Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6275

Search results for: electric power grid

6275 Challenges with Synchrophasor Technology Deployments in Electric Power Grids

Authors: Emmanuel U. Oleka, Anil Khanal, Gary L. Lebby, Ali R. Osareh

Abstract:

Synchrophasor technology is fast being deployed in electric power grids all over the world and is fast changing the way the grids are managed. This trend is to continue until the entire power grids are fully connected so they can be monitored and controlled in real-time. Much achievement has been made in the synchrophasor technology development and deployment, and much more are yet to be achieved. Real-time power grid control and protection potentials of synchrophasor are yet to be explored. It is of necessity that researchers keep in view the various challenges that still need to be overcome in expanding the frontiers of synchrophasor technology. This paper outlines the major challenges that should be dealt with in order to achieve the goal of total power grid visualization, monitoring and control using synchrophasor technology.

Keywords: electric power grid, grid visualization, phasor measurement unit, synchrophasor

Procedia PDF Downloads 482
6274 Review of Vehicle to Grid Applications in Recent Years

Authors: Afsane Amiri

Abstract:

Electric Vehicle (EV) technology is expected to take a major share in the light-vehicle market in the coming decades. Charging of EVs will put an extra burden on the distribution grid and in some cases adjustments will need to be made. In this paper a review of different plug-in and vehicle to grid (V2G) capable vehicles are given along with their power electronics topologies. The economic implication of charging the vehicle or sending power back to the utility is described in brief.

Keywords: energy storage system, battery unit, cost, optimal sizing, plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), smart grid

Procedia PDF Downloads 533
6273 Study on Planning of Smart GRID Using Landscape Ecology

Authors: Sunglim Lee, Susumu Fujii, Koji Okamura

Abstract:

Smart grid is a new approach for electric power grid that uses information and communications technology to control the electric power grid. Smart grid provides real-time control of the electric power grid, controlling the direction of power flow or time of the flow. Control devices are installed on the power lines of the electric power grid to implement smart grid. The number of the control devices should be determined, in relation with the area one control device covers and the cost associated with the control devices. One approach to determine the number of the control devices is to use the data on the surplus power generated by home solar generators. In current implementations, the surplus power is sent all the way to the power plant, which may cause power loss. To reduce the power loss, the surplus power may be sent to a control device and sent to where the power is needed from the control device. Under assumption that the control devices are installed on a lattice of equal size squares, our goal is to figure out the optimal spacing between the control devices, where the power sharing area (the area covered by one control device) is kept small to avoid power loss, and at the same time the power sharing area is big enough to have no surplus power wasted. To achieve this goal, a simulation using landscape ecology method is conducted on a sample area. First an aerial photograph of the land of interest is turned into a mosaic map where each area is colored according to the ratio of the amount of power production to the amount of power consumption in the area. The amount of power consumption is estimated according to the characteristics of the buildings in the area. The power production is calculated by the sum of the area of the roofs shown in the aerial photograph and assuming that solar panels are installed on all the roofs. The mosaic map is colored in three colors, each color representing producer, consumer, and neither. We started with a mosaic map with 100 m grid size, and the grid size is grown until there is no red grid. One control device is installed on each grid, so that the grid is the area which the control device covers. As the result of this simulation we got 350 m as the optimal spacing between the control devices that makes effective use of the surplus power for the sample area.

Keywords: landscape ecology, IT, smart grid, aerial photograph, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
6272 A Variable Speed DC Motor Using a Converter DC-DC

Authors: Touati Mawloud

Abstract:

Between electronics and electrical systems has developed a new technology that is power electronics, also called electronic of strong currents, this application covers a very wide range of use particularly in the industrial sector, where direct current engines are frequently used, they control their speed by the use of the converters (DC-DC), which aims to deal with various mechanical disturbances (fillers) or electrical (power). In future, it will play a critical role in transforming the current electric grid into the next generation grid. Existing silicon-based PE devices enable electric grid functionalities such as fault-current limiting and converter devices. Systems of future are envisioned to be highly automated, interactive "smart" grid that can self-adjust to meet the demand for electricity reliability, securely, and economically. Transforming today’s electric grid to the grid of the future will require creating or advancing a number of technologies, tools, and techniques—specifically, the capabilities of power electronics (PE). PE devices provide an interface between electrical system, and electronics system by converting AC to direct current (DC) and vice versa. Solid-state wide Bandgap (WBG), semiconductor electronics (such as silicon carbide [SiC], gallium nitride [GaN], and diamond) are envisioned to improve the reliability and efficiency of the next-generation grid substantially.

Keywords: Power Electronics (PE), electrical system generation electric grid, switching frequencies, converter devices

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
6271 A Fully-Automated Disturbance Analysis Vision for the Smart Grid Based on Smart Switch Data

Authors: Bernardo Cedano, Ahmed H. Eltom, Bob Hay, Jim Glass, Raga Ahmed

Abstract:

The deployment of smart grid devices such as smart meters and smart switches (SS) supported by a reliable and fast communications system makes automated distribution possible, and thus, provides great benefits to electric power consumers and providers alike. However, more research is needed before the full utility of smart switch data is realized. This paper presents new automated switching techniques using SS within the electric power grid. A concise background of the SS is provided, and operational examples are shown. Organization and presentation of data obtained from SS are shown in the context of the future goal of total automation of the distribution network. The description of application techniques, the examples of success with SS, and the vision outlined in this paper serve to motivate future research pertinent to disturbance analysis automation.

Keywords: disturbance automation, electric power grid, smart grid, smart switches

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6270 Reactive Power Control with Plug-In Electric Vehicles

Authors: Mostafa Dastori, Sirus Mohammadi

Abstract:

While plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) potentially have the capability to fulfill the energy storage needs of the electric grid, the degradation on the battery during this operation makes it less preferable by the auto manufacturers and consumers. On the other hand, the on-board chargers can also supply energy storage system applications such as reactive power compensation, voltage regulation, and power factor correction without the need of engaging the battery with the grid and thereby preserving its lifetime. It presents the design motives of single-phase on-board chargers in detail and makes a classification of the chargers based on their future vehicle-to-grid usage. The pros and cons of each different ac–dc topology are discussed to shed light on their suit- ability for reactive power support. This paper also presents and analyzes the differences between charging-only operation and capacitive reactive power operation that results in increased demand from the dc-link capacitor (more charge/discharge cycles and in- creased second harmonic ripple current). Moreover, battery state of charge is spared from losses during reactive power operation, but converter output power must be limited below its rated power rating to have the same stress on the dc-link capacitor.

Keywords: energy storage system, battery unit, cost, optimal sizing, plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), smart grid

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
6269 Taxonomy of Threats and Vulnerabilities in Smart Grid Networks

Authors: Faisal Al Yahmadi, Muhammad R. Ahmed

Abstract:

Electric power is a fundamental necessity in the 21st century. Consequently, any break in electric power is probably going to affect the general activity. To make the power supply smooth and efficient, a smart grid network is introduced which uses communication technology. In any communication network, security is essential. It has been observed from several recent incidents that adversary causes an interruption to the operation of networks. In order to resolve the issues, it is vital to understand the threats and vulnerabilities associated with the smart grid networks. In this paper, we have investigated the threats and vulnerabilities in Smart Grid Networks (SGN) and the few solutions in the literature. Proposed solutions showed developments in electricity theft countermeasures, Denial of services attacks (DoS) and malicious injection attacks detection model, as well as malicious nodes detection using watchdog like techniques and other solutions.

Keywords: smart grid network, security, threats, vulnerabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
6268 Design of Control Systems for Grid Interconnection and Power Control of a Grid Tie Inverter for Micro-Grid Application

Authors: Deepak Choudhary

Abstract:

COEP-Microgrid, a project by the students of College of Engineering Pune aims at establishing a micro grid in the college campus serving as a living laboratory for research and development of novel grid technologies. Proposed micro grid has an AC-bus and DC-bus, interconnected together with a tie line DC-AC converter. In grid-connected mode AC bus of microgrid is synchronized with utility grid. Synchronization with utility grid requires grid and AC bus to have synchronism in frequency, phase sequence and voltage. Power flow requires phase difference between grid and AC bus. Control System is required to effectively regulate power flow between the grid and AC bus. The grid synchronizing control system is composed of frequency and phase control for regulated power flow and voltage control system for reduction of reactive power flow. The control system involves automatic active power flow control. It takes the feedback of DC link Capacitor and changes the power angle accordingly. Control system incorporating voltage, phase and power control was developed for grid-tie inverter. This paper discusses the design, simulation and practical implementation of control system described in various micro grid scenarios.

Keywords: microgrid, Grid-tie inverter, voltage control, automatic power control

Procedia PDF Downloads 582
6267 Decision Support System for Optimal Placement of Wind Turbines in Electric Distribution Grid

Authors: Ahmed Ouammi

Abstract:

This paper presents an integrated decision framework to support decision makers in the selection and optimal allocation of wind power plants in the electric grid. The developed approach intends to maximize the benefice related to the project investment during the planning period. The proposed decision model considers the main cost components, meteorological data, environmental impacts, operation and regulation constraints, and territorial information. The decision framework is expressed as a stochastic constrained optimization problem with the aim to identify the suitable locations and related optimal wind turbine technology considering the operational constraints and maximizing the benefice. The developed decision support system is applied to a case study to demonstrate and validate its performance.

Keywords: decision support systems, electric power grid, optimization, wind energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
6266 Evaluation of the Electric Vehicle Impact in Distribution System

Authors: Sania Maghsodloo, Sirus Mohammadi

Abstract:

Electric Vehicle (EV) technology is expected to take a major share in the light-vehicle market in the coming decades. Transportation electrification has become an important issue in recent decades and the large scale deployment of EVs has yet to be achieved. The smart coordination of EV demand addresses an improvement in the flexibility of power systems and reduces the costs of power system investment. The uncertainty in EV drivers’ behaviour is one of the main problems to solve to obtain an optimal integration of EVs into power systems Charging of EVs will put an extra burden on the distribution grid and in some cases adjustments will need to be made. The stochastic process of the driving pattern is done to make the outcome of the project more realistic. Based on the stochastic data, the optimization of charging plans is made.

Keywords: electric vehicles (PEVs), smart grid, Monticello, distribution system

Procedia PDF Downloads 494
6265 Intelligent Electric Vehicle Charging System (IEVCS)

Authors: Prateek Saxena, Sanjeev Singh, Julius Roy

Abstract:

The security of the power distribution grid remains a paramount to the utility professionals while enhancing and making it more efficient. The most serious threat to the system can be maintaining the transformers, as the load is ever increasing with the addition of elements like electric vehicles. In this paper, intelligent transformer monitoring and grid management has been proposed. The engineering is done to use the evolving data from the smart meter for grid analytics and diagnostics for preventive maintenance. The two-tier architecture for hardware and software integration is coupled to form a robust system for the smart grid. The proposal also presents interoperable meter standards for easy integration. Distribution transformer analytics based on real-time data benefits utilities preventing outages, protects the revenue loss, improves the return on asset and reduces overall maintenance cost by predictive monitoring.

Keywords: electric vehicle charging, transformer monitoring, data analytics, intelligent grid

Procedia PDF Downloads 693
6264 A Study of Key Technologies for the Realization of Smart Grid and Its Research Situation in Pakistan and Abroad

Authors: Arjmand Khaliq, Pemra Sohaib

Abstract:

In this paper smart grid technologies which converts conventional grid into smart grid has been discussed. Integration of advanced technologies including two way communication, advanced control system, sensors, smart metering system and other provide opportunity to make conventional grid a intelligent and automatic system which is named as smart grid. This paper gives the concept of smart grid and functional characteristics of smart grid technology, summed up the research progress in Pakistan and abroad and the significance of developing smart grid. Based on the analysis of the smart grid, smart grid technologies will result a reliable and energy efficient power system in the future. On the other hand smart grid technologies have been reviewed in this paper highlighting the key technologies of smart grid, and points out the problems and challenges in the realization of smart grid.

Keywords: energy, power system reliability, power system monitoring and control, sensor, smart grid, two-way communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
6263 Energy Efficient Microgrid Design with Hybrid Power Systems

Authors: Pedro Esteban

Abstract:

Today’s electrical networks, including microgrids, are evolving into smart grids. The smart grid concept brings the idea that the power comes from various sources (continuous or intermittent), in various forms (AC or DC, high, medium or low voltage, etc.), and it must be integrated into the electric power system in a smart way to guarantee a continuous and reliable supply that complies with power quality and energy efficiency standards and grid code requirements. This idea brings questions for the different players like how the required power will be generated, what kind of power will be more suitable, how to store exceeding levels for short or long-term usage, and how to combine and distribute all the different generation power sources in an efficient way. To address these issues, there has been lots of development in recent years on the field of on-grid and off-grid hybrid power systems (HPS). These systems usually combine one or more modes of electricity generation together with energy storage to ensure optimal supply reliability and high level of energy security. Hybrid power systems combine power generation and energy storage technologies together with real-time energy management and innovative power quality and energy efficiency improvement functionalities. These systems help customers achieve targets for clean energy generation, they add flexibility to the electrical grid, and they optimize the installation by improving its power quality and energy efficiency.

Keywords: microgrids, hybrid power systems, energy storage, power quality improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
6262 Grid Architecture Model for Smart Grid

Authors: Nick Farid, Roghoyeh Salmeh

Abstract:

The planning and operation of the power grid is becoming much more complex because of the introduction of renewable energy resources, the digitalization of the electricity industry, as well as the coupling of efficiency and greener energy trends. These changes, along with new trends, make interactions between grid users and the other stakeholders more complex. This paper focuses on the main “physical” and “logical” interactions between grid users and the grid stakeholders, both from power system equipment and information management standpoints, and proposes a new interoperability model for Smart Grids.

Keywords: user interface, interoperability layers, grid architecture framework, smart grid

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6261 Electric Arc Furnaces as a Source of Voltage Fluctuations in the Power System

Authors: Zbigniew Olczykowski

Abstract:

The paper presents the impact of work on the electric arc furnace power grid. The arc furnace operating will be modeled at different power conditions of steelworks. The paper will describe how to determine the increase in voltage fluctuations caused by working in parallel arc furnaces. The analysis of indicators characterizing the quality of electricity recorded during several cycles of measurement made at the same time at three points grid, with different power and different short-circuit rated voltage, will be carried out. The measurements analysis presented in this paper were conducted in the mains of one of the Polish steel. The indicators characterizing the quality of electricity was recorded during several cycles of measurement while making measurements at three points of different power network short-circuit power and various voltage ratings. Measurements of power quality indices included the one-week measurement cycles in accordance with the EN-50160. Data analysis will include the results obtained during the simultaneous measurement of three-point grid. This will determine the actual propagation of interference generated by the device. Based on the model studies and measurements of quality indices of electricity we will establish the effect of a specific arc on the mains. The short-circuit power network’s minimum value will also be estimated, this is necessary to limit the voltage fluctuations generated by arc furnaces.

Keywords: arc furnaces, long-term flicker, measurement and modeling of power quality, voltage fluctuations

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
6260 Utilizing Grid Computing to Enhance Power Systems Performance

Authors: Rafid A. Al-Khannak, Fawzi M. Al-Naima

Abstract:

Power load is one of the most important controlling keys which decide power demands and illustrate power usage to shape power market. Hence, power load forecasting is the parameter which facilitates understanding and analyzing all these aspects. In this paper, power load forecasting is solved under MATLAB environment by constructing a neural network for the power load to find an accurate simulated solution with the minimum error. A developed algorithm to achieve load forecasting application with faster technique is the aim for this paper. The algorithm is used to enable MATLAB power application to be implemented by multi machines in the Grid computing system, and to accomplish it within much less time, cost and with high accuracy and quality. Grid Computing, the modern computational distributing technology, has been used to enhance the performance of power applications by utilizing idle and desired Grid contributor(s) by sharing computational power resources.

Keywords: DeskGrid, Grid Server, idle contributor(s), grid computing, load forecasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
6259 System Security Impact on the Dynamic Characteristics of Measurement Sensors in Smart Grids

Authors: Yiyang Su, Jörg Neumann, Jan Wetzlich, Florian Thiel

Abstract:

Smart grid is a term used to describe the next generation power grid. New challenges such as integration of renewable and decentralized energy sources, the requirement for continuous grid estimation and optimization, as well as the use of two-way flows of energy have been brought to the power gird. In order to achieve efficient, reliable, sustainable, as well as secure delivery of electric power more and more information and communication technologies are used for the monitoring and the control of power grids. Consequently, the need for cybersecurity is dramatically increased and has converged into several standards which will be presented here. These standards for the smart grid must be designed to satisfy both performance and reliability requirements. An in depth investigation of the effect of retrospectively embedded security in existing grids on it’s dynamic behavior is required. Therefore, a retrofitting plan for existing meters is offered, and it’s performance in a test low voltage microgrid is investigated. As a result of this, integration of security measures into measurement architectures of smart grids at the design phase is strongly recommended.

Keywords: cyber security, performance, protocols, security standards, smart grid

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
6258 Integration of PV Systems in Residential Buildings: A Solution for Supporting Electrical Grid in Kuwait

Authors: Nabil A. Ahmed, Nasser A. N. Mhaisen

Abstract:

The paper presents a solution to enhance the power quality and to reduce the peak load demand in Kuwait electric grid as a solution to the shortage of electricity production. Technical, environmental and economic feasibility study of utilizing integrated grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system in residential buildings for supplying 7.1% of electrical power consumption in Kuwait is carried out using RETScreen software. A 10 KWp on-grid PV power generation system spread on the rooftop of the residential buildings is adopted and investigated and the complete system performance is simulated using PSIM software. Taking into account the international prices of electricity and natural gas, the proposed solution is investigated and tested for four different types of installation systems in terms of power generation and costs which includes horizontal installation, 25º tilted angle, single axis tracking and dual axis tracking. Results shows that the 25º tilted angle fixed mounted system is the most efficient type. The payback period as a tool of benefit analysis of the proposed system is calculated and it found to be 2.55 years.

Keywords: photovoltaics, residential buildings, electrical grid, production capacity, on-grid, power generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
6257 Vehicle to Grid Potential for Solar Powered Electric Vehicle

Authors: Marcin Kowalski, Tomasz Wiktor, Piotr Ladonski, Krzysztof Bortnowski, Szymon Przybyl, Mateusz Grzesiak

Abstract:

This paper provides a detailed overview of the so-called smart grid or vehicle-to-grid idea, including a description of our way of implementation. The primary targets of this paper are technical students, young constructors, visionaries, however more experienced designers may find useful ideas for developing their vehicles. The publication will also be useful for home-grown builders who want to save on electricity. This article as well summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of V2G solution and might be helpful for students teams planning to participate in Bridgestone World Solar Challenge.

Keywords: solar powered vehicle, vehicle to grid, electric car, v2g, bridgestone world solar challenge

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
6256 A Model Predictive Control Based Virtual Active Power Filter Using V2G Technology

Authors: Mahdi Zolfaghari, Seyed Hossein Hosseinian, Hossein Askarian Abyaneh, Mehrdad Abedi

Abstract:

This paper presents a virtual active power filter (VAPF) using vehicle to grid (V2G) technology to maintain power quality requirements. The optimal discrete operation of the power converter of electric vehicle (EV) is based on recognizing desired switching states using the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm. A fast dynamic response, lower total harmonic distortion (THD) and good reference tracking performance are realized through the presented control strategy. The simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink validate the effectiveness of the scheme in improving power quality as well as good dynamic response in power transferring capability.

Keywords: electric vehicle, model predictive control, power quality, V2G technology, virtual active power filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
6255 Optimization of Hybrid off Grid Energy Station

Authors: Yehya Abdellatif, Iyad M. Muslih, Azzah Alkhalailah, Abdallah Muslih

Abstract:

Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software was utilized to find the optimum design of a hybrid off-Grid system, by choosing the optimal solution depending on the cost analysis of energy based on different capacity shortage percentages. A complete study for the site conditions and load profile was done to optimize the design and implementation of a hybrid off-grid power station. In addition, the solution takes into consecration the ambient temperature effect on the efficiency of the power generation and the economical aspects of selection depending on real market price. From the analysis of the HOMER model results, the optimum hybrid power station was suggested, based on wind speed, and solar conditions. The optimization function objective is to minimize the Net Price Cost (NPC) and the Cost of Energy (COE) with zero and 10 percentage of capacity shortage.

Keywords: energy modeling, HOMER, off-grid system, optimization

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6254 Importance of Location Selection of an Energy Storage System in a Smart Grid

Authors: Vanaja Rao

Abstract:

In the recent times, the need for the integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in a Smart Grid is on the rise. As a result of this, associated energy storage systems are known to play important roles in sustaining the efficient operation of such RES like wind power and solar power. This paper investigates the importance of location selection of Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) in a Smart Grid. Three scenarios of ESS location is studied and analyzed in a Smart Grid, which are – 1. Near the generation/source, 2. In the middle of the Grid and, 3. Near the demand/consumption. This is explained with the aim of assisting any Distribution Network Operator (DNO) in deploying the ESSs in a power network, which will significantly help reduce the costs and time of planning and avoid any damages incurred as a result of installing them at an incorrect location of a Smart Grid. To do this, the outlined scenarios mentioned above are modelled and analyzed with the National Grid’s datasets of energy generation and consumption in the UK power network. As a result, the outcome of this analysis aims to provide a better overview for the location selection of the ESSs in a Smart Grid. This ensures power system stability and security along with the optimum usage of the ESSs.

Keywords: distribution networks, energy storage system, energy security, location planning, power stability, smart grid

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
6253 Modeling and Simulation of Standalone Photovoltaic Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles

Authors: R. Mkahl, A. Nait-Sidi-Moh, M. Wack

Abstract:

Batteries of electric vehicles (BEV) are becoming more attractive with the advancement of new battery technologies and promotion of electric vehicles. BEV batteries are recharged on board vehicles using either the grid (G2V for Grid to Vehicle) or renewable energies in a stand-alone application (H2V for Home to Vehicle). This paper deals with the modeling, sizing and control of a photo voltaic stand-alone application that can charge the BEV at home. The modeling approach and developed mathematical models describing the system components are detailed. Simulation and experimental results are presented and commented.

Keywords: electric vehicles, photovoltaic energy, lead-acid batteries, charging process, modeling, simulation, experimental tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
6252 Optimal Design of Substation Grounding Grid Based on Genetic Algorithm Technique

Authors: Ahmed Z. Gabr, Ahmed A. Helal, Hussein E. Said

Abstract:

With the incessant increase of power systems capacity and voltage grade, the safety of grounding grid becomes more and more prominent. In this paper, the designing substation grounding grid is presented by means of genetic algorithm (GA). This approach purposes to control the grounding cost of the power system with the aid of controlling grounding rod number and conductor lengths under the same safety limitations. The proposed technique is used for the design of the substation grounding grid in Khalda Petroleum Company “El-Qasr” power plant and the design was simulated by using CYMGRD software for results verification. The result of the design is highly complying with IEEE 80-2000 standard requirements.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, optimum grounding grid design, power system analysis, power system protection, single layer model, substation

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
6251 Micro Grids, Solution to Power Off-Grid Areas in Pakistan

Authors: M. Naveed Iqbal, Sheza Fatima, Noman Shabbir

Abstract:

In the presence of energy crisis in Pakistan, off-grid remote areas are not on priority list. The use of new large scale coal fired power plants will also make this situation worst. Therefore, the greatest challenge in our society is to explore new ways to power off grid remote areas with renewable energy sources. It is time for a sustainable energy policy which puts consumers, the environment, human health, and peace first. The renewable energy is one of the biggest growing sectors of the energy industry. Therefore, the large scale use of micro grid is thus described here with modeling, simulation, planning and operating of the micro grid. The goal of this research paper is to go into detail of a library of major components of micro grid. The introduction will go through the detail view of micro grid definition. Then, the simulation of Micro Grid in MATLAB/ Simulink including the Photo Voltaic Cell will be described with the detailed modeling. The simulation with the design and modeling will be introduced too.

Keywords: micro grids, distribution generation, PV, off-grid operations

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
6250 Advanced Simulation of Power Consumption of Electric Vehicles

Authors: Ilya Kavalchuk, Hayrettin Arisoy, Alex Stojcevski, Aman Maun Than Oo

Abstract:

Electric vehicles are one of the most complicated electric devices to simulate due to the significant number of different processes involved in electrical structure of it. There are concurrent processes of energy consumption and generation with different onboard systems, which make simulation tasks more complicated to perform. More accurate simulation on energy consumption can provide a better understanding of all energy management for electric transport. As a result of all those processes, electric transport can allow for a more sustainable future and become more convenient in relation to the distance range and recharging time. This paper discusses the problems of energy consumption simulations for electric vehicles using different software packages to provide ideas on how to make this process more precise, which can help engineers create better energy management strategies for electric vehicles.

Keywords: electric vehicles, EV, power consumption, power management, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
6249 Investigation of Wind Farm Interaction with Ethiopian Electric Power’s Grid: A Case Study at Ashegoda Wind Farm

Authors: Fikremariam Beyene, Getachew Bekele

Abstract:

Ethiopia is currently on the move with various projects to raise the amount of power generated in the country. The progress observed in recent years indicates this fact clearly and indisputably. The rural electrification program, the modernization of the power transmission system, the development of wind farm is some of the main accomplishments worth mentioning. As it is well known, currently, wind power is globally embraced as one of the most important sources of energy mainly for its environmentally friendly characteristics, and also that once it is installed, it is a source available free of charge. However, integration of wind power plant with an existing network has many challenges that need to be given serious attention. In Ethiopia, a number of wind farms are either installed or are under construction. A series of wind farm is planned to be installed in the near future. Ashegoda Wind farm (13.2°, 39.6°), which is the subject of this study, is the first large scale wind farm under construction with the capacity of 120 MW. The first phase of 120 MW (30 MW) has been completed and is expected to be connected to the grid soon. This paper is concerned with the investigation of the wind farm interaction with the national grid under transient operating condition. The main concern is the fault ride through (FRT) capability of the system when the grid voltage drops to exceedingly low values because of short circuit fault and also the active and reactive power behavior of wind turbines after the fault is cleared. On the wind turbine side, a detailed dynamic modelling of variable speed wind turbine of a 1 MW capacity running with a squirrel cage induction generator and full-scale power electronics converters is done and analyzed using simulation software DIgSILENT PowerFactory. On the Ethiopian electric power corporation side, after having collected sufficient data for the analysis, the grid network is modeled. In the model, a fault ride-through (FRT) capability of the plant is studied by applying 3-phase short circuit on the grid terminal near the wind farm. The results show that the Ashegoda wind farm can ride from voltage deep within a short time and the active and reactive power performance of the wind farm is also promising.

Keywords: squirrel cage induction generator, active and reactive power, DIgSILENT PowerFactory, fault ride-through capability, 3-phase short circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
6248 Active Power Filters and their Smart Grid Integration - Applications for Smart Cities

Authors: Pedro Esteban

Abstract:

Most installations nowadays are exposed to many power quality problems, and they also face numerous challenges to comply with grid code and energy efficiency requirements. The reason behind this is that they are not designed to support nonlinear, non-balanced, and variable loads and generators that make up a large percentage of modern electric power systems. These problems and challenges become especially critical when designing green buildings and smart cities. These problems and challenges are caused by equipment that can be typically found in these installations like variable speed drives (VSD), transformers, lighting, battery chargers, double-conversion UPS (uninterruptible power supply) systems, highly dynamic loads, single-phase loads, fossil fuel generators and renewable generation sources, to name a few. Moreover, events like capacitor switching (from existing capacitor banks or passive harmonic filters), auto-reclose operations of transmission and distribution lines, or the starting of large motors also contribute to these problems and challenges. Active power filters (APF) are one of the fastest-growing power electronics technologies for solving power quality problems and meeting grid code and energy efficiency requirements for a wide range of segments and applications. They are a high performance, flexible, compact, modular, and cost-effective type of power electronics solutions that provide an instantaneous and effective response in low or high voltage electric power systems. They enable longer equipment lifetime, higher process reliability, improved power system capacity and stability, and reduced energy losses, complying with most demanding power quality and energy efficiency standards and grid codes. There can be found several types of active power filters, including active harmonic filters (AHF), static var generators (SVG), active load balancers (ALB), hybrid var compensators (HVC), and low harmonic drives (LHD) nowadays. All these devices can be used in applications in Smart Cities bringing several technical and economic benefits.

Keywords: power quality improvement, energy efficiency, grid code compliance, green buildings, smart cities

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
6247 Volume Density of Power of Multivector Electric Machine

Authors: Aldan A. Sapargaliyev, Yerbol A. Sapargaliyev

Abstract:

Since the invention, the electric machine (EM) can be defined as oEM – one-vector electric machine, as it works due to one-vector inductive coupling with use of one-vector electromagnet. The disadvantages of oEM are large size and limited efficiency at low and medium power applications. This paper describes multi-vector electric machine (mEM) based on multi-vector inductive coupling, which is characterized by the increased surface area of ​​the inductive coupling per EM volume, with a reduced share of inefficient and energy-consuming part of the winding, in comparison with oEM’s. Particularly, it is considered, calculated and compared the performance of three different electrical motors and their power at the same volumes and rotor frequencies. It is also presented the result of calculation of correlation between power density and volume for oEM and mEM. The method of multi-vector inductive coupling enables mEM to possess 1.5-4.0 greater density of power per volume and significantly higher efficiency, in comparison with today’s oEM, especially in low and medium power applications. mEM has distinct advantages, when used in transport vehicles such as electric cars and aircrafts.

Keywords: electric machine, electric motor, electromagnet, efficiency of electric motor

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
6246 Modeling and Analysis of DFIG Based Wind Power System Using Instantaneous Power Components

Authors: Jaimala Ghambir, Tilak Thakur, Puneet Chawla

Abstract:

As per the statistical data, the Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind turbine with variable speed and variable pitch control is the most common wind turbine in the growing wind market. This machine is usually used on the grid connected wind energy conversion system to satisfy grid code requirements such as grid stability, fault ride through (FRT), power quality improvement, grid synchronization and power control etc. Though the requirements are not fulfilled directly by the machine, the control strategy is used in both the stator as well as rotor side along with power electronic converters to fulfil the requirements stated above. To satisfy the grid code requirements of wind turbine, usually grid side converter is playing a major role. So in order to improve the operation capacity of wind turbine under critical situation, the intensive study of both machine side converter control and grid side converter control is necessary In this paper DFIG is modeled using power components as variables and the performance of the DFIG system is analysed under grid voltage fluctuations. The voltage fluctuations are made by lowering and raising the voltage values in the utility grid intentionally for the purpose of simulation keeping in view of different grid disturbances.

Keywords: DFIG, dynamic modeling, DPC, sag, swell, voltage fluctuations, FRT

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