Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 80

Search results for: enclosure

80 Numerical Study of Natural Convection of a Localized Heat Source at the up of a Nanofluid-Filled Enclosure

Authors: Marziyeh Heydari, Hossein Shokouhmand

Abstract:

This article presents a numerical study of natural convection of a heat source embedded on the up wall of an enclosure filled with nanofluid. The bottom and vertical walls of the enclosure are maintained at a relatively low temperature. The type of nanofluid and solid volume fraction of nanoparticle on the heat transfer performance is studied. The results indicated that adding nanoparticle into pure paraffin improves heat transfer. The results are presented over a wide range of Rayleigh numbers(Ra=〖10〗^3 〖-10〗^5), the volume fraction of nanoparticles (0≤ɸ≤0.4%). For an enclosure, the Nusselt number of a cu-paraffin nanofluid was reduced by increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles above 0.2%.

Keywords: nanofluid, heat transfer, heat source, enclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
79 Active Noise Cancellation in the Rectangular Enclosure Systems

Authors: D. Shakirah Shukor, A. Aminudin, Hashim U. A., Waziralilah N. Fathiah, T. Vikneshvaran

Abstract:

The interior noise control is essential to be explored due to the interior acoustic analysis is significant in the systems such as automobiles, aircraft, air-handling system and diesel engine exhausts system. In this research, experimental work was undertaken for canceling an active noise in the rectangular enclosure. The rectangular enclosure was fabricated with multiple speakers and microphones inside the enclosure. A software program using digital signal processing is implemented to evaluate the proposed method. Experimental work was conducted to obtain the acoustic behavior and characteristics of the rectangular enclosure and noise cancellation based on active noise control in low-frequency range. Noise is generated by using multispeaker inside the enclosure and microphones are used for noise measurements. The technique for noise cancellation relies on the principle of destructive interference between two sound fields in the rectangular enclosure. One field is generated by the original or primary sound source, the other by a secondary sound source set up to interfere with, and cancel, that unwanted primary sound. At the end of this research, the result of output noise before and after cancellation are presented and discussed. On the basis of the findings presented in this research, an active noise cancellation in the rectangular enclosure is worth exploring in order to improve the noise control technologies.

Keywords: active noise control, digital signal processing, noise cancellation, rectangular enclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
78 Numerical Study of Natural Convection in a Triangular Enclosure as an Attic for Different Geometries and Boundary Conditions

Authors: H. Golchoobian, S. Saedodin, M. H. Taheri, A. Sarafraz

Abstract:

In this paper, natural convection in an attic is numerically investigated. The geometry of the problem is considered to be a triangular enclosure. ANSYS Fluent software is used for modeling and numerical solution. This study is for steady state. Four right-angled triangles with height to base ratios of 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 are considered. The behavior of various parameters related to its performance, including temperature distribution and velocity vectors are evaluated, and graphs for the Nusselt number have been drawn. Also, in this study, the effect of geometric shape of enclosure with different height-to-base ratios has been evaluated for three types of boundary conditions of winter, summer day and one another state. It can be concluded that as the bottom side temperature and ratio of base to height of the enclosure increases, the convective effects become more prominent and circulation happened.

Keywords: enclosure, natural convection, numerical solution, Nusselt number, triangular

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
77 Effects of Heat Source Position on Heat Transfer in an Inclined Square Enclosure Filled with Nanofluids

Authors: Khamis Al Kalbani

Abstract:

The effects of a uniform heat source position on the heat transfer flow inside an inclined square enclosure filled with different types of nanofluids having various shapes of the nanoparticles are investigated numerically following one component thermal equilibrium model. The effects of the Brownian diffusion of the nanoparticles, magnetic field intensity and orientation are taken into consideration in nanofluid modeling. The heat source is placed in the middle of a wall of the enclosure while the opposite wall of it is kept at different temperature. The other walls of the enclosure are kept insulated. The results indicate that the heat source position significantly controls the heat transfer rates of the nanofluids. The distributions of the average heat transfer rates varying the position of the heat source with respect to the geometry inclination angle are calculated for the first time. The outcomes of the present research may be helpful for designing solar thermal collectors, radiators, building insulators and advanced cooling of a nuclear system.

Keywords: heat source, inclined, square enclosure, nanofluids

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
76 Electronics Thermal Management Driven Design of an IP65-Rated Motor Inverter

Authors: Sachin Kamble, Raghothama Anekal, Shivakumar Bhavi

Abstract:

Thermal management of electronic components packaged inside an IP65 rated enclosure is of prime importance in industrial applications. Electrical enclosure protects the multiple board configurations such as inverter, power, controller board components, busbars, and various power dissipating components from harsh environments. Industrial environments often experience relatively warm ambient conditions, and the electronic components housed in the enclosure dissipate heat, due to which the enclosures and the components require thermal management as well as reduction of internal ambient temperatures. Design of Experiments based thermal simulation approach with MOSFET arrangement, Heat sink design, Enclosure Volume, Copper and Aluminum Spreader, Power density, and Printed Circuit Board (PCB) type were considered to optimize air temperature inside the IP65 enclosure to ensure conducive operating temperature for controller board and electronic components through the different modes of heat transfer viz. conduction, natural convection and radiation using Ansys ICEPAK. MOSFET’s with the parallel arrangement, IP65 enclosure molded heat sink with rectangular fins on both enclosures, specific enclosure volume to satisfy the power density, Copper spreader to conduct heat to the enclosure, optimized power density value and selecting Aluminum clad PCB which improves the heat transfer were the contributors towards achieving a conducive operating temperature inside the IP-65 rated Motor Inverter enclosure. A reduction of 52 ℃ was achieved in internal ambient temperature inside the IP65 enclosure between baseline and final design parameters, which met the operative temperature requirements of the electronic components inside the IP-65 rated Motor Inverter.

Keywords: Ansys ICEPAK, aluminium clad PCB, IP 65 enclosure, motor inverter, thermal simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
75 Experimental Analysis of Structure Borne Noise in an Enclosure

Authors: Waziralilah N. Fathiah, A. Aminudin, U. Alyaa Hashim, T. Vikneshvaran D. Shakirah Shukor

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental analysis conducted on a structure borne noise in a rectangular enclosure prototype made by joining of sheet aluminum metal and plywood. The study is significant as many did not realized the annoyance caused by structural borne-noise. In this study, modal analysis is carried out to seek the structure’s behaviour in order to identify the characteristics of enclosure in frequency domain ranging from 0 Hz to 200 Hz. Here, numbers of modes are identified and the characteristic of mode shape is categorized. Modal experiment is used to diagnose the structural behaviour while microphone is used to diagnose the sound. Spectral testing is performed on the enclosure. It is acoustically excited using shaker and as it vibrates, the vibrational and noise responses sensed by tri-axis accelerometer and microphone sensors are recorded respectively. Experimental works is performed on each node lies on the gridded surface of the enclosure. Both experimental measurement is carried out simultaneously. The modal experimental results of the modal modes are validated by simulation performed using MSC Nastran software. In pursuance of reducing the structure borne-noise, mitigation method is used whereby the stiffener plates are perpendicularly placed on the sheet aluminum metal. By using this method, reduction in structure borne-noise is successfully made at the end of the study.

Keywords: enclosure, modal analysis, sound analysis, structure borne-noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
74 Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Natural Convective Nanofluid Flow within a Trapezoidal Enclosure Using Meshfree Method

Authors: S. Nandal, R. Bhargava

Abstract:

The paper contains a numerical study of the unsteady magneto-hydrodynamic natural convection flow of nanofluids within a symmetrical wavy walled trapezoidal enclosure. The length and height of enclosure are both considered equal to L. Two-phase nanofluid model is employed. The governing equations of nanofluid flow along with boundary conditions are non-dimensionalized and are solved using one of Meshfree technique (EFGM method). Meshfree numerical technique does not require a predefined mesh for discretization purpose. The bottom wavy wall of the enclosure is defined using a cosine function. Element free Galerkin method (EFGM) does not require the domain. The effects of various parameters namely time t, amplitude of bottom wavy wall a, Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt is examined on rate of heat and mass transfer to get a visualization of cooling and heating effects. Such problems have important applications in heat exchangers or solar collectors, as wavy walled enclosures enhance heat transfer in comparison to flat walled enclosures.

Keywords: heat transfer, meshfree methods, nanofluid, trapezoidal enclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
73 Entropy Generation Analyze Due to the Steady Natural Convection of Newtonian Fluid in a Square Enclosure

Authors: T. T. Naas, Y. Lasbet, C. Kezrane

Abstract:

The thermal control in many systems is widely accomplished applying mixed convection process due to its low cost, reliability and easy maintenance. Typical applications include the aircraft electronic equipment, rotating-disc heat exchangers, turbo machinery, and nuclear reactors, etc. Natural convection in an inclined square enclosure heated via wall heater has been studied numerically. Finite volume method is used for solving momentum and energy equations in the form of stream function–vorticity. The right and left walls are kept at a constant temperature, while the other parts are adiabatic. The range of the inclination angle covers a whole revolution. The method is validated for a vertical cavity. A general power law dependence of the Nusselt number with respect to the Rayleigh number with the coefficient and exponent as functions of the inclination angle is presented. For a fixed Rayleigh number, the inclination angle increases or decreases is found.

Keywords: natural convection in enclosure, inclined enclosure, Nusselt number, entropy generation analyze

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
72 Effect of Corrugating Bottom Surface on Natural Convection in a Square Porous Enclosure

Authors: Khedidja Bouhadef, Imene Said Kouadri, Omar Rahli

Abstract:

In this paper numerical investigation is performed to analyze natural convection heat transfer characteristics within a wavy-wall enclosure filled with fluid-saturated porous medium. The bottom wall which has the wavy geometry is maintained at a constant high temperature, while the top wall is straight and is maintained at a constant lower temperature. The left and right walls of the enclosure are both straight and insulated. The governing differential equations are solved by Finite-volume approach and grid generation is used to transform the physical complex domain to a computational regular space. The aim is to examine flow field, temperature distribution and heat transfer evolutions inside the cavity when Darcy number, Rayleigh number and undulations number values are varied. The results mainly indicate that the heat transfer is rather affected by the permeability and Rayleigh number values since increasing these values enhance the Nusselt number; although the exchanges are not highly affected by the undulations number.

Keywords: grid generation, natural convection, porous medium, wavy wall enclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
71 Finite Difference Modelling of Temperature Distribution around Fire Generated Heat Source in an Enclosure

Authors: A. A. Dare, E. U. Iniegbedion

Abstract:

Industrial furnaces generally involve enclosures of fire typically initiated by the combustion of gases. The fire leads to temperature distribution inside the enclosure. A proper understanding of the temperature and velocity distribution within the enclosure is often required for optimal design and use of the furnace. This study was therefore directed at numerical modeling of temperature distribution inside an enclosure as typical in a furnace. A mathematical model was developed from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. The stream function-vorticity formulation of the governing equations was solved by an alternating direction implicit (ADI) finite difference technique. The finite difference formulation obtained were then developed into a computer code. This was used to determine the temperature, velocities, stream function and vorticity. The effect of the wall heat conduction was also considered, by assuming a one-dimensional heat flow through the wall. The computer code (MATLAB program) developed was used for the determination of the aforementioned variables. The results obtained showed that the transient temperature distribution assumed a uniform profile which becomes more chaotic with increasing time. The vertical velocity showed increasing turbulent behavior with time, while the horizontal velocity assumed decreasing laminar behavior with time. All of these behaviours were equally reported in the literature. The developed model has provided understanding of heat transfer process in an industrial furnace.

Keywords: heat source, modelling, enclosure, furnace

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
70 Experimental Measurements of Evacuated Enclosure Thermal Insulation Effectiveness for Vacuum Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collectors

Authors: Paul Henshall, Philip Eames, Roger Moss, Stan Shire, Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde

Abstract:

Encapsulating the absorber of a flat plate solar thermal collector in vacuum by an enclosure that can be evacuated can result in a significant increase in collector performance and achievable operating temperatures. This is a result of the thermal insulation effectiveness of the vacuum layer surrounding the absorber, as less heat is lost during collector operation. This work describes experimental thermal insulation characterization tests of prototype vacuum flat plate solar thermal collectors that demonstrate the improvement in absorber heat loss coefficients. Furthermore, this work describes the selection and sizing of a getter, suitable for maintaining the vacuum inside the enclosure for the lifetime of the collector, which can be activated at low temperatures.

Keywords: vacuum, thermal, flat-plate solar collector, insulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
69 Buoyant Gas Dispersion in a Small Fuel Cell Enclosure: A Comparison Study Using Plain and Pressed Louvre Vent Passive Ventilation Schemes

Authors: T. Ghatauray, J. Ingram, P. Holborn

Abstract:

The transition from a ‘carbon rich’ fossil fuel dependent to a ‘sustainable’ and ‘renewable’ hydrogen based society will see the deployment of hydrogen fuel cells (HFC) in transport applications and in the generation of heat and power for buildings, as part of a decentralised power network. Many deployments will be low power HFCs for domestic combined heat and power (CHP) and commercial ‘transportable’ HFCs for environmental situations, such as lighting and telephone towers. For broad commercialisation of small fuel cells to be achieved there needs to be significant confidence in their safety in both domestic and environmental applications. Low power HFCs are housed in protective steel enclosures. Standard enclosures have plain rectangular ventilation openings intended for thermal management of electronics and not the dispersion of a buoyant gas. Degradation of the HFC or supply pipework in use could lead to a low-level leak and a build-up of hydrogen gas in the enclosure. Hydrogen’s wide flammable range (4-75%) is a significant safety concern, with ineffective enclosure ventilation having the potential to cause flammable mixtures to develop with the risk of explosion. Mechanical ventilation is effective at managing enclosure hydrogen concentrations, but drains HFC power and is vulnerable to failure. This is undesirable in low power and remote installations and reliable passive ventilation systems are preferred. Passive ventilation depends upon buoyancy driven flow, with the size, shape and position of ventilation openings critical for producing predictable flows and maintaining low buoyant gas concentrations. With environmentally sited enclosures, ventilation openings with pressed horizontal and angled louvres are preferred to protect the HFC and electronics inside. There is an economic cost to adding louvres, but also a safety concern. A question arises over whether the use of pressed louvre vents impairs enclosure passive ventilation performance, when compared to same opening area plain vents. Comparison small enclosure (0.144m³) tests of same opening area pressed louvre and plain vents were undertaken. A displacement ventilation arrangement was incorporated into the enclosure with opposing upper and lower ventilation openings. A range of vent areas were tested. Helium (used as a safe analogue for hydrogen) was released from a 4mm nozzle at the base of the enclosure to simulate a hydrogen leak at leak rates from 1 to 10 lpm. Helium sensors were used to record concentrations at eight heights in the enclosure. The enclosure was otherwise empty. These tests determined that the use of pressed and angled louvre ventilation openings on the enclosure impaired the passive ventilation flow and increased helium concentrations in the enclosure. High-level stratified buoyant gas layers were also found to be deeper than with plain vent openings and were within the flammable range. The presence of gas within the flammable range is of concern, particularly as the addition of the fuel cell and electronics in the enclosure would further reduce the available volume and increase concentrations. The opening area of louvre vents would need to be greater than equivalent plain vents to achieve comparable ventilation flows or alternative schemes would need to be considered.

Keywords: enclosure, fuel cell, helium, hydrogen safety, louvre vent, passive ventilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
68 Numerical Simulation of Convective Flow of Nanofluids with an Oriented Magnetic Field in a Half Circular-Annulus

Authors: M. J. Uddin, M. M. Rahman

Abstract:

The unsteady convective heat transfer flow of nanofluids in a half circular-annulus shape enclosure using nonhomogeneous dynamic model has been investigated numerically. The round upper wall of the enclosure is maintained at constant low temperature whereas the bottom wall is heated by three different thermal conditions. The enclosure is permeated by a uniform magnetic field having variable orientation. The Brownian motion and thermophoretic phenomena of the nanoparticles are taken into account in model construction. The governing nonlinear momentum, energy, and concentration equations are solved numerically using Galerkin weighted residual finite element method. To discover the best performer, the average Nusselt number is demonstrated for different types of nanofluids. The heat transfer rate for different flow parameters, positions of the annulus, thicknesses of the half circular-annulus and thermal conditions is also exhibited.

Keywords: nanofluid, convection, semicircular-annulus, nonhomogeneous dynamic model, finite element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
67 Integration GIS–SCADA Power Systems to Enclosure Air Dispersion Model

Authors: Ibrahim Shaker, Amr El Hossany, Moustafa Osman, Mohamed El Raey

Abstract:

This paper will explore integration model between GIS–SCADA system and enclosure quantification model to approach the impact of failure-safe event. There are real demands to identify spatial objects and improve control system performance. Nevertheless, the employed methodology is predicting electro-mechanic operations and corresponding time to environmental incident variations. Open processing, as object systems technology, is presented for integration enclosure database with minimal memory size and computation time via connectivity drivers such as ODBC:JDBC during main stages of GIS–SCADA connection. The function of Geographic Information System is manipulating power distribution in contrast to developing issues. In other ward, GIS-SCADA systems integration will require numerical objects of process to enable system model calibration and estimation demands, determine of past events for analysis and prediction of emergency situations for response training.

Keywords: air dispersion model, environmental management, SCADA systems, GIS system, integration power system

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
66 On the Blocked-off Finite-Volume Radiation Solutions in a Two-Dimensional Enclosure

Authors: Gyo Woo Lee, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

The blocked-off formulations for the analysis of radiative heat transfer are formulated and examined in order to find the solutions in a two-dimensional complex enclosure. The final discretization equations using the step scheme for spatial differencing practice are proposed with the additional source term to incorporate the blocked-off procedure. After introducing the implementation for inactive region into the general discretization equation, three different problems are examined to find the performance of the solution methods.

Keywords: radiative heat transfer, Finite Volume Method (FVM), blocked-off solution procedure, body-fitted coordinate

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
65 Numerical Simulation of Rayleigh Benard Convection and Radiation Heat Transfer in Two-Dimensional Enclosure

Authors: Raoudha Chaabane, Faouzi Askri, Sassi Ben Nasrallah

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A new numerical algorithm is developed to solve coupled convection-radiation heat transfer in a two dimensional enclosure. Radiative heat transfer in participating medium has been carried out using the control volume finite element method (CVFEM). The radiative transfer equations (RTE) are formulated for absorbing, emitting and scattering medium. The density, velocity and temperature fields are calculated using the two double population lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE). In order to test the efficiency of the developed method the Rayleigh Benard convection with and without radiative heat transfer is analyzed. The obtained results are validated against available works in literature and the proposed method is found to be efficient, accurate and numerically stable.

Keywords: participating media, LBM, CVFEM- radiation coupled with convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
64 Numerical Investigation of Mixed Convection for Rarefied Gases in Square Enclosures

Authors: Wael Al-Kouz

Abstract:

Numerical simulations to study heat transfer and flow characteristics of mixed convection for rarefied gas in a square enclosure are utilized. Effect of the geometry in terms of the location of the inlet and exit openings are investigated. Moreover, effect of Knudsen number on the flow and heat transfer characteristics is illustrated and discussed. Results of the simulations show that there is a configuration that yields better heat transfer. This configuration is found to be the geometry in which the inlet opening is in the top left corner and the exit opening is at the bottom right corner. In addition, it is found that by increasing Knudsen number, Nusselt number will decrease.

Keywords: Knudsen number, mixed convection, rarefied gas, square enclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
63 Estimation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer from Plate-Fin Heat Sinks in a Closed Enclosure

Authors: Han-Taw Chen, Chung-Hou Lai, Tzu-Hsiang Lin, Ge-Jang He

Abstract:

This study applies the inverse method and three-dimensional CFD commercial software in conjunction with the experimental temperature data to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of the plate-fin heat sink in a closed rectangular enclosure for various values of fin height. The inverse method with the finite difference method and the experimental temperature data is applied to determine the heat transfer coefficient. The k-ε turbulence model is used to obtain the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics within the fins. To validate the accuracy of the results obtained, the comparison of the average heat transfer coefficient is made. The calculated temperature at selected measurement locations on the plate-fin is also compared with experimental data.

Keywords: inverse method, FLUENT, k-ε model, heat transfer characteristics, plate-fin heat sink

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
62 Effect of Nanoparticle Diameter of Nano-Fluid on Average Nusselt Number in the Chamber

Authors: A. Ghafouri, N. Pourmahmoud, I. Mirzaee

Abstract:

In this numerical study, effects of using Al2O3-water nanofluid on the rate of heat transfer have been investigated numerically. The physical model is a square enclosure with insulated top and bottom horizontal walls while the vertical walls are kept at different constant temperatures. Two appropriate models are used to evaluate the viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluid. The governing stream-vorticity equations are solved using a second order central finite difference scheme, coupled to the conservation of mass and energy. The study has been carried out for the nanoparticle diameter 30, 60, and 90 nm and the solid volume fraction 0 to 0.04. Results are presented by average Nusselt number and normalized Nusselt number in the different range of φ and D for mixed convection dominated regime. It is found that different heat transfer rate is predicted when the effect of nanoparticle diameter is taken into account.

Keywords: nanofluid, nanoparticle diameter, heat transfer enhancement, square enclosure, Nusselt number

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
61 Political Economy in Climate Change Adaptation Efforts: Exploring Enclosure, Exclusion, Encroachment, and Entrenchment from the Case of Bangladesh

Authors: Shafiqul Islam, Cordia Chu

Abstract:

Bangladesh contributes little to global climate change, yet it is one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change. Based on semi-structured in-depth interviews and literature review, focusing public spending distribution process, this paper demonstrates how the processes of political economy- enclosure, exclusion, encroachment, and entrenchment hinder the Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) efforts of Bangladesh Climate Change Trust Fund (BCCTF). Enclosure refers to when CCA projects allocated to less vulnerable areas or expand the roles of influencing actors into the public sphere. Exclusion refers to when CCA projects limit affected people's access to resources or marginalize particular stakeholders in decision-making activities. Encroachment refers to when allocation of CCA projects and selection of location and issues degrade the environmental affect or contribute to other forms of disaster risk. Entrenchment refers to when CCA projects aggravate the disempowerment of common people worsen the concentrations of wealth and income inequality within a community. In the case of Bangladesh, climate change policies implemented under the country’s National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA) and Bangladesh Climate Change Strategic Action Plan (BCCSAP) have somehow enabled influential-elites to mobilize and distribute resources through bureaucracies. Exclusionary forms of fund distribution of CCA exist at both the national and local scales. CCA related allocations have encroached through the low land areas development project without consulting local needs. Most severely, CCA related unequal allocations have entrenched social class trapping the backward communities vulnerable to climate related disasters. Planners and practitioners of BCCTF need to take necessary steps to eliminate the potential risks from the processes of enclosure, exclusion, encroachment, and entrenchment happens in project fund allocations.

Keywords: Bangladesh, climate change adaptation, political economy, public fund distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
60 Enhancement of Natural Convection Heat Transfer within Closed Enclosure Using Parallel Fins

Authors: F. A. Gdhaidh, K. Hussain, H. S. Qi

Abstract:

A numerical study of natural convection heat transfer in water filled cavity has been examined in 3D for single phase liquid cooling system by using an array of parallel plate fins mounted to one wall of a cavity. The heat generated by a heat source represents a computer CPU with dimensions of 37.5×37.5 mm mounted on substrate. A cold plate is used as a heat sink installed on the opposite vertical end of the enclosure. The air flow inside the computer case is created by an exhaust fan. A turbulent air flow is assumed and k-ε model is applied. The fins are installed on the substrate to enhance the heat transfer. The applied power energy range used is between 15- 40W. In order to determine the thermal behaviour of the cooling system, the effect of the heat input and the number of the parallel plate fins are investigated. The results illustrate that as the fin number increases the maximum heat source temperature decreases. However, when the fin number increases to critical value the temperature start to increase due to the fins are too closely spaced and that cause the obstruction of water flow. The introduction of parallel plate fins reduces the maximum heat source temperature by 10% compared to the case without fins. The cooling system maintains the maximum chip temperature at 64.68℃ when the heat input was at 40 W which is much lower than the recommended computer chips limit temperature of no more than 85℃ and hence the performance of the CPU is enhanced.

Keywords: chips limit temperature, closed enclosure, natural convection, parallel plate, single phase liquid

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
59 Large Eddy Simulation of Hydrogen Deflagration in Open Space and Vented Enclosure

Authors: T. Nozu, K. Hibi, T. Nishiie

Abstract:

This paper discusses the applicability of the numerical model for a damage prediction method of the accidental hydrogen explosion occurring in a hydrogen facility. The numerical model was based on an unstructured finite volume method (FVM) code “NuFD/FrontFlowRed”. For simulating unsteady turbulent combustion of leaked hydrogen gas, a combination of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and a combustion model were used. The combustion model was based on a two scalar flamelet approach, where a G-equation model and a conserved scalar model expressed a propagation of premixed flame surface and a diffusion combustion process, respectively. For validation of this numerical model, we have simulated the previous two types of hydrogen explosion tests. One is open-space explosion test, and the source was a prismatic 5.27 m3 volume with 30% of hydrogen-air mixture. A reinforced concrete wall was set 4 m away from the front surface of the source. The source was ignited at the bottom center by a spark. The other is vented enclosure explosion test, and the chamber was 4.6 m × 4.6 m × 3.0 m with a vent opening on one side. Vent area of 5.4 m2 was used. Test was performed with ignition at the center of the wall opposite the vent. Hydrogen-air mixtures with hydrogen concentrations close to 18% vol. were used in the tests. The results from the numerical simulations are compared with the previous experimental data for the accuracy of the numerical model, and we have verified that the simulated overpressures and flame time-of-arrival data were in good agreement with the results of the previous two explosion tests.

Keywords: deflagration, large eddy simulation, turbulent combustion, vented enclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
58 Study of Natural Convection Heat Transfer of Plate-Fin Heat Sink

Authors: Han-Taw Chen, Tzu-Hsiang Lin, Chung-Hou Lai

Abstract:

This study applies the inverse method and three-dimensional CFD commercial software in conjunction with the experimental temperature data to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of the plate-fin heat sink in a rectangular closed enclosure. The inverse method with the finite difference method and the experimental temperature data is applied to determine the approximate heat transfer coefficient. Later, based on the obtained results, the zero-equation turbulence model is used to obtain the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics between two fins. To validate the accuracy of the results obtained, the comparison of the heat transfer coefficient is made. The obtained temperature at selected measurement locations of the fin is also compared with experimental data. The effect of the height of the rectangular enclosure on the obtained results is discussed.

Keywords: inverse method, fluent, heat transfer characteristics, plate-fin heat sink

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
57 Thermal Comfort Characteristics in an Enclosure with a Radiant Ceiling Heating and Floor Air Heating System

Authors: Seung-Ho Yoo, Jong-Ryeul Sohn

Abstract:

An environmental friendly or efficient heating & cooling systems attract a great attention, due to the energy or environmental problems. Especially the heat balance of human body is about 50% influenced by radiation exchange in built environment. Therefore, a thermal comfort characteristics in a radiant built environment need to be accessed through the development of an efficient evaluation method. Almost of Korean housings use traditionally the radiant floor heating system. A radiant cooling system attracts also many attention nowadays in the viewpoint of energy conservation and comfort. Thermal comfort characteristics in an enclosure with a radiant heating and cooling system are investigated by experiment, thermal sensation vote analysis and mean radiant temperature simulation. Asymmetric radiation between radiant heating ceiling and air heating system in 9 points of room is compared with each other.

Keywords: radiant heating and cooling ceiling, asymmetric radiation, thermal comfort, thermal sensation vote

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
56 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Number of Waves on Heat Transfer in a Wavy Wall Enclosure

Authors: Ali Reza Tahavvor, Saeed Hosseini, Afshin Karimzadeh Fard

Abstract:

In this paper the effect of wall waviness of side walls in a two-dimensional wavy enclosure is numerically investigated. Two vertical wavy walls and straight top wall are kept isothermal and the bottom wall temperature is higher and spatially varying with cosinusoidal temperature distribution. A computational code based on Finite-volume approach is used to solve governing equations and SIMPLE method is used for pressure velocity coupling. Test is performed for several different numbers of undulations. The Prandtl number was kept constant and the Ra number denotes that the flow is laminar. Temperature and velocity fields are determined. Therefore, according to the obtained results a correlation is proposed for average Nusselt number as a function of number of side wall waves. The results indicate that the Nusselt number is highly affected by number of waves and increasing it decreases the wavy walls Nusselt number; although the Nusselt number is not highly affected by surface waviness when the number of undulations is below one.

Keywords: cavity, natural convection, Nusselt number, wavy wall

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
55 The Impact of the Variation of Sky View Factor on Landscape Degree of Enclosure of Urban Blue and Green Belt

Authors: Yi-Chun Huang, Kuan-Yun Chen, Chuang-Hung Lin

Abstract:

Urban Green Belt and Blue is a part of the city landscape, it is an important constituent element of the urban environment and appearance. The Hsinchu East Gate Moat is situated in the center of the city, which not only has a wealth of historical and cultural resources, but also combines the Green Belt and the Blue Belt qualities at the same time. The Moat runs more than a thousand meters through the vital Green Belt and the Blue Belt in downtown, and each section is presented in different qualities of moat from south to north. The water area and the green belt of surroundings are presented linear and banded spread. The water body and the rich diverse river banks form an urban green belt of rich layers. The watercourse with green belt design lets users have connections with blue belts in different ways; therefore, the integration of Hsinchu East Gate and moat have become one of the unique urban landscapes in Taiwan. The study is based on the fact-finding case of Hsinchu East Gate Moat where situated in northern Taiwan, to research the impact between the SVF variation of the city and spatial sequence of Urban Green Belt and Blue landscape and visual analysis by constituent cross-section, and then comparing the influence of different leaf area index – the variable ecological factors to the degree of enclosure. We proceed to survey the landscape design of open space, to measure existing structural features of the plant canopy which contain the height of plants and branches, the crown diameter, breast-height diameter through access to diagram of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and on-the-spot actual measurement. The north and south districts of blue green belt areas are divided 20 meters into a unit from East Gate Roundabout as the epicenter, and to set up a survey points to measure the SVF above the survey points; then we proceed to quantitative analysis from the data to calculate open landscape degree of enclosure. The results can be reference for the composition of future river landscape and the practical operation for dynamic space planning of blue and green belt landscape.

Keywords: sky view factor, degree of enclosure, spatial sequence, leaf area indices

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54 3D Numerical Modelling of a Pulsed Pumping Process of a Large Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Pool: In situ Pilot-Scale Case Study of Hexachlorobutadiene in a Keyed Enclosure

Authors: Q. Giraud, J. Gonçalvès, B. Paris

Abstract:

Remediation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) represents a challenging issue because of their persistent behaviour in the environment. This pilot-scale study investigates, by means of in situ experiments and numerical modelling, the feasibility of the pulsed pumping process of a large amount of a DNAPL in an alluvial aquifer. The main compound of the DNAPL is hexachlorobutadiene, an emerging organic pollutant. A low-permeability keyed enclosure was built at the location of the DNAPL source zone in order to isolate a finite undisturbed volume of soil, and a 3-month pulsed pumping process was applied inside the enclosure to exclusively extract the DNAPL. The water/DNAPL interface elevation at both the pumping and observation wells and the cumulated pumped volume of DNAPL were also recorded. A total volume of about 20m³ of purely DNAPL was recovered since no water was extracted during the process. The three-dimensional and multiphase flow simulator TMVOC was used, and a conceptual model was elaborated and generated with the pre/post-processing tool mView. Numerical model consisted of 10 layers of variable thickness and 5060 grid cells. Numerical simulations reproduce the pulsed pumping process and show an excellent match between simulated, and field data of DNAPL cumulated pumped volume and a reasonable agreement between modelled and observed data for the evolution of the water/DNAPL interface elevations at the two wells. This study offers a new perspective in remediation since DNAPL pumping system optimisation may be performed where a large amount of DNAPL is encountered.

Keywords: dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), hexachlorobutadiene, in situ pulsed pumping, multiphase flow, numerical modelling, porous media

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53 Conjugate Mixed Convection Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation of Cu-Water Nanofluid in an Enclosure with Thick Wavy Bottom Wall

Authors: Sanjib Kr Pal, S. Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

Mixed convection of Cu-water nanofluid in an enclosure with thick wavy bottom wall has been investigated numerically. A co-ordinate transformation method is used to transform the computational domain into an orthogonal co-ordinate system. The governing equations in the computational domain are solved through a pressure correction based iterative algorithm. The fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed for a wide range of Richardson number (0.1 ≤ Ri ≤ 5), nanoparticle volume concentration (0.0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.2), amplitude (0.0 ≤ α ≤ 0.1) of the wavy thick- bottom wall and the wave number (ω) at a fixed Reynolds number. Obtained results showed that heat transfer rate increases remarkably by adding the nanoparticles. Heat transfer rate is dependent on the wavy wall amplitude and wave number and decreases with increasing Richardson number for fixed amplitude and wave number. The Bejan number and the entropy generation are determined to analyze the thermodynamic optimization of the mixed convection.

Keywords: conjugate heat transfer, mixed convection, nano fluid, wall waviness

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52 Dietary Selectivity and Degree of Grazing in Atlas Deer (Cervus elaphus barbarus)

Authors: Brahim Ismaili, Abderrahmane Ouijja, Mohammed Diouri

Abstract:

Based on evidence of species depletion and palatability, previous studies of the diet of Atlas deer (Cervus elaphus barbarus) in semi-captivity in the Tazekka National Park (TNP) revealed that there is an imbalance between the natural resources of the environment and the number of deers, an imbalance translated by a degree of overgrazing of about 17.14%. In TNP enclosure, the specific issues related to deer are: (1) the suspicion of insufficient food resources that would cause an imbalance between these forage resources and the deer population and (2) the supposed spatial inadequacy of the enclosure (area = 534.79 ha) with the population size of this herbivore. The objectives of this study, conducted in the Bab Klati Reserve of TNP during fall 2016 and winter 2017, were: (i) the estimation of the abundance, in the environment, of the consumed species, to highlight its effect on deer food selectivity; (ii) the evaluation of the effect of the degree of grazing on the environment, to confirm or disprove the existence of an imbalance between natural resources and deer population and ofan inadequacy of the enclosure area; and (iii) the assessment of the necessity of a food supplement. The average relative abundance of species in the diet of Atlas deer (ri) was determined in 2014 - 2015 for the 4 seasons. During the fall 2016 and winter 2017, the average relative abundance of species in the environment (pi) was calculated for 21 plots. A logarithmic transformation were applied to the fall and winter mean ri and pi of each plant species. After testing the conditions of parametric tests, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to investigate the differences between these mean ri and/or pi within each season and between seasons. The Vanderploeg and Scavia selectivity index (Ei*) was used to assess the levels of species preference consumed by deer. In autumn, Cytisus triflorus lead deer food preferences (Ei* = 0.71), followed by Ulex boivinii (Ei* = 0.22), then Poaceae (Ei* = - 0.05) and finally Lavandula stoechas (Ei* = - 0.56). In winter, Lavandula stoechas and Cytisus triflorus were at the top level of the deer food preferences (Ei* = 0.45 and Ei* = 0.44 respectively); they were followed by Ulex boivinii (Ei* = 0.18), Poaceae (Ei* = 0.04) and finally Pteridium aquilinum (Ei* = - 0.44). The difference in food selectivity observed in deer is thought to be due to (i) the composition of each plant and of oak acorns, (ii) the specific food requirements of this herbivore during each season, and (iii) the food supplementation. The grazing rate in TNPwas positive (44%), indicating that the deer reserve can accommodate a maximum load of about 144 deer. In the reserve, the present deer stocking (estimated at 100 deer) would be in balance with both the natural resources and the enclosure area. The supplementation does not seem to be necessary.

Keywords: cervus elaphus barbarus, diet, food selectivity index (Ei*), grazing, stocking, tazekka national park

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51 Exploring Exposed Political Economy in Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts in Bangladesh

Authors: Shafiqul Islam, Cordia Chu

Abstract:

Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate related disasters such as flood and cyclone. Exploring from the semi-structured in-depth interviews of 38 stakeholders and literature review, this study examined the public spending distribution process in DRR. This paper demonstrates how the processes of political economy-enclosure, exclusion, encroachment, and entrenchment hinder the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) efforts of Department of Disaster Management (DDM) such as distribution of flood centres, cyclone centres and 40 days employment generation programs. Enclosure refers to when DRR projects allocated to less vulnerable areas or expand the roles of influencing actors into the public sphere. Exclusion refers to when DRR projects limit affected people’s access to resources or marginalize particular stakeholders in decision-making activities. Encroachment refers to when allocation of DRR projects and selection of location and issues degrade the environmental affect or contribute to other forms of disaster risk. Entrenchment refers to when DRR projects aggravate the disempowerment of common people worsen the concentrations of wealth and income inequality within a community. In line with United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Hyogo and Sendai Frameworks, in the case of Bangladesh, DRR policies implemented under the country’s national five-year plan, disaster-related acts and rules. These policies and practices have somehow enabled influential-elites to mobilize and distribute resources through bureaucracies. Exclusionary forms of fund distribution of DRR exist at both the national and local scales. DRR related allocations have encroached through the low land areas development project without consulting local needs. Most severely, DRR related unequal allocations have entrenched social class trapping the backward communities vulnerable to climate related disasters. Planners and practitioners of DRR need to take necessary steps to eliminate the potential risks from the processes of enclosure, exclusion, encroachment, and entrenchment happens in project fund allocations.

Keywords: Bangladesh, disaster risk reduction, fund distribution, political economy

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