Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 700

Search results for: PV panel

700 Optimal Analysis of Structures by Large Wing Panel Using FEM

Authors: Byeong-Sam Kim, Kyeongwoo Park


In this study, induced structural optimization is performed to compare the trade-off between wing weight and induced drag for wing panel extensions, construction of wing panel and winglets. The aerostructural optimization problem consists of parameters with strength condition, and two maneuver conditions using residual stresses in panel production. The results of kinematic motion analysis presented a homogenization based theory for 3D beams and 3D shells for wing panel. This theory uses a kinematic description of the beam based on normalized displacement moments. The displacement of the wing is a significant design consideration as large deflections lead to large stresses and increased fatigue of components cause residual stresses. The stresses in the wing panel are small compared to the yield stress of aluminum alloy. This study describes the implementation of a large wing panel, aerostructural analysis and structural parameters optimization framework that couples a three-dimensional panel method.

Keywords: wing panel, aerostructural optimization, FEM, structural analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
699 STC Parameters versus Real Time Measured Parameters to Determine Cost Effectiveness of PV Panels

Authors: V. E. Selaule, R. M. Schoeman H. C. Z. Pienaar


Research has shown that solar energy is a renewable energy resource with the most potential when compared to other renewable energy resources in South Africa. There are many makes of Photovoltaic (PV) panels on the market and it is difficult to assess which to use. PV panel manufacturers use Standard Test Conditions (STC) to rate their PV panels. STC conditions are different from the actual operating environmental conditions were the PV panels are used. This paper describes a practical method to determine the most cost effective available PV panel. The method shows that PV panel manufacturer STC ratings cannot be used to select a cost effective PV panel.

Keywords: PV orientation, PV panel, PV STC, Solar energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
698 Efficiency Enhancement in Solar Panel

Authors: R. S. Arun Raj


In today's climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental issues, alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. One such alternative is the solar energy. The SUN provides every hour as much energy as mankind consumes in one year. This paper clearly explains about the solar panel design and new models and methodologies that can be implemented for better utilization of solar energy. Minimisation of losses in solar panel as heat is my innovative idea revolves around. The pay back calculations by implementation of solar panels is also quoted.

Keywords: on-grid and off-grid systems, pyro-electric effect, pay-back calculations, solar panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
697 Analysis of Sound Absorption Coefficient

Authors: Zakiul Fuady, Ismail AB, Fauzi, Zulfian


This research was conducted to analyze the absorption coefficients of sound at several types of materials as well as its combinations. The aim of this research was to find the value of sound absorption coefficients on the materials and its combinations. The materials used in this research were gypsum panel, gypsum-fibre palm, fibre palm-gypsum, and foamed concrete-fibre palm. The test was conducted by using a method of reverberation chamber based on the ISO 354-1985 with the types of the sound source: white noise and pink noise at the frequency of 125 Hz - 8000 Hz. Based on the test results of white noise, it was found that the panel of gypsum-fibre palm has α = 0.93 at low frequency; the panel of fibre palm has α = 0.97 at a medium frequency; and the panel of foamed concrete-fibre palm has α = 0.89 at high frequency. Further, for the sound source of pink noise, it was found that the panel of gypsum-fibre palm has α = 0.99 at low level; the panel of fibre palm-gypsum has α = 0.86 at medium level; and the panel of fibre palm-gypsum has α = 0.64 at high level. The fibre palm panel could absorb the sounds well since this material has bigger airspace (pore) than the foamed concrete and gypsum. Consequently, when the sounds wave enters to this material it will be trapped in the space. The panel of fibre palm affected an increasing of sound absorption coefficient value at the combination materials when the panel of fibre palm was placed under another panel. However, the absorption coefficient values of both fibre palm and fibre palm-gypsum panels are about the same.

Keywords: coefficient of sound absorption, pink noise, white noise, palm

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
696 Dynamic Response of Doubly Curved Composite Shell with Embedded Shape Memory Alloys Wires

Authors: Amin Ardali, Mohammadreza Khalili, Mohammadreza Rezai


In this paper, dynamic response of thin smart composite panel subjected to low-velocity transverse impact is investigated. Shape memory wires are used to reinforced curved composite panel in a smart way. One-dimensional thermodynamic constitutive model by Liang and Rogers is used for estimating the structural recovery stress. The two degrees-of-freedom mass-spring model is used for evaluation of the contact force between the curved composite panel and the impactor. This work is benefited from the Hertzian linear contact model which is linearized for the impact analysis of curved composite panel. The governing equations of curved panel are provided by first-order shear theory and solved by Fourier series related to simply supported boundary condition. For this purpose, the equation of doubly curved panel motion included the uniform in-plane forces is obtained. By the present analysis, the curved panel behavior under low-velocity impact, and also the effect of the impact parameters, the shape memory wire and the curved panel dimensions are studied.

Keywords: doubly curved shell, SMA wire, impact response, smart material, shape memory alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
695 Investigating and Comparing the Performance of Baseboard and Panel Radiators by Calculating the Thermal Comfort Coefficient

Authors: Mohammad Erfan Doraki, Mohammad Salehi


In this study, to evaluate the performance of Baseboard and Panel radiators with thermal comfort coefficient, A room with specific dimensions was modeled with Ansys fluent and DesignBuilder, then calculated the speed and temperature parameters in different parts of the room in two modes of using Panel and Baseboard radiators and it turned out that use of Baseboard radiators has a more uniform temperature and speed distribution, but in a Panel radiator, the room is warmer. Then, by calculating the thermal comfort indices, It was shown that using a Panel radiator is a more favorable environment and using a Baseboard radiator is a more uniform environment in terms of thermal comfort.

Keywords: Radiator, Baseboard, optimal, comfort coefficient, heat

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
694 Numerical Simulation of a Solar Photovoltaic Panel Cooled by a Forced Air System

Authors: Djamila Nebbali, Rezki Nebbali, Ahmed Ouibrahim


This study focuses on the cooling of a photovoltaic panel (PV). Indeed, the cooling improves the conversion capacity of this one and maintains, under extreme conditions of air temperature, the panel temperature at an appreciable level which avoids the altering. To do this, a fan provides forced circulation of air. Because the fan is supplied by the panel, it is necessary to determine the optimum operating point that unites efficiency of the PV with the consumption of the fan. For this matter, numerical simulations are performed at varying mass flow rates of air, under two extreme air temperatures (50°C, 25°C) and a fixed solar radiation (1000 W.m2) in a case of no wind.

Keywords: energy conversion, efficiency, balance energy, solar cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
693 Simplified Analysis on Steel Frame Infill with FRP Composite Panel

Authors: HyunSu Seo, HoYoung Son, Sungjin Kim, WooYoung Jung


In order to understand the seismic behavior of steel frame structure with infill FRP composite panel, simple models for simulation on the steel frame with the panel systems were developed in this study. To achieve the simple design method of the steel framed structure with the damping panel system, 2-D finite element analysis with the springs and dashpots models was conducted in ABAQUS. Under various applied spring stiffness and dashpot coefficient, the expected hysteretic energy responses of the steel frame with damping panel systems we re investigated. Using the proposed simple design method which decides the stiffness and the damping, it is possible to decide the FRP and damping materials on a steel frame system.

Keywords: numerical analysis, FEM, infill, GFRP, damping

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
692 Analyzing the Effects of Real Income and Biomass Energy Consumption on Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions: Empirical Evidence from the Panel of Biomass-Consuming Countries

Authors: Eyup Dogan


This empirical aims to analyze the impacts of real income and biomass energy consumption on the level of emissions in the EKC model for the panel of biomass-consuming countries over the period 1980-2011. Because we detect the presence of cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity across countries for the analyzed data, we use panel estimation methods robust to cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity. The CADF and the CIPS panel unit root tests indicate that carbon emissions, real income and biomass energy consumption are stationary at the first-differences. The LM bootstrap panel cointegration test shows that the analyzed variables are cointegrated. Results from the panel group-mean DOLS and the panel group-mean FMOLS estimators show that increase in biomass energy consumption decreases CO2 emissions and the EKC hypothesis is validated. Therefore, countries are advised to boost their production and increase the use of biomass energy for lower level of emissions.

Keywords: biomass energy, CO2 emissions, EKC model, heterogeneity, cross-sectional dependence

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
691 Optimal MPPT Charging Battery System for Photovoltaic Standalone Applications

Authors: Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Labar Hocine, Mesbah Tarek, Kelaiaia samia


The photovoltaic panel produces green power, and because of its availability across the globe, it can supply isolated loads (site away of the electrical network or difficult of access). Unfortunately this energy remains very expensive. The most application of these types of power needs storage devices, the Lithium batteries are commonly used because of its powerful storage capability. Using a solar panel or an array of panels without a controller that can perform MPPT will often result in wasted power, which results in the need to install more panels for the same power requirement. For devices that have the battery connected directly to the panel, this will also result in premature battery failure or capacity loss. In this paper it is proposed a modified P&O algorithm for the MPPT which takes in account the battery’s internal resistance vs temperature and stage of charging. Of course the temperature variation and irradiation of the PV panel are also introduced.

Keywords: modeling, battery, MPPT, charging, PV Panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
690 Buckling Resistance of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer Infill Panel Subjected to Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, Woo Young Jung


Performance of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) sandwich infill panel system under diagonal compression was studied by means of numerical analysis. Furthermore, the variation of temperature was considered to affect the mechanical properties of BFRP, since their composition was based on polymeric material. Moreover, commercial finite element analysis platform ABAQUS was used to model and analyze this infill panel system. Consequently, results of the analyses show that the overall performance of BFRP panel had a 15% increase compared to that of GFRP infill panel system. However, the variation of buckling load in terms of temperature for the BFRP system showed a more sensitive nature compared to those of GFRP system.

Keywords: basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP), buckling performance, numerical simulation, temperature dependent materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
689 Wage Differentiation Patterns of Households Revisited for Turkey in Same Industry Employment: A Pseudo-Panel Approach

Authors: Yasin Kutuk, Bengi Yanik Ilhan


Previous studies investigate the wage differentiations among regions in Turkey between couples who work in the same industry and those who work in different industries by using the models that is appropriate for cross sectional data. However, since there is no available panel data for this investigation in Turkey, pseudo panels using repeated cross-section data sets of the Household Labor Force Surveys 2004-2014 are employed in order to open a new way to examine wage differentiation patterns. For this purpose, household heads are separated into groups with respect to their household composition. These groups’ membership is assumed to be fixed over time such as age groups, education, gender, and NUTS1 (12 regions) Level. The average behavior of them can be tracked overtime same as in the panel data. Estimates using the pseudo panel data would be consistent with the estimates using genuine panel data on individuals if samples are representative of the population which has fixed composition, characteristics. With controlling the socioeconomic factors, wage differentiation of household income is affected by social, cultural and economic changes after global economic crisis emerged in US. It is also revealed whether wage differentiation is changing among the birth cohorts.

Keywords: wage income, same industry, pseudo panel, panel data econometrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
688 Research on Static and Dynamic Behavior of New Combination of Aluminum Honeycomb Panel and Rod Single-Layer Latticed Shell

Authors: Xu Chen, Zhao Caiqi


In addition to the advantages of light weight, resistant corrosion and ease of processing, aluminum is also applied to the long-span spatial structures. However, the elastic modulus of aluminum is lower than that of the steel. This paper combines the high performance aluminum honeycomb panel with the aluminum latticed shell, forming a new panel-and-rod composite shell structure. Through comparative analysis between the static and dynamic performance, the conclusion that the structure of composite shell is noticeably superior to the structure combined before.

Keywords: combination of aluminum honeycomb panel, rod latticed shell, dynamic performence, response spectrum analysis, seismic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
687 Investigation of Steel Infill Panels under Blast Impulsive Loading

Authors: Seyed M. Zahrai, Saeid Lotfi


If an infill panel does not have enough ductility against the loading, it breaks and gets damaged before depreciation and load transfer. As steel infill panel has appropriate ductility before fracture, it can be used as an alternative to typical infill panels under blast loading. Concerning enough ductility of out-of-plane behavior the infill panel, the impact force enters the horizontal diaphragm and is distributed among the lateral elements which can be made from steel infill panels. This article investigates the behavior of steel infill panels with different thickness and stiffeners using finite element analysis with geometric and material nonlinearities for optimization of the steel plate thickness and stiffeners arrangement to obtain more efficient design for its out-of-plane behavior.

Keywords: blast loading, ductility, maximum displacement, steel infill panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
686 MPPT Control with (P&O) and (FLC) Algorithms of Solar Electric Generator

Authors: Dib Djalel, Mordjaoui Mourad


The current trend towards the exploitation of various renewable energy resources has become indispensable, so it is important to improve the efficiency and reliability of the GPV photovoltaic systems. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in photovoltaic power systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions. This paper presents a new fuzzy logic control based MPPT algorithm for solar panel. The solar panel is modeled and analyzed in Matlab/Simulink. The Solar panel can produce maximum power at a particular operating point called Maximum Power Point(MPP). To produce maximum power and to get maximum efficiency, the entire photovoltaic panel must operate at this particular point. Maximum power point of PV panel keeps on changing with changing environmental conditions such as solar irradiance and cell temperature. Thus, to extract maximum available power from a PV module, MPPT algorithms are implemented and Perturb and Observe (P&O) MPPT and fuzzy logic control FLC, MPPT are developed and compared. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the fuzzy control technique to produce a more stable power.

Keywords: MPPT, photovoltaic panel, fuzzy logic control, modeling, solar power

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
685 Ultimate Shear Resistance of Plate Girders Part 2- Höglund Theory

Authors: Ahmed S. Elamary


Ultimate shear resistance (USR) of slender plate girders can be predicted theoretically using Cardiff theory or Hӧglund theory. This paper will be concerned with predicting the USR using Hӧglund theory and EC3. Two main factors can affect the USR, the panel width “b” and the web depth “d”, consequently, the panel aspect ratio (b/d) has to be identified by limits. In most of the previous study, there is no limit for panel aspect ratio indicated. In this paper theoretical analysis has been conducted to study the effect of (b/d) on the USR. The analysis based on ninety-six test results of steel plate girders subjected to shear executed and collected by others. New formula proposed to predict the percentage of the distance between the plastic hinges form in the flanges “c” to panel width “b”. Conservative limits of (c/b) have been suggested to get a consistent value of USR.

Keywords: ultimate shear resistance, plate girder, Hӧglund’s theory, EC3

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684 The Influence of Meteorological Properties on the Power of Night Radiation Cooling

Authors: Othmane Fahim, Naoual Belouaggadia. Charifa David, Mohamed Ezzine


To make better use of cooling resources, systems have been derived on the basis of the use of night radiator systems for heat pumping. Using the TRNSYS tool we determined the influence of the climatic characteristics of the two zones in Morocco on the temperature of the outer surface of a Photovoltaic Thermal Panel “PVT” made of aluminum. The proposal to improve the performance of the panel allowed us to have little heat absorption during the day and give the same performance of a panel made of aluminum at night. The variation in the granite-based panel temperature recorded a deviation from the other materials of 0.5 °C, 2.5 °C on the first day respectively in Marrakech and Casablanca, and 0.2 °C and 3.2 °C on the second night. Power varied between 110.16 and 32.01 W/m² marked in Marrakech, to be the most suitable area to practice night cooling by night radiation.

Keywords: smart buildings, energy efficiency, Morocco, radiative cooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
683 Influence of Stacking Sequence and Temperature on Buckling Resistance of GFRP Infill Panel

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, SeungHyun Kim, JungKyu Choi, WooYoung Jung


Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) is a major evolution for energy dissipation when used as infill material for seismic retrofitting of steel frame, a basic PMC infill wall system consists of two GFRP laminates surrounding an infill of foam core. This paper presents numerical analysis in terms of buckling resistance of GFRP sandwich infill panels system under the influence of environment temperature and stacking sequence of laminate skin. Mode of failure under in-plane compression is studied by means of numerical analysis with ABAQUS platform. Parameters considered in this study are contact length between infill and frame, laminate stacking sequence of GFRP skin and variation of mechanical properties due to increment of temperature. The analysis is done with four cases of simple stacking sequence over a range of temperature. The result showed that both the effect of temperature and stacking sequence alter the performance of entire panel system. The rises of temperature resulted in the decrements of the panel’s strength. This is due to the polymeric nature of this material. Additionally, the contact length also displays the effect on the performance of infill panel. Furthermore, the laminate stiffness can be modified by orientation of laminate, which can increase the infill panel strength. Hence, optimal performance of the entire panel system can be obtained by comparing different cases of stacking sequence.

Keywords: buckling resistance, GFRP infill panel, stacking sequence, temperature dependent

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
682 Numerical Study for Compressive Strength of Basalt Composite Sandwich Infill Panel

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, Jung Kyu Choi, Yong Ju Kwak, Oh Hyeon Jeon, Woo Young Jung


In this study, we investigated the buckling performance of basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) sandwich infill panels. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is a major evolution for energy dissipation when used as infill material of frame structure, a basic Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) infill wall system consists of two FRP laminates surrounding an infill of foam core. Furthermore, this type of component is for retrofitting and strengthening frame structure to withstand the seismic disaster. In-plane compression was considered in the numerical analysis with ABAQUS platform to determine the buckling failure load of BFRP infill panel system. The present result shows that the sandwich BFRP infill panel system has higher resistance to buckling failure than those of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) infill panel system, i.e. 16% increase in buckling resistance capacity.

Keywords: Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP), buckling performance, FEM analysis, sandwich infill panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
681 Application of Sorptive Passive Panels for Reducing Indoor Formaldehyde Level: Effect of Environmental Conditions

Authors: Mitra Bahri, Jean Leopold Kabambi, Jacqueline Yakobi-Hancock, William Render, Stephanie So


Reducing formaldehyde concentration in residential buildings is an important challenge, especially during the summer. In this study, a ceiling tile was used as a sorptive passive panel for formaldehyde removal. The performance of this passive panel was evaluated under different environmental conditions. The results demonstrated that the removal efficiency is comprised between 40% and 71%. Change in the level of relative humidity (30%, 50%, and 75%) had a slight positive effect on the sorption capacity. However, increase in temperature from 21 °C to 26 °C led to approximately 7% decrease in the average formaldehyde removal performance. GC/MS and HPLC analysis revealed the formation of different by-products at low concentrations under extreme environmental conditions. These findings suggest that the passive panel selected for this study holds the potential to be used for formaldehyde removal under various conditions.

Keywords: formaldehyde, indoor air quality, passive panel, removal efficiency, sorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
680 A Comprehensive Procedure of Spatial Panel Modelling with R, A Study of Agricultural Productivity Growth of the 38 East Java’s Regencies/Municipalities

Authors: Rahma Fitriani, Zerlita Fahdha Pusdiktasari, Herman Cahyo Diartho


Spatial panel model is commonly used to specify more complicated behavior of economic agent distributed in space at an individual-spatial unit level. There are several spatial panel models which can be adapted based on certain assumptions. A package called splm in R has several functions, ranging from the estimation procedure, specification tests, and model selection tests. In the absence of prior assumptions, a comprehensive procedure which utilizes the available functions in splm must be formed, which is the objective of this study. In this way, the best specification and model can be fitted based on data. The implementation of the procedure works well. It specifies SARAR-FE as the best model for agricultural productivity growth of the 38 East Java’s Regencies/Municipalities.

Keywords: spatial panel, specification, splm, agricultural productivity growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
679 Optimal Designof Brush Roll for Semiconductor Wafer Using CFD Analysis

Authors: Byeong-Sam Kim, Kyoungwoo Park


This research analyzes structure of flat panel display (FPD) such as LCD as quantitative through CFD analysis and modeling change to minimize the badness rate and rate of production decrease by damage of large scale plater at wafer heating chamber at semi-conductor manufacturing process. This glass panel and wafer device with atmospheric pressure or chemical vapor deposition equipment for transporting and transferring wafers, robot hands carry these longer and wider wafers can also be easily handled. As a contact handling system composed of several problems in increased potential for fracture or warping. A non-contact handling system is required to solve this problem. The panel and wafer warping makes it difficult to carry out conventional contact to analysis. We propose a new non-contact transportation system with combining air suction and blowout. The numerical analysis and experimental is, therefore, should be performed to obtain compared to results achieved with non-contact solutions. This wafer panel noncontact handler shows its strength in maintaining high cleanliness levels for semiconductor production processes.

Keywords: flat panel display, non contact transportation, heat treatment process, CFD analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
678 A Panel Cointegration Analysis for Macroeconomic Determinants of International Housing Market

Authors: Mei-Se Chien, Chien-Chiang Lee, Sin-Jie Cai


The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the long-run equilibrium and short-run dynamics of international housing prices when macroeconomic variables change. We apply the Pedroni’s, panel cointegration, using the unbalanced panel data analysis of 33 countries over the period from 1980Q1 to 2013Q1, to examine the relationships among house prices and macroeconomic variables. Our empirical results of panel data cointegration tests support the existence of a cointegration among these macroeconomic variables and house prices. Besides, the empirical results of panel DOLS further present that a 1% increase in economic activity, long-term interest rates, and construction costs cause house prices to respectively change 2.16%, -0.04%, and 0.22% in the long run. Furthermore, the increasing economic activity and the construction cost would cause stronger impacts on the house prices for lower income countries than higher income countries. The results lead to the conclusion that policy of house prices growth can be regarded as economic growth for lower income countries. Finally, in America region, the coefficient of economic activity is the highest, which displays that increasing economic activity causes a faster rise in house prices there than in other regions. There are some special cases whereby the coefficients of interest rates are significantly positive in America and Asia regions.

Keywords: house prices, macroeconomic variables, panel cointegration, dynamic OLS

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
677 Foreign Direct Investment, Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from WAIFEM Member Countries

Authors: Nasiru Inuwa, Haruna Usman Modibbo, Yahya Zakari Abdullahi


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI), economic growth on carbon emissions in context of WAIFEM member countries. The Im-Pesaran-Shin panel unit root test, Kao residual based test panel cointegration technique and panel Granger causality tests over the period 1980-2012 within a multivariate framework were applied. The results of cointegration test revealed a long run equilibrium relationship among CO2 emissions, economic growth and foreign direct investment. The results of Granger causality tests revealed a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to CO2 emissions for the panel of WAIFEM countries at the 5% level. Also, Granger causality runs from economic growth to foreign direct investment without feedback. However, no causality relationship between foreign direct investment and CO2 emissions for the panel of WAIFEM countries was observed. The study therefore, suggest that policy makers from WAIFEM member countries should design policies aim at attracting more foreign direct investments inflow as well the adoption of cleaner production technologies in order to reduce CO2 emissions.

Keywords: economic growth, CO2 emissions, causality, WAIFEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
676 Increment of Panel Flutter Margin Using Adaptive Stiffeners

Authors: S. Raja, K. M. Parammasivam, V. Aghilesh


Fluid-structure interaction is a crucial consideration in the design of many engineering systems such as flight vehicles and bridges. Aircraft lifting surfaces and turbine blades can fail due to oscillations caused by fluid-structure interaction. Hence, it is focussed to study the fluid-structure interaction in the present research. First, the effect of free vibration over the panel is studied. It is well known that the deformation of a panel and flow induced forces affects one another. The selected panel has a span 300mm, chord 300mm and thickness 2 mm. The project is to study, the effect of cross-sectional area and the stiffener location is carried out for the same panel. The stiffener spacing is varied along both the chordwise and span-wise direction. Then for that optimal location the ideal stiffener length is identified. The effect of stiffener cross-section shapes (T, I, Hat, Z) over flutter velocity has been conducted. The flutter velocities of the selected panel with two rectangular stiffeners of cantilever configuration are estimated using MSC NASTRAN software package. As the flow passes over the panel, deformation takes place which further changes the flow structure over it. With increasing velocity, the deformation goes on increasing, but the stiffness of the system tries to dampen the excitation and maintain equilibrium. But beyond a critical velocity, the system damping suddenly becomes ineffective, so it loses its equilibrium. This estimated in NASTRAN using PK method. The first 10 modal frequencies of a simple panel and stiffened panel are estimated numerically and are validated with open literature. A grid independence study is also carried out and the modal frequency values remain the same for element lengths less than 20 mm. The current investigation concludes that the span-wise stiffener placement is more effective than the chord-wise placement. The maximum flutter velocity achieved for chord-wise placement is 204 m/s while for a span-wise arrangement it is augmented to 963 m/s for the stiffeners location of ¼ and ¾ of the chord from the panel edge (50% of chord from either side of the mid-chord line). The flutter velocity is directly proportional to the stiffener cross-sectional area. A significant increment in flutter velocity from 218m/s to 1024m/s is observed for the stiffener lengths varying from 50% to 60% of the span. The maximum flutter velocity above Mach 3 is achieved. It is also observed that for a stiffened panel, the full effect of stiffener can be achieved only when the stiffener end is clamped. Stiffeners with Z cross section incremented the flutter velocity from 142m/s (Panel with no stiffener) to 328 m/s, which is 2.3 times that of simple panel.

Keywords: stiffener placement, stiffener cross-sectional area, stiffener length, stiffener cross sectional area shape

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
675 Panel Application for Determining Impact of Real Exchange Rate and Security on Tourism Revenues: Countries with Middle and High Level Tourism Income

Authors: M. Koray Cetin, Mehmet Mert


The purpose of the study is to examine impacts on tourism revenues of the exchange rate and country overall security level. There are numerous studies that examine the bidirectional relation between macroeconomic factors and tourism revenues and tourism demand. Most of the studies support the existence of impact of tourism revenues on growth rate but not vice versa. Few studies examine the impact of factors like real exchange rate or purchasing power parity on the tourism revenues. In this context, firstly impact of real exchange rate on tourism revenues examination is aimed. Because exchange rate is one of the main determinants of international tourism services price in guests currency unit. Another determinant of tourism demand for a country is country’s overall security level. This issue can be handled in the context of the relationship between tourism revenues and overall security including turmoil, terrorism, border problem, political violence. In this study, factors are handled for several countries which have tourism revenues on a certain level. With this structure, it is a panel data, and it is evaluated with panel data analysis techniques. Panel data have at least two dimensions, and one of them is time dimensions. The panel data analysis techniques are applied to data gathered from Worldbank data web page. In this study, it is expected to find impacts of real exchange rate and security factors on tourism revenues for the countries that have noteworthy tourism revenues.

Keywords: exchange rate, panel data analysis, security, tourism revenues

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
674 Granger Causal Nexus between Financial Development and Energy Consumption: Evidence from Cross Country Panel Data

Authors: Rudra P. Pradhan


This paper examines the Granger causal nexus between financial development and energy consumption in the group of 35 Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Countries over the period 1988-2012. The study uses two financial development indicators such as private sector credit and stock market capitalization and seven energy consumption indicators such as coal, oil, gas, electricity, hydro-electrical, nuclear and biomass. Using panel cointegration tests, the study finds that financial development and energy consumption are cointegrated, indicating the presence of a long-run relationship between the two. Using a panel vector error correction model (VECM), the study detects both bidirectional and unidirectional causality between financial development and energy consumption. The variation of this causality is due to the use of different proxies for both financial development and energy consumption. The policy implication of this study is that economic policies should recognize the differences in the financial development-energy consumption nexus in order to maintain sustainable development in the selected 35 FATF countries.

Keywords: energy consumption, financial development, FATF countries, Panel VECM

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
673 Large Panel Technology Apartments of Yesterday and Today: Quality Aspects

Authors: Barbara Gronostajska


Currently, housing conditions of buildings executed in large panel technology are deteriorating. The article presents modernization solutions implemented throughout the variety of architectural activities (adding of balconies and staircases, connecting apartments) which guarantee very intriguing results that meet the needs and expectations of the modern society.

Keywords: housing estate, apartments, flats, modernization, plate blocks

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
672 Numerical Analysis of Cold-Formed Steel Shear Wall Panels Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: H. Meddah, M. Berediaf-Bourahla, B. El-Djouzi, N. Bourahla


Shear walls made of cold formed steel are used as lateral force resisting components in residential and low-rise commercial and industrial constructions. The seismic design analysis of such structures is often complex due to the slenderness of members and their instability prevalence. In this context, a simplified modeling technique across the panel is proposed by using the finite element method. The approach is based on idealizing the whole panel by a nonlinear shear link element which reflects its shear behavior connected to rigid body elements which transmit the forces to the end elements (studs) that resist the tension and the compression. The numerical model of the shear wall panel was subjected to cyclic loads in order to evaluate the seismic performance of the structure in terms of lateral displacement and energy dissipation capacity. In order to validate this model, the numerical results were compared with those from literature tests. This modeling technique is particularly useful for the design of cold formed steel structures where the shear forces in each panel and the axial forces in the studs can be obtained using spectrum analysis.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, cyclic loading, modeling technique, nonlinear analysis, shear wall panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
671 Development of a Testing Rig for a Cold Formed-Hot Rolled Steel Hybrid Wall Panel System

Authors: Mina Mortazavi, Hamid Ronagh, Pezhman Sharafi


The new concept of a cold formed-hot rolled hybrid steel wall panel system is introduced to overcome the deficiency in lateral load resisting capacity of cold-formed steel structures. The hybrid system is composed of a cold-formed steel part laterally connected to hot rolled part. The hot rolled steel part is responsible for carrying the whole lateral load; while the cold formed steel part is only required to transfer the lateral load to the hot rolled part without any local failure. The vertical load is beared by both hot rolled, and cold formed steel part, proportionally. In order to investigate the lateral performance of the proposed system, it should be tested under simultaneous lateral and vertical load. The main concern is to deliver the loads to each part during the test to simulate the real load distribution in the structure. In this paper, a detailed description of the proposed wall panel system and the designed testing rig is provided.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, hybrid system, wall panel system, testing rig design

Procedia PDF Downloads 316