purchasing fashion apparels which measure the pre-purchase behavior. Section two measures purchase behavior which included two questions: i. motivations for purchasing fashion apparel and ii. important attributes considered for purchasing fashion apparel. The last section included a question regarding disposal of fashion apparel which measures the post-purchase behavior. Hundred females were selected as the respondents for this study through convenience sampling in the fashion streets. They were categorized into three age groups and then the results were analyzed. Four hypotheses were developed after reviewing the existing literature. Regression analysis was conducted for testing the hypothesis. Hypothesis one was accepted which stated that ‘social influence’ as a source of information for purchasing fashion apparels decreases with age. Hypothesis two was accepted which suggested that motivation of ‘Attention seeking’ for purchasing fashion apparel decreases with age. Hypothesis three and four also accepted which suggested that the importance of ‘Quality’ and ‘Price’ increases with age but hypothesis five was rejected which suggested that the importance of ‘Fit’ increases with age and last but not the least hypothesis six was accepted which suggested that the ‘duration’ of using fashion apparel increases with age. Limitation of the study deals with the sample of only female respondents. Implication can be made from this research in the field of Fashion apparel industry with respect to consumer segmentation and better marketing approaches can be implemented by the marketers form this study. Further research can be concluded by including male respondents also.

Keywords: fashion, consumption behavior, age cohorts, motivation

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
180 Influence of Visual Merchandising Elements on Instant Purchase

Authors: Pooja Sharma, Renu Jain, Alka David

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The primary goal of this research is to comprehend the many features of visual merchandising (VM) and impulsive or instant purchasing behavior. It aims to explain the link between visual merchandising and customer purchasing behavior. The reviews were compiled from research articles, professional journal articles, and the opinions of many authors. It also discusses the impact of different internal and external VM elements on instant purchasing. The visual merchandising elements are divided into two sections: interior element (inside the display, spaces, and layout, fixtures, mannequins, attention-grabbing device) and outside element (outside display, space, and layout, fixture, mannequins, attention-grabbing device) (Window Display, Exterior signs, Marquees, Entrance, color, and texture). By focusing on selected clothing stores from the four markets of Bhopal city, we discovered that the exterior elements (window display, color, and texture) and interior elements (mannequins like dummies and fixtures such as lighting) have a significant positive impact on instant buying among the elements of Visual merchandising.

Keywords: instant purchase, visual merchandising, instant buying behavior, consumer behavior, window display, fixtures, mannequins, marquees

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
179 The Impact of Restricting Product Availability on the Purchasing of Lower Sugar Biscuits in UK Convenience Stores

Authors: Hannah S. Waldron

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Background: The government has proposed sugar reduction targets in an effort to tackle childhood obesity, focussing on those of low socioeconomic status (SES). Supermarkets are a key location for reducing the amount of sugar purchased, but success so far in this environment has been limited. Building on previous research, this study will assess the impact of restricting the availability of higher sugar biscuits as a strategy to encourage lower sugar biscuit purchasing, and whether the effects vary by customer SES. Method: 14 supermarket convenience stores were divided between control (n=7) and intervention (n=7) groups. In the intervention stores, biscuits with sugar above the government’s target (26.2g/100g) were removed from sale and replaced with lower sugar ( < 26.2g sugar/100g) alternatives. Sales and customer demographic information were collected using loyalty card data and point-of-sale transaction data for 8-weeks pre and post the intervention for lower sugar biscuits, total biscuits, alternative higher sugar products, and all products. Results were analysed using three-way and two-way mixed ANOVAs. Results: The intervention resulted in a significant increase in lower sugar biscuit purchasing (p < 0.001) and a significant decline in overall biscuit sales (p < 0.001) between the time periods compared to control stores. Sales of higher sugar products and all products increased significantly between the two time periods in both the intervention and control stores (p < 0.05). SES showed no significant effect on any of the reported outcomes (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Restricting the availability of higher sugar products may be a successful strategy for encouraging lower sugar purchasing across all SES groups. However, larger-scale interventions are required in additional categories to assess the long term implications for both consumers and retailers.

Keywords: biscuits, nudging, sugar, supermarket

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
178 The Direct Drivers of Ethnocentric Consumer, Intention and Actual Purchasing Behavior in Malaysia

Authors: Nik Kamariah Nikmat, Noor Hasmini Abdghani

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The Malaysian government had consistently revived its campaign for “Buy Malaysian Goods” from time to time. The purpose of the campaign is to remind consumers to be ethnocentric and patriotic when purchasing product and services. This is necessary to ensure high demand for local products and services compared to foreign products. However, the decline of domestic investment in 2012 has triggered concern for the Malaysian economy. Hence, this study attempts to determine the drivers of actual purchasing behavior, intention to purchase domestic products and ethnocentrism. The study employs the cross-sectional primary data, self-administered on household, selected using stratified random sampling in four Malaysian regions. A nine factor driver of actual domestic purchasing behavior (culture openness, conservatism, collectivism, patriotism, control belief, interest in foreign travel, attitude, ethnocentrism and intention) were measured utilizing 60 items, using 7-point Likert-scale. From 1000 questionnaires distributed, a sample of 486 were returned representing 48.6 percent response rate. From the fit generated structural model (SEM analysis), it was found that the drivers of actual purchase behavior are collectivism, cultural openness and patriotism; the drivers of intention to purchase domestic product are attitude, control belief, collectivism and conservativeness; and drivers of ethnocentrism are cultural openness, control belief, foreign travel and patriotism. It also shows that Malaysian consumers scored high in ethnocentrism and patriotism. The findings are discussed in the perspective of its implication to Malaysian National Agenda.

Keywords: actual purchase, ethnocentrism, patriotism, culture openness, conservatism

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
177 Sustainability Study of Government Procurement of Public Services in Guangzhou: a Perspective Based on the Resources Dependence of Social Work

Authors: Li Pan

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The recently prevalent government procurement of public services in China boasts a new form of government’s provision of public service through the purchasing of social work from social organizations, a new measure of the transformation in governmental functions as well as an unprecedented opportunity for the development of social organizations. For the past few years, the phenomenon of a surge in the number of social work organizations and social work staff emerged right with the initiatives of energetically carrying out the purchase of public services by the government. Such efforts have presented the strong determination of the Chinese government in building a small government by streamlining administration and delegating part of the governmental power to social organizations. This paper is based on the 2012-2014 performance appraisal project of the Guangzhou municipal government’s purchasing of public services and the project was carried out in the summer of 2015. During the process of the appraisal, several general problems hindering the sustainable development of government purchasing of public service have been observed. As Guangzhou is among the rank of pioneer cities in the conduct of the reform, it is representative and imperative to study the sustainability of government purchasing of public service. In 2012, Guangzhou local government started contracting out public service to the community social organizations to provide general family services and special services to community residents, since when integrated family service centers and special service centers were established as platforms to provide public social service in a city-wide range. Consequently, taking an example of the current rapid development of government purchase of the integrated family services and special services in Guangzhou, this paper puts up several proposals for the sustainable development of Guangzhou municipal government’s procurement of public services on the perspective of social work’s resource dependence.

Keywords: government procurement of public services, Guangzhou, integrated family service center, social work, sustainability.

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
176 Emergence of New Development Bank: Analyzing the Impact on BRICS Nations and the World Order

Authors: Urvi Shah, Anmol Jain

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The talks of a New Global Order have been doing rounds since the advent of 21st century. Similar change in global scenario was witnessed when the Bretton Woods System came up post the World War II. The changing world order has been analyzed by using the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) and Nominal Gross Domestic Product (GDP) estimates. The PPP and Nominal GDP methods show the purchasing power and financial background of the countries respectively, which helps in knowing both real and nominal financial strength of the country. Today, the rising powers of BRICS are posing new challenges to the world order shaped by the West. BRICS, i.e. Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, countries have at various instances represented the interests of developing countries at world forums. The pooled population of these nations accounts for 41.6% of the total world population which gives a very resilient idea of the workforce or human resources which is mobilized by them. They have a combined GDP (PPP) of around 30.57% of the total world GDP (PPP). The paper tries to analyze the prospects and impact of the New Development Bank (NDB) formerly known as the BRICS Bank, on world economy, which has the potential to act as a rival to West dominated IMF and World Bank. The paper studies the paradigm shift in the global order, impact of the NDB on third world nations and the developed nations. The study concluded that the relative positions of BRICS countries in the world economy are changing, irrespective of the measurement methodology being US$ or the PPP model.

Keywords: BRICS, New Development Bank, Nominal GDP, purchasing power parity

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
175 Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Health Product E-Commerce Market in Singapore

Authors: Andrew Green, Jiaming Liu, Kellathur Srinivasan, Raymond Chua

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Introduction: The size of Singapore’s online health product (HP) market (e-commerce) is largely unknown. However, it is recognized that a large majority comes from overseas and thus, unregulated. As buying HP from unauthorized sources significantly compromises public health safety, understanding e-commerce users’ demographics and their perceptions on online HP purchasing becomes a pivotal first step to form a basis for recommendations in Singapore’s pharmacovigilance efforts. Objective: To assess the prevalence of online HP purchasing behaviour among Singaporean e-commerce users. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study targeting Singaporean e-commerce users recruited from various local websites and online forums. Participants were not randomized into study arms but instead stratified by random sampling method based on participants’ age. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was used to explore participants' demographics, online HP purchasing behaviour, knowledge and attitude. The association of different variables with online HP purchasing behaviour was analysed using logistic regression statistics. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of HP e-commerce users in Singapore (%) and variables that contribute to the prevalence (adjusted prevalent ratio). Results: The study recruited 372 complete and valid responses. The prevalence of online HP consumers among e-commerce users in Singapore is estimated to be 55.9% (1.7 million consumers). Online purchasing of complementary HP (46.9%) was the most prevalent, followed by medical devices (21.6%) and Western medicine (20.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that age is an independent variable that correlates with the likelihood of buying HP online. The prevalence of HP e-commerce users is highest in the 35-44 age group (64.1%) and lowest among the 16-24 age group (36.4%). The most bought HP through the internet are vitamins and minerals (21.5%), non-herbal (15.9%), herbal (13.9%), weight loss (8.7%) and sports (8.4%) supplements. While the top 3 products are distributed equally between the genders, there is a skew towards female respondents (12.4% in females vs. 4.9% in males) for weight loss supplements and towards males (13.2% in males vs. 3.7% in females) for sports supplements. Even though online consumers are in the younger age brackets, our study found that up to 72.0% of HP bought online are bought for others (buyer’s family and/or friends). Multivariate analysis showed a statistically significant association between purchasing HP through online means and the perceptions that 'internet is safe' (adjusted Prevalence Ratio=1.15, CI 1.03-1.28), 'buying HP online is time saving' (PR=1.17, CI 1.01-1.36), and 'recognition of HP brand' (PR=1.21 CI 1.06-1.40). Conclusions: This study has provided prevalence data for online HP market in Singapore, and has allowed the country’s regulatory body to formulate a targeted pharmacovigilance approach to this growing problem.

Keywords: e-commerce, pharmaceuticals, pharmacovigilance, Singapore

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174 The Influence of Advertising Captions on the Internet through the Consumer Purchasing Decision

Authors: Suwimol Apapol, Punrapha Praditpong

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The objectives of the study were to find out the frequencies of figures of speech in fragrance advertising captions as well as the types of figures of speech most commonly applied in captions. The relation between figures of speech and fragrance was also examined in order to analyze how figures of speech were used to represent fragrance. Thirty-five fragrance advertisements were randomly selected from the Internet. Content analysis was applied in order to consider the relation between figures of speech and fragrance. The results showed that figures of speech were found in almost every fragrance advertisement except one advertisement of several Goods service. Thirty-four fragrance advertising captions used at least one kind of figure of speech. Metaphor was most frequently found and also most frequently applied in fragrance advertising captions, followed by alliteration, rhyme, simile and personification, and hyperbole respectively which is in harmony with the research hypotheses as well.

Keywords: advertising captions, captions on internet, consumer purchasing decision, e-commerce

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
173 The Impact of Online Advertising on Generation Y’s Purchase Decision in Malaysia

Authors: Mui Joo Tang, Eang Teng Chan

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Advertising is commonly used to foster sales and reputation of an institution. It is at first the growth of print advertising that has increased the population and number of periodicals of newspaper and its circulation. The rise of Internet and online media has somehow blurred the role of media and advertising though the intention is still to reach out to audience and to increase sales. The relationship between advertising and audience on a product purchase through persuasion has been developing from print media to online media. From the changing media environment and audience, it is the concern of this research to study the impact of online advertising to such a relationship cycle. The content of online advertisements is much of text, multimedia, photo, audio and video. The messages of such content format may indeed bring impacts to its audience and its credibility. This study is therefore reflecting the effectiveness of online advertisement and its influences on generation Y in their purchasing behavior. This study uses Media Dependency Theory to analyze the relationship between the impact of online advertisement and media usage pattern of generation Y. Hierarchy of Effectiveness Model is used as a marketing communication model to study the effectiveness of advertising and further to determine the impact of online advertisement on generation Y in their purchasing decision making. This research uses online survey to reach out the sample of generation Y. The results have shown that online advertisements do not affect much on purchase decision making even though generation Y relies much on the media content including online advertisement for its information and believing in its credibility. There are few other external factors that may interrupt the effectiveness of online advertising. The very obvious influence of purchasing behavior is actually derived from the peers.

Keywords: generation Y, purchase decision, print media, online advertising, persuasion

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172 Factors Impacting Shopping Behavior for Luxury Fashion Brands: A Case of National Capital Region in India

Authors: Manoj Kumar, Preeti Goel

Abstract:

National Capital Region of India is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. This region has residents from all the parts of India, and their shopping behaviors are quite different. The region also has the substantial population of people from other countries. Due to high purchasing power of a large number of people, NCR is one the major markets for luxury fashion brands. Marketers of luxury fashion brands keep on adding innovative features to their products to attract the buyers. This research is an attempt to understand the major factors which impact the brand selection for these brands and other buying decisions like purchasing time and location. The research is based on primary data collected from potential buyers of luxury fashion brands and the people involved in the marketing of these brands in various roles. The research has tried to identify the relative strength of various factors on the shopping behavior for these brands.

Keywords: luxury brands, fashion, shopping, National Capital Region (NCR)

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171 Predicting Customer Purchasing Behaviour in Retail Marketing: A Research for a Supermarket Chain

Authors: Sabri Serkan Güllüoğlu

Abstract:

Analysis can be defined as the process of gathering, recording and researching data related to products and services, in order to learn something. But for marketers, analyses are not only used for learning but also an essential and critical part of the business, because this allows companies to offer products or services which are focused and well targeted. Market analysis also identify market trends, demographics, customer’s buying habits and important information on the competition. Data mining is used instead of traditional research, because it extracts predictive information about customer and sales from large databases. In contrast to traditional research, data mining relies on information that is already available. Simply the goal is to improve the efficiency of supermarkets. In this study, the purpose is to find dependency on products. For instance, which items are bought together, using association rules in data mining. Moreover, this information will be used for improving the profitability of customers such as increasing shopping time and sales of fewer sold items.

Keywords: data mining, association rule mining, market basket analysis, purchasing

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170 Consumer Behaviour and Experience When Purchasing Cage-Free Eggs in China

Authors: M. Chen, H. Lee, D. M. Weary

Abstract:

China is the world’s largest egg producer, with more than 90% of production occurring in conventional cages. Cage-free housing systems offer the potential for improving hen welfare, but the growth of this system requires consumer demand, making it is important to understand consumers’ willingness to engage with cage-free eggs. Previous survey research indicates that the majority of Chinese consumers have a basic understanding of cage-free eggs and that some are willing to pay a price premium for these eggs. The aim of this research is to understand consumer behaviour, experience, and motivations when purchasing cage-free eggs in China. Purposive sampling will be used to select 20 participants from each of 2 groups: 1) consumers of cage-free eggs and 2) sales representatives who promote these eggs directly to consumers in supermarkets. This 4-month study will use methods of virtual ethnography to interact with participants repeatedly. Consumers will be asked to share their egg shopping, cooking, and eating experiences, and sales representatives will be asked to share their experiences promoting the eggs to consumers. Data collection will involve audio-recorded interviews, informal conversations (casual texts and calls), participant observation (video calling during shopping, cooking, and eating), and informant diaries (written reflections, photos, videos). All data (field notes, transcripts, diaries, photos, and videos) will be analyzed using Thematic Analysis. We expect that these will result in a nuanced understanding of consumer purchasing behaviour and motivation and will thus help identify strategies to promote higher animal welfare and cage-free egg products in China.

Keywords: animal welfare, cage-free eggs, China, consumer behaviour, ethnography

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169 Analytic Hierarchy Process Method for Supplier Selection Considering Green Logistics: Case Study of Aluminum Production Sector

Authors: H. Erbiyik, A. Bal, M. Sirakaya, Ö. Yesildal, E. Yolcu

Abstract:

The emergence of many environmental issues began with the Industrial Revolution. The depletion of natural resources and emerging environmental challenges over time requires enterprises and managers to take into consideration environmental factors while managing business. If we take notice of these causes; the design and implementation of environmentally friendly green purchasing, production and waste management systems become very important at green logistics systems. Companies can adopt green supply chain with the awareness of these facts. The concept of green supply chain constitutes from green purchasing, green production, green logistics, waste management and reverse logistics. In this study, we wanted to identify the concept of green supply chain and why green supply chain should be applied. In the practice part of the study an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) study is conducted on an aluminum production company to evaluate suppliers.

Keywords: aluminum sector, analytic hierarchy process, decision making, green logistics

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168 Model for Introducing Products to New Customers through Decision Tree Using Algorithm C4.5 (J-48)

Authors: Komol Phaisarn, Anuphan Suttimarn, Vitchanan Keawtong, Kittisak Thongyoun, Chaiyos Jamsawang

Abstract:

This article is intended to analyze insurance information which contains information on the customer decision when purchasing life insurance pay package. The data were analyzed in order to present new customers with Life Insurance Perfect Pay package to meet new customers’ needs as much as possible. The basic data of insurance pay package were collect to get data mining; thus, reducing the scattering of information. The data were then classified in order to get decision model or decision tree using Algorithm C4.5 (J-48). In the classification, WEKA tools are used to form the model and testing datasets are used to test the decision tree for the accurate decision. The validation of this model in classifying showed that the accurate prediction was 68.43% while 31.25% were errors. The same set of data were then tested with other models, i.e. Naive Bayes and Zero R. The results showed that J-48 method could predict more accurately. So, the researcher applied the decision tree in writing the program used to introduce the product to new customers to persuade customers’ decision making in purchasing the insurance package that meets the new customers’ needs as much as possible.

Keywords: decision tree, data mining, customers, life insurance pay package

Procedia PDF Downloads 333