Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: E. J. Cilliers

12 A Usability Framework to Influence the Intention to Use Mobile Fitness Applications in South Africa

Authors: Bulelani Ngamntwini, Liezel Cilliers

Abstract:

South Africa has one of the highest prevalence of obese people on the African continent. Forty-six percent of the adults in South Africa are physically inactive. Fitness applications can be used to increase physical inactivity. However, the uptake of mobile fitness applications in South Africa has been found to be poor due to usability challenges with the technology. The study developed a usability framework to influence the intention to use mobile fitness applications in South Africa. The study made use of a positivistic approach to collect data. A questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from 377 respondents that have used mobile fitness applications in the past. A response rate of 80.90% was recorded. To analyse the data, the Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationships between the various hypotheses. There are four usability factors, efficiency, effectiveness, satisfaction, and learnability, which contribute to the intention of users to make use of mobile fitness applications. The study, therefore, recommends that for a mobile fitness application to be successful, these four factors must be considered and incorporated by developers when designing the applications.

Keywords: obese, overweight, physical inactivity, mobile fitness application, usability factors

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11 Planning Sustainable Urban Communities through Nature-Based Solutions: Perspectives from the Global South

Authors: Nike Jacobs, Elizelle Juanee Cilliers

Abstract:

In recent decades there has been an increasing strive towards broader sustainable planning practices. A wide range of literature suggests that nature-based solutions (including Green Infrastructure planning) may lead towards socio-economically and environmentally sustainable urban communities. Such research is however mainly based on practices from the Global North with very little reference to the Global South. This study argues that there is a need for Global North knowledge to be translated to Global South context, and interpreted within this unique environment, acknowledging historical and cultural differences between Global North and Global South, and ultimately providing unique solutions for the unique urban reality. This research primarily focuses on nature-based solutions for sustainable urban communities and considers a broad literature review on Global North knowledge regarding such, substantiated by an analysis of purposefully selected case studies. The investigation identifies best practices which could be translated and place such in the context of current Global South perspectives.

Keywords: global south, green infrastructure planning, nature-based solutions, sustainable urbanism, urban sustainability

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10 Transforming Space to Place: Best-Practice Approaches and Initiatives

Authors: Juanee Cilliers

Abstract:

Urban citizens have come to expect more from their cities, demanding optimal conditions for business creativity and professional development, along with efficient, sustainable transportation and energy systems that feed robust economic development and healthy job markets. Urban public spaces are an important part of the urban environment, creating the framework for public life and quality thereof. The transformation of space into successful public places are crucial in this regard as planning must safeguard flexibility towards future changes, whilst simultaneously be capable of acting on short-term demands in order to address the complexity of public spaces within urban areas. This research evaluated two case studies of different cities in Belgium which successfully transformed spaces into lively public places. The transformation was illustrated and evaluated by means of visual analyses and space usage analyses of the original and redesigned space, along with the experience and value that the redesign brought to the area. Selected design elements were identified and evaluated based on the role in the transformation process, in an attempt to draw conclusions with regards to theory-practice relevance and to guide the transformation of space to place of (similar) public spaces.

Keywords: space, place, transformation, case studies

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9 Review of the Anatomy of the Middle Cerebral Artery and Its Anomalies

Authors: Karen Cilliers, Benedict John Page

Abstract:

The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most complex cerebral artery although few anomalies are found compared to the other cerebral arteries. The branches of the MCA cover a large part of each hemisphere, therefore it is exposed in various operations. Although the segments of the MCA are similarly described by most authors, there is some disagreement on the branching pattern of the MCA. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the anatomy and variations of the MCA, and to compare this to a pilot study. For the pilot study, 20 hemispheres were perfused with coloured silicone and the MCA was dissected. According to the literature, the two most common branching configurations are the bifurcating and trifurcating patterns. In the pilot study, bifurcation was observed in 19 hemispheres, and in one hemisphere there was no branching (monofurcation). No trifurcation was observed. The most commonly duplicated branch was the anterior parietal artery in 30%, and most commonly absent was the common temporal artery in 65% and the temporal polar artery in 40%. Very few studies describe the origins of the branches of the MCA, therefore a detailed description is given. Middle cerebral artery variations that are occasionally reported in the literature include fenestration, and a duplicated or accessory MCA, although no variations were observed in the pilot study. Aneurysms can frequently be observed at the branching of cerebral vessels, therefore a thorough knowledge of the vascular anatomy is vital. Furthermore, knowledge of possible variations is important since variations can have serious clinical implications.

Keywords: anatomy, anomaly, description, middle cerebral artery, origin, variation

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8 The Secret Ingredient of Student Involvement: Applied Science Case Studies to Enhance Sustainability

Authors: Elizelle Juanee Cilliers

Abstract:

Recent planning thinking has laid the foundations for a general sense of best practice that aims to enhance the quality of life, suggesting an open and participatory process. It is accepted that integration of top-down and bottom-up approaches may lead to efficient action in environments and sustainable planning and development, although it is also accepted that such an integrated approach has various challenges of implementation. A flexible framework in which the strengths of both the top-down and bottom-up approaches were explored in this research, based on the EU Interreg VALUE Added project and five case studies where student education and student involvement played a crucial role within the participation process of the redesign of the urban environment. It was found that international student workshops were an effective tool to integrate bottom-up and top-down structures, as it acted as catalyst for communication, interaction, creative design, quick transformation from planning to implementation, building social cohesion, finding mutual ground between stakeholders and thus enhancing overall quality of life and quality of environments. It offered a good alternative to traditional participation modes and created a platform for an integrative planning approach. The role and importance of education and integration within the urban environment were emphasized.

Keywords: top-down, bottom-up, flexible, student involvement

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7 Towards Green(er) Cities: The Role of Spatial Planning in Realising the Green Agenda

Authors: Elizelle Juaneé Cilliers

Abstract:

The green hype is becoming stronger within various disciplines, modern practices and academic thinking, enforced by concepts such as eco-health, eco-tourism, eco-cities, and eco-engineering. There is currently also an expanded scientific understanding regarding the value and benefits relating to green infrastructure, for both communities and their host cities, linked to broader sustainability and resilience thinking. The integration and implementation of green infrastructure as part of spatial planning approaches and municipal planning, are, however, more complex, especially in South Africa, inflated by limitations of budgets and human resources, development pressures, inequities in terms of green space availability and political legacies of the past. The prevailing approach to spatial planning is further contributing to complexity, linked to misguided perceptions of the function and value of green infrastructure. As such, green spaces are often considered a luxury, and green infrastructure a costly alternative, resulting in green networks being susceptible to land-use changes and under-prioritized in local authority decision-making. Spatial planning, in this sense, may well be a valuable tool to realise the green agenda, encapsulating various initiatives of sustainability as provided by a range of disciplines. This paper aims to clarify the importance and value of green infrastructure planning as a component of spatial planning approaches, in order to inform and encourage local authorities to embed sustainability thinking into city planning and decision-making approaches. It reflects on the decisive role of land-use management to guide the green agenda and refers to some recent planning initiatives. Lastly, it calls for trans-disciplinary planning approaches to build a case towards green(er) cities.

Keywords: green infrastructure, spatial planning, transdisciplinary, integrative

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6 Comparative Sustainability Assessment as a Gauge of Sustainable Community Development in South Africa

Authors: B. B. van Schalkwyk, C. B. Schoeman, E. J. Cilliers

Abstract:

High levels of urbanisation and the lingering effects of Apartheid have caused South African municipalities to experience difficulties in planning for sustainability and, more specifically, sustainable community development. Sustainable community development is needed in order to achieve more integrated and sustainable towns and cities with an improved living environment and a higher quality of life. Due to this, sustainable community development is of particular relevance to South Africa. Although policies and legislation exist at international, national and local level, there is a lack of suitable planning instruments to guide sustainable community development. Tlokwe Local Municipality is researched in this paper as study area to test and develop planning instruments for sustainable community development. A comparative assessment matrix of sustainability indicators is linked to Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) and applied to identify the themes and sub-themes applicable to sustainability in which intervention is required to improve the sustainability rating of the municipality. The result of the comparative sustainability assessment is that the Tlokwe Local Municipality is considered to be relatively sustainable, performing overall better than the three spheres of government against which it was measured. It is recommended that municipalities use the comparative assessment matrix method to determine its level of sustainability when developing respective sectorial plans (SDFs, ITPs, EMFs and IDPs). Areas in which there is a lack of sustainability are highlighted and can consequently be addressed through intervention strategies. The comparative assessment matrix method is a valuable planning instrument with which to achieve sustainable community development.

Keywords: sustainable community development, sustainability indicators, comparative sustainability, urbanisation, development planning, urban management

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5 Variations and Anomalies of the Posterior Cerebral Artery in a South African Population

Authors: Karen Cilliers, Benedict J. Page

Abstract:

Limited research focuses on the anatomy of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and its cortical branches, even though there can be variation in the presence, size, and origin. The PCA branching pattern has not been adequately reported, and the true division point remains unclear. Anomalies of the PCA have been described in the previous literature; however, few examples have been reported. Furthermore, possible differences between right and left, sex, population and age groups may exist. Therefore, the aim of this study was to report on these aspects from a South African population. One hundred and twenty-six hemispheres were obtained consisting of 86 males and 38 females, between the ages of 22 and 84 (average 45 years of age). This comprised of three population groups, namely coloured (n=74), black (n=38), white (n=10) and two unknown cases. The PCA was injected with an isotonic saline and a colored silicone. The external diameter was measured with a digital micrometer, and length was measured with a string and a ruler. Presence and origins of the cortical branches were similar to the literature; however, duplications, triplications, and unusual origins were observed. The diameter and lengths indicated significant differences between the right and left sides, sex, population and age groups. Branching patterns were identified and compared to the prevalence from previous studies. Two fenestrations were observed in the P2A segment. The presence, size, origin, branching pattern and anomalies of the PCA were investigated in this study. The diameter and length can be significantly different, especially between the right and left-hand side. Changes in the diameter and length can be indicative of certain neuropathological conditions and can play a role in aneurysms formation. Adequate knowledge of the normal and abnormal PCA anatomy is crucial for surgery in the vicinity of the PCA. Therefore, future studies should focus on these aspects.

Keywords: branching, cortical branches, fenestration, posterior cerebral artery

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4 The Planning and Development of Green Public Places in Urban South Africa: A Child-Friendly Approach

Authors: E. J. Cilliers, Z. Goosen

Abstract:

The impact that urban green spaces have on sustainability and quality of life is phenomenal. This is also true for the local South African environment. However, in reality green spaces in urban environments are decreasing due to growing populations, increasing urbanization and development pressure. This further impacts on the provision of child-friendly spaces, a concept that is already limited in local context. Child-friendly spaces are described as environments in which people (children) feel intimately connected to, influencing the physical, social, emotional, and ecological health of individuals and communities. The benefits of providing such spaces for the youth are well documented in literature. This research therefore aimed to investigate the concept of child-friendly spaces and its applicability to the South African planning context, in order to guide the planning of such spaces for future communities and use. Child-friendly spaces in the urban environment of the city of Durban, was used as local case study, along with two international case studies namely Mullerpier public playground in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and Kadidjiny Park in Melville, Australia. The aim was to determine how these spaces were planned and developed and to identify tools that were used to accomplish the goal of providing successful child-friendly green spaces within urban areas. The need and significance of planning for such spaces was portrayed within the international case studies. It is confirmed that minimal provision is made for green space planning within the South African context, when there is reflected on the international examples. As a result international examples and disciples of providing child-friendly green spaces should direct planning guidelines within local context. The research concluded that child-friendly green spaces have a positive impact on the urban environment and assist in a child’s development and interaction with the natural environment. Regrettably, the planning of these child-friendly spaces is not given priority within current spatial plans, despite the proven benefits of such.

Keywords: built environment, child-friendly spaces, green spaces, public places, urban area

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3 Corridor Densification Option as a Means for Restructuring South African Cities

Authors: T. J. B. van Niekerk, J. Viviers, E. J. Cilliers

Abstract:

Substantial efforts were made in South Africa, stemming from a historic political change in 1994, to remedy the inequality and injustice, resulting from a dispensation where spatial patterns were largely based on racial segregation. Spatially distorted patterns predominantly originated from colonialism in the beginning of the twentieth century, ensuing a physical imprint on South African cities relating to architecture, urban layout and planning, frequently reflecting European norms and standards. As a consequence of physical and land use barriers, and well-established dual cities, attempts to address spatial injustices, apart from limited occurrences in metropolitan areas, gravely failed. Interception of incessant segregated growth, combined with urban sprawl is becoming increasingly evident. Intervention is a prerequisite to duly address the impact of colonial planning and its legacy still prevalent in most urban areas. During 1998, the National Department of Transport prepared the “Moving South Africa” strategy; presenting the Corridor Densification Option Model for the first time, as it was deemed more fitting to the existing South African urban tenure patterns than more familiar planning approaches. Urban planners are progressively contemplating the Corridor Densification Option Model and its attributes, besides its transportation emphasis, as an alternative approach to address spatial imbalances and to attain the physical integration of contemporary urban forms. In attaining a clearer understanding of the Corridor Densification Option Model, its rationale was analysed in greater detail. This research further investigated the provisional applications of the model in spatially segregated cities and illustrated that viable options are present to effectively employ it. Research revealed that the application of the model will, however, be dependent on the occurrence of specific characteristics in spatially segregated cities to warrant augmentation thereof.

Keywords: corridor densification option model, spatially segregated settlements, integration, urban restructuring

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2 Third Places for Social Sustainability: A Planning Framework Based on Local and International Comparisons

Authors: Z. Goosen, E. J. Cilliers

Abstract:

Social sustainability, as an independent perspective of sustainable development, has gained some acknowledgement, becoming an important aspect in sustainable urban planning internationally. However, limited research aiming at promoting social sustainability within urban areas exists within the South African context. This is mainly due to the different perspectives of sustainable development (e.g., Environmental, Economic, and Social) not being equally prioritized by policy makers and supported by implementation strategies, guidelines, and planning frameworks. The enhancement of social sustainability within urban areas relies on urban dweller satisfaction and the quality of urban life. Inclusive cities with high-quality public spaces are proposed within this research through implementing the third place theory. Third places are introduced as any place other than our homes (first place) and work (second place) and have become an integrated part of sustainable urban planning. As Third Places consist of every place 'in between', the approach has taken on a large role of the everyday life of city residents, and the importance of planning for such places can only be measured through identifying and highlighting the social sustainability benefits thereof. The aim of this research paper is to introduce third place planning within the urban area to ultimately enhance social sustainability. Selected background planning approaches influencing the planning of third places will briefly be touched on, as the focus will be placed on the social sustainability benefits provided through third place planning within an urban setting. The study will commence by defining and introducing the concept of third places within urban areas as well as a discussion on social sustainability, acting as one of the three perspectives of sustainable development. This will gain the researcher an improved understanding on social sustainability in order for the study to flow into an integrated discussion of the benefits Third places provide in terms of social sustainability and the impact it has on improved quality of life within urban areas. Finally, a visual case study comparison of local and international examples of third places identified will be illustrated. These international case studies will contribute towards the conclusion of this study where a local gap analysis will be formulated, based on local third place evidence and international best practices in order to formulate a strategic planning framework on improving social sustainability through third place planning within the local South African context.

Keywords: planning benefits, social sustainability, third places, urban area

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1 Restoring Urban South Africa through a Sustainable Green Infrastructure Approach

Authors: Z. Goosen, E. J. Cilliers

Abstract:

Referring to the entire green network within urban environments, at all spatial scales, green infrastructure is considered as an important constituent of sustainable development within urban areas through planning for a healthy environment and simultaneously improving quality of life for the people. Green infrastructure has made its appearance internationally in terms of the infrastructural urban environment focussing on ecological systems and sustaining society while building with nature. Within South Africa, the terminology of green infrastructure has, however, not continuously been entertained, mainly due to more pressing realities and challenges faced within urban areas of South Africa that include but are not limited to basic service provision, financial constraints and a lack of guiding policies and frameworks. But the notion of green infrastructure planning has changes, creating a newfound movement within urban areas of South Africa encouraging green infrastructure for urban resilience. Although green infrastructure is not an entirely new concept within the local context of South Africa, the benefits thereof constantly needs to be identified in order to measure the value of green infrastructure. Consequently challenges faces within urban areas of South Africa, in terms of human and nature, could be restored through focussing on a sustainable green infrastructure approach. This study does not focus on the pressing challenges and realities faced within urban areas of South Africa but rather aims solely on improving a green infrastructure approach within urban areas of South Africa. At the outset, the study will commence by introducing the concept of a green infrastructure approach by means of a local and international comparison. This will ensure an improved conceptual understanding of green infrastructure within a local South African context. The green infrastructure concept will be elaborated on through the inclusion of South African case study evaluations. The selected case studies will illustrate existing green infrastructure implementation within South Africa along with the benefits provided through the implementation thereof in terms of human (the people) and nature (the natural environment). As green infrastructure within South Africa continues to remain a fairly new concept with moderate levels of implementation thereof, room for improving on the approach in terms of implementation and maintenance exist. For this reason, the study will conclude with alternative green infrastructure suggestions and approaches to possibly be enforced within South Africa, led by international best practices.

Keywords: green infrastructure, international best practices, sustainability, urban South Africa

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