Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 166

Search results for: phonological facilitation

166 Investigating the Influences of Long-Term, as Compared to Short-Term, Phonological Memory on the Word Recognition Abilities of Arabic Readers vs. Arabic Native Speakers: A Word-Recognition Study

Authors: Insiya Bhalloo

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It is quite common in the Muslim faith for non-Arabic speakers to be able to convert written Arabic, especially Quranic Arabic, into a phonological code without significant semantic or syntactic knowledge. This is due to prior experience learning to read the Quran (a religious text written in Classical Arabic), from a very young age such as via enrolment in Quranic Arabic classes. As compared to native speakers of Arabic, these Arabic readers do not have a comprehensive morpho-syntactic knowledge of the Arabic language, nor can understand, or engage in Arabic conversation. The study seeks to investigate whether mere phonological experience (as indicated by the Arabic readers’ experience with Arabic phonology and the sound-system) is sufficient to cause phonological-interference during word recognition of previously-heard words, despite the participants’ non-native status. Both native speakers of Arabic and non-native speakers of Arabic, i.e., those individuals that learned to read the Quran from a young age, will be recruited. Each experimental session will include two phases: An exposure phase and a test phase. During the exposure phase, participants will be presented with Arabic words (n=40) on a computer screen. Half of these words will be common words found in the Quran while the other half will be words commonly found in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) but either non-existent or prevalent at a significantly lower frequency within the Quran. During the test phase, participants will then be presented with both familiar (n = 20; i.e., those words presented during the exposure phase) and novel Arabic words (n = 20; i.e., words not presented during the exposure phase. ½ of these presented words will be common Quranic Arabic words and the other ½ will be common MSA words but not Quranic words. Moreover, ½ the Quranic Arabic and MSA words presented will be comprised of nouns, while ½ the Quranic Arabic and MSA will be comprised of verbs, thereby eliminating word-processing issues affected by lexical category. Participants will then determine if they had seen that word during the exposure phase. This study seeks to investigate whether long-term phonological memory, such as via childhood exposure to Quranic Arabic orthography, has a differential effect on the word-recognition capacities of native Arabic speakers and Arabic readers; we seek to compare the effects of long-term phonological memory in comparison to short-term phonological exposure (as indicated by the presentation of familiar words from the exposure phase). The researcher’s hypothesis is that, despite the lack of lexical knowledge, early experience with converting written Quranic Arabic text into a phonological code will help participants recall the familiar Quranic words that appeared during the exposure phase more accurately than those that were not presented during the exposure phase. Moreover, it is anticipated that the non-native Arabic readers will also report more false alarms to the unfamiliar Quranic words, due to early childhood phonological exposure to Quranic Arabic script - thereby causing false phonological facilitatory effects.

Keywords: modern standard arabic, phonological facilitation, phonological memory, Quranic arabic, word recognition

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165 Comparing Phonological Processes in Persian-Arabic Bilingual Children and Monolingual Children

Authors: Vafa Delphi, Maryam Delphi, Talieh Zarifian, Enayatolah Bakhshi

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Background and Aim: Bilingualism is a common phenomenon in many countries of the world and May be consistent consonant errors in the speech of bilingual children. The aim of this study was to evaluate Phonological skills include occurrence proportion, frequency and type of phonological processes in Persian-Arabic speaking children in Ahvaz city, the center of Khuzestan. Method: This study is descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional. Twenty-eight children aged 36-48 months were divided into two groups Persian monolingual and Persian-Arabic bilingual: (14 participants in each group). Sampling was recruited randomly based on inclusion criteria from kindergartens of the Ahvaz city in Iran. The tool of this study was the Persian Phonological Test (PPT), a subtest of Persian Diagnostic Evaluation Articulation and Phonological test. In this test, Phonological processes were investigated in two groups: structure and substitution processes. Data was investigated using SPSS software and the U Mann-Whitney test. Results: The results showed that the proportion occurrence of substitution process was significantly different between two groups of monolingual and bilingual (P=0/001), But the type of phonological processes didn’t show a significant difference in both monolingual and bilingual children of the Persian-Arabic.The frequency of phonological processes is greater in bilingual children than monolingual children. Conclusion: The study showed that bilingualism has no effect on type of phonological processes, but this can be effective on the frequency of processes. Since the type of phonological processes in bilingual children is similar to monolingual children So we can conclude the Persian_arabic bilingual children's phonological system is similar to monolingual children.

Keywords: Persian-Arabic bilingual child, phonological processes, the proportion occurrence of syllable structure, the proportion occurrence of substitution

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164 Informality, Trade Facilitation, and Trade: Evidence from Guinea-Bissau

Authors: Julio Vicente Cateia

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This paper aims to assess the role of informality and trade facilitation on the export probability of Guinea-Bissau. We include informality in the Féchet function, which gives the expression for the country's supply probability. We find that Guinea-Bissau is about 7.2% less likely to export due to the 1% increase in informality. The export's probability increases by about 1.7%, 4%, and 1.1% due to a 1% increase in trade facilitation, R&D stock, and year of education. These results are significant at the usual levels. We suggest a development agenda aimed at reducing the level of informality in this country.

Keywords: development, trade, informality, trade facilitation, economy of Guinea-Bissau

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163 Investigating the Pronunciation of '-S' and '-Ed' Suffixes in Yemeni English

Authors: Saif Bareq, Vivek Mirgane

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The present paper seeks to explicate the pronunciation of the ‘-s’ and ‘-ed’ suffixes when applied in their relative places in word endings. It attempts to investigate the problems faced by Yemenis in the pronunciation of these suffixes in all occurrences and realizations. It discusses the realization of ‘s’ in the four areas of plural, 3rd person singular and genitive markers, and contraction of ‘has’ and ‘is’ as in he’s, it’s ..,etc. and shows how they are differently represented by three different sounds /s/, /z/ and /z/ based on the phonological structure of the words in which they occur. Similarly, it explains the realization of the ‘-ed’ suffix of the past and past participle marker and how it is realized differently by three sounds governed by the phonological structure of these words. Besides, it tries to shed some light on the English morphophonemic and phonological rules that govern the pronunciation of such troublesome endings. It is hypothesized that the absence of such phenomenon in the mother tongue pronunciation of these suffixes.

Keywords: Suffixes' Pronunciation, Phonological Structure, Phonological Rules, Morpho-Phonemics, Yemeni English

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162 The Facilitatory Effect of Phonological Priming on Visual Word Recognition in Arabic as a Function of Lexicality and Overlap Positions

Authors: Ali Al Moussaoui

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An experiment was designed to assess the performance of 24 Lebanese adults (mean age 29:5 years) in a lexical decision making (LDM) task to find out how the facilitatory effect of phonological priming (PP) affects the speed of visual word recognition in Arabic as lexicality (wordhood) and phonological overlap positions (POP) vary. The experiment falls in line with previous research on phonological priming in the light of the cohort theory and in relation to visual word recognition. The experiment also departs from the research on the Arabic language in which the importance of the consonantal root as a distinct morphological unit is confirmed. Based on previous research, it is hypothesized that (1) PP has a facilitating effect in LDM with words but not with nonwords and (2) final phonological overlap between the prime and the target is more facilitatory than initial overlap. An LDM task was programmed on PsychoPy application. Participants had to decide if a target (e.g., bayn ‘between’) preceded by a prime (e.g., bayt ‘house’) is a word or not. There were 4 conditions: no PP (NP), nonwords priming nonwords (NN), nonwords priming words (NW), and words priming words (WW). The conditions were simultaneously controlled for word length, wordhood, and POP. The interstimulus interval was 700 ms. Within the PP conditions, POP was controlled for in which there were 3 overlap positions between the primes and the targets: initial (e.g., asad ‘lion’ and asaf ‘sorrow’), final (e.g., kattab ‘cause to write’ 2sg-mas and rattab ‘organize’ 2sg-mas), or two-segmented (e.g., namle ‘ant’ and naħle ‘bee’). There were 96 trials, 24 in each condition, using a within-subject design. The results show that concerning (1), the highest average reaction time (RT) is that in NN, followed firstly by NW and finally by WW. There is statistical significance only between the pairs NN-NW and NN-WW. Regarding (2), the shortest RT is that in the two-segmented overlap condition, followed by the final POP in the first place and the initial POP in the last place. The difference between the two-segmented and the initial overlap is significant, while other pairwise comparisons are not. Based on these results, PP emerges as a facilitatory phenomenon that is highly sensitive to lexicality and POP. While PP can have a facilitating effect under lexicality, it shows no facilitation in its absence, which intersects with several previous findings. Participants are found to be more sensitive to the final phonological overlap than the initial overlap, which also coincides with a body of earlier literature. The results contradict the cohort theory’s stress on the onset overlap position and, instead, give more weight to final overlap, and even heavier weight to the two-segmented one. In conclusion, this study confirms the facilitating effect of PP with words but not when stimuli (at least the primes and at most both the primes and targets) are nonwords. It also shows that the two-segmented priming is the most influential in LDM in Arabic.

Keywords: lexicality, phonological overlap positions, phonological priming, visual word recognition

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161 A Prevalence of Phonological Disorder in Children with Specific Language Impairment

Authors: Etim, Victoria Enefiok, Dada, Oluseyi Akintunde, Bassey Okon

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Phonological disorder is a serious and disturbing issue to many parents and teachers. Efforts towards resolving the problem have been undermined by other specific disabilities which were hidden to many regular and special education teachers. It is against this background that this study was motivated to provide data on the prevalence of phonological disorders in children with specific language impairment (CWSLI) as the first step towards critical intervention. The study was a survey of 15 CWSLI from St. Louise Inclusive schools, Ikot Ekpene in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Phonological Processes Diagnostic Scale (PPDS) with 17 short sentences, which cut across the five phonological processes that were examined, were validated by experts in test measurement, phonology and special education. The respondents were made to read the sentences with emphasis on the targeted sounds. Their utterances were recorded and analyzed in the language laboratory using Praat Software. Data were also collected through friendly interactions at different times from the clients. The theory of generative phonology was adopted for the descriptive analysis of the phonological processes. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage and composite bar chart for better understanding of the result. The study found out that CWSLI exhibited the five phonological processes under investigation. It was revealed that 66.7%, 80%, 73.3%, 80%, and 86.7% of the respondents have severe deficit in fricative stopping, velar fronting, liquid gliding, final consonant deletion and cluster reduction, respectively. It was therefore recommended that a nationwide survey should be carried out to have national statistics of CWSLI with phonological deficits and develop intervention strategies for effective therapy to remediate the disorder.

Keywords: language disorders, phonology, phonological processes, specific language impairment

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160 Signed Language Phonological Awareness: Building Deaf Children's Vocabulary in Signed and Written Language

Authors: Lynn Mcquarrie, Charlotte Enns

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The goal of this project was to develop a visually-based, signed language phonological awareness training program and to pilot the intervention with signing deaf children (ages 6 -10 years/ grades 1 - 4) who were beginning readers to assess the effects of systematic explicit American Sign Language (ASL) phonological instruction on both ASL vocabulary and English print vocabulary learning. Growing evidence that signing learners utilize visually-based signed language phonological knowledge (homologous to the sound-based phonological level of spoken language processing) when reading underscore the critical need for further research on the innovation of reading instructional practices for visual language learners. Multiple single-case studies using a multiple probe design across content (i.e., sign and print targets incorporating specific ASL phonological parameters – handshapes) was implemented to examine if a functional relationship existed between instruction and acquisition of these skills. The results indicated that for all cases, representing a variety of language abilities, the visually-based phonological teaching approach was exceptionally powerful in helping children to build their sign and print vocabularies. Although intervention/teaching studies have been essential in testing hypotheses about spoken language phonological processes supporting non-deaf children’s reading development, there are no parallel intervention/teaching studies exploring hypotheses about signed language phonological processes in supporting deaf children’s reading development. This study begins to provide the needed evidence to pursue innovative teaching strategies that incorporate the strengths of visual learners.

Keywords: American sign language phonological awareness, dual language strategies, vocabulary learning, word reading

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159 Phonological Processing and Its Role in Pseudo-Word Decoding in Children Learning to Read Kannada Language between 5.6 to 8.6 Years

Authors: Vangmayee. V. Subban, Somashekara H. S, Shwetha Prabhu, Jayashree S. Bhat

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Introduction and Need: Phonological processing is critical in learning to read alphabetical and non-alphabetical languages. However, its role in learning to read Kannada an alphasyllabary is equivocal. The literature has focused on the developmental role of phonological awareness on reading. To the best of authors knowledge, the role of phonological memory and phonological naming has not been addressed in alphasyllabary Kannada language. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the comprehensive role of the phonological processing skills in Kannada on word decoding skills during the early years of schooling. Aim and Objectives: The present study aimed to explore the phonological processing abilities and their role in learning to decode pseudowords in children learning to read the Kannada language during initial years of formal schooling between 5.6 to 8.6 years. Method: In this cross sectional study, 60 typically developing Kannada speaking children, 20 each from Grade I, Grade II, and Grade III between the age range of 5.6 to 6.6 years, 6.7 to 7.6 years and 7.7 to 8.6 years respectively were selected from Kannada medium schools. Phonological processing abilities were assessed using an assessment tool specifically developed to address the objectives of the present research. The assessment tool was content validated by subject experts and had good inter and intra-subject reliability. Phonological awareness was assessed at syllable level using syllable segmentation, blending, and syllable stripping at initial, medial and final position. Phonological memory was assessed using pseudoword repetition task and phonological naming was assessed using rapid automatized naming of objects. Both phonological awareneness and phonological memory measures were scored for the accuracy of the response, whereas Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) was scored for total naming speed. Results: The mean scores comparison using one-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the groups on all the measures of phonological awareness, pseudoword repetition, rapid automatized naming, and pseudoword reading. Subsequent post-hoc grade wise comparison using Bonferroni test revealed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between each of the grades for all the tasks except (p ≥ 0.05) for syllable blending, syllable stripping, and pseudoword repetition between Grade II and Grade III. The Pearson correlations revealed a highly significant positive correlation (p=0.000) between all the variables except phonological naming which had significant negative correlations. However, the correlation co-efficient was higher for phonological awareness measures compared to others. Hence, phonological awareness was chosen a first independent variable to enter in the hierarchical regression equation followed by rapid automatized naming and finally, pseudoword repetition. The regression analysis revealed syllable awareness as a single most significant predictor of pseudoword reading by explaining the unique variance of 74% and there was no significant change in R² when RAN and pseudoword repetition were added subsequently to the regression equation. Conclusion: Present study concluded that syllable awareness matures completely by Grade II, whereas the phonological memory and phonological naming continue to develop beyond Grade III. Amongst phonological processing skills, phonological awareness, especially syllable awareness is crucial for word decoding than phonological memory and naming during initial years of schooling.

Keywords: phonological awareness, phonological memory, phonological naming, phonological processing, pseudo-word decoding

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158 Symo-syl: A Meta-Phonological Intervention to Support Italian Pre-Schoolers’ Emergent Literacy Skills

Authors: Tamara Bastianello, Rachele Ferrari, Marinella Majorano

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The adoption of the syllabic approach in preschool programmes could support and reinforce meta-phonological awareness and literacy skills in children. The introduction of a meta-phonological intervention in preschool could facilitate the transition to primary school, especially for children with learning fragilities. In the present contribution, we want to investigate the efficacy of "Simo-syl" intervention in enhancing emergent literacy skills in children (especially for reading). Simo-syl is a 12 weeks multimedia programme developed for children to improve their language and communication skills and later literacy development in preschool. During the intervention, Simo-syl, an invented character, leads children in a series of meta-phonological games. Forty-six Italian preschool children (i.e., the Simo-syl group) participated in the programme; seventeen preschool children (i.e., the control group) did not participate in the intervention. Children in the two groups were between 4;10 and 5;9 years. They were assessed on their vocabulary, morpho-syntactical, meta-phonological, phonological, and phono-articulatory skills twice: 1) at the beginning of the last year of the preschool through standardised paper-based assessment tools and 2) one week after the intervention. All children in the Simo-syl group took part in the meta-phonological programme based on the syllabic approach. The intervention lasted 12 weeks (three activities per week; week 1: activities focused on syllable blending and spelling and a first approach to the written code; weeks 2-11: activities focused on syllables recognition; week 12: activities focused on vowels recognition). Very few children (Simo-syl group = 21, control group = 9) were tested again (post-test) one week after the intervention. Before starting the intervention programme, the Simo-syl and the control groups had similar meta-phonological, phonological, lexical skills (all ps > .05). One week after the intervention, a significant difference emerged between the two groups in their meta-phonological skills (syllable blending, p = .029; syllable spelling, p = .032), in their vowel recognition ability (p = .032) and their word reading skills (p = .05). An ANOVA confirmed the effect of the group membership on the developmental growth for the word reading task (F (1,28) = 6.83, p = .014, ηp2 = .196). Taking part in the Simo-syl intervention has a positive effect on the ability to read in preschool children.

Keywords: intervention programme, literacy skills, meta-phonological skills, syllabic approach

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157 The Effects of Kinesio Tape® and No Tape for Muscle Facilitation and Inhibition, for Collegiate Athletes with Self-Reported Shoulder Pain

Authors: Gregory Chown, Benjamin Infantolino, Christopher Wise, Rachel Holmes, Samantha O'Donnell, Katelyn Pfeiffer, Victoria Ward

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Background: There is a lack of understanding of how Kinesio Tape® physiologically works. Furthermore, few studies compare Kinesio Tape® to other forms of taping. The research question is: Does Kinesio Tape® cause a difference in muscle facilitation, inhibition, and pain, between Kinesio Tape® and no tape for collegiate athletes with self-reported shoulder pain? Method: This quantitative non-randomized design used a convenience sampling method. There were eleven participants with self-reported shoulder pain who were athletes on the men’s and women’s lacrosse and tennis teams. Participants attended one 30-45 minute session for data collection. Each participant received all three taping conditions and performed four repetitions of 120 degrees of active shoulder flexion for the three separate trials (no tape, Kinesio Tape® inhibition, and Kinesio Tape® facilitation). Surface electromyography (sEMG) electrodes were placed on the anterior deltoid, supraspinatus, and lower trapezius to measure muscle facilitation and inhibition. Each participant completed the visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after each trial to measure pain. Results: No statistical significance was found for pain scores on the VAS between the taping methods of facilitation, inhibition, and no tape (p = .118). No statistical significance was found for the percentage of change in muscle function for each taping method; Anterior deltoid (p = .993), supraspinatus (p = .997) and lower trapezius (p = .922). Conclusion: Based on the results, Kinesio Tape® appears to not have an effect on muscle function or pain when utilizing the facilitation or inhibition taping method when compared to no tape.

Keywords: Kinesio tape, muscle facilitation, muscle inhibition, pain

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156 Effect of Phonological Complexity in Children with Specific Language Impairment

Authors: Irfana M., Priyandi Kabasi

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Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty acquiring and using language despite having all the requirements of cognitive skills to support language acquisition. These children have normal non-verbal intelligence, hearing, and oral-motor skills, with no history of social/emotional problems or significant neurological impairment. Nevertheless, their language acquisition lags behind their peers. Phonological complexity can be considered to be the major factor that causes the inaccurate production of speech in this population. However, the implementation of various ranges of complex phonological stimuli in the treatment session of SLI should be followed for a better prognosis of speech accuracy. Hence there is a need to study the levels of phonological complexity. The present study consisted of 7 individuals who were diagnosed with SLI and 10 developmentally normal children. All of them were Hindi speakers with both genders and their age ranged from 4 to 5 years. There were 4 sets of stimuli; among them were minimal contrast vs maximal contrast nonwords, minimal coarticulation vs maximal coarticulation nonwords, minimal contrast vs maximal contrast words and minimal coarticulation vs maximal coarticulation words. Each set contained 10 stimuli and participants were asked to repeat each stimulus. Results showed that production of maximal contrast was significantly accurate, followed by minimal coarticulation, minimal contrast and maximal coarticulation. A similar trend was shown for both word and non-word categories of stimuli. The phonological complexity effect was evident in the study for each participant group. Moreover, present study findings can be implemented for the management of SLI, specifically for the selection of stimuli.

Keywords: coarticulation, minimal contrast, phonological complexity, specific language impairment

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155 Descriptive Analysis of Variations in Maguindanaon Language

Authors: Fhajema Kunso

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People who live in the same region and who seemed to speak the same language still vary in some aspects of their language. The variation may occur in terms of pronunciation, lexicon, morphology, and syntax. This qualitative study described the phonological, morphological, and lexical variations of the Maguindanaon language among the ten Maguindanao municipalities. Purposive sampling, in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and sorting and classifying of words according to phonological and morphological as well as lexical structures in data analysis were employed. The variations occurred through phonemic changes and other phonological processes and morphological processes. Phonological processes consisted of vowel lengthening and deletion while morphological processes included affixation, borrowing, and coinage. In the phonological variation, it was observed that there were phonemic changes in one dialect to another. For example, there was a change of phoneme /r/ to /l/. The phoneme /r/ was most likely to occur in Kabuntalan like /biru/, /kurIt/, and /kɘmɅr/ whereas in the rest of the dialects these were /bilu/, /kuIɪt/, and /kɘmɅl/ respectively. Morphologically, the affixation was the main way to know the tenses. For example, the root sarig (expect) when inserted with im becomes simarig, i.e. s + im + arig = simarig (expected). Lexical variation also existed in the Maguindanaon language. Results revealed that the variation in phonology, morphology, and lexicon were observed to be associated primarily on geographic distribution.

Keywords: applied linguistics, language, lexicon, Maguindanao, morphology, Philippines, phonology, processes, qualitative, variation

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154 Effect of Manual Progressive Ischemic Pressure versus Post Isometric Facilitation in the Treatment of Latent Myofascial Trigger Points in Mechanical Neck Pain

Authors: Mohamed M. Diab, Fahmy E. Mohamed, Alaa Balbaa

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Background: Myofascial pain syndrome a common type of non-articular musculoskeletal pain, is a condition associated with regional pain and muscle tenderness characterized by the presence of hypersensitive nodules. Objectives: the purpose of this study is to compare between the effects of manual progressive ischemic pressure versus the effect of post isometric facilitation in the treatment of Rhomboid latent myofascial trigger points. Methods: six patients had participated in this study. Patients divided into two groups. Group A treated by manual progressive ischemic pressure and traditional physical therapy program. Group B treated by post isometric facilitation and traditional physical therapy program. Treatment program was for 6 sessions over two week’s period. Result: Statistical analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in post treatment from pretreatment in pain severity (VAS) in myofascial trigger points with Rhomboid muscles) and Pain pressure threshold (PPT) for tenderness at both groups (A,B). Conclusion: ischemic pressure technique appear to be no more effective than post isometric facilitation in treatment of rhomboids latent myofacial trigger point.

Keywords: Rhmoiboid trigger point, myofacila trigger point, ischemic pressure, post isometric facilitation

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153 The Singapore Innovation Web and Facilitation of Knowledge Processes

Authors: Ola Jon Mork, Irina Emily Hansen

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The European Growth Strategy Program calls for more efficient methods for knowledge creation and innovation. This study contributes with new insights into the Singapore Innovation System; more precisely how knowledge processes are facilitated. The research material is collected by visiting the different innovation locations in Singapore and depth interview with key persons. The different innovation actors web sites and brochures have been studied. Governmental reports and figures have also been studied. The findings show that facilitation of Knowledge Processes in the Singapore Innovation System has a basic structure with three processes, which is 1) Idea capturing – 2)Technology and Business Execution – 3)Idea Realization. Dedicated innovation parks work with the most promising entrepreneurs; more precisely: finding the persons with the motivation to 'change the world'. The innovation park will facilitate these entrepreneurs for 100 days, where they also will be connected to a global network of venture capital. And, the entrepreneurs will have access to mentors from these venture companies. Research institutes parks work with the development of world leading technology. To facilitate knowledge development they connect with industrial companies which are the most promising applicators of their technology. Knowledge facilitation is the main purpose, but this cooperation/testing is also serving as a platform for funding. Probably this is cooperation is also attractive for world leading companies. Dedicated innovation parks work with facilitation of innovators of new applications and perfection of products for the end- user. These parks can be specialized in special areas, like health products and life science products. Another example of this is automotive companies giving research call for these parks to develop and innovate new products and services upon their technology. Common characteristics for the knowledge facilitation in the Singapore Innovation System are a short trial period for promising actors, normally 100 days. It is also a strong focus on training of the entrepreneurs. Presentations and diffusion of knowledge is an important part of the facilitation. Funding will be available for the most successful entrepreneurs and innovators.

Keywords: knowledge processes, facilitation, innovation, Singapore innovation web

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152 English Loanwords in the Egyptian Variety of Arabic: Morphological and Phonological Changes

Authors: Mohamed Yacoub

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This paper investigates the English loanwords in the Egyptian variety of Arabic and reaches three findings. Data, in the first finding, were collected from Egyptian movies and soap operas; over two hundred words have been borrowed from English, code-switching was not included. These words then have been put into eleven different categories according to their use and part of speech. Finding two addresses the morphological and phonological change that occurred to these words. Regarding the phonological change, eight categories were found in both consonant and vowel variation, five for consonants and three for vowels. Examples were given for each. Regarding the morphological change, five categories were found including the masculine, feminine, dual, broken, and non-pluralize-able nouns. The last finding is the answers to a four-question survey that addresses forty eight native speakers of Egyptian Arabic and found that most participants did not recognize English borrowed words and thought they were originally Arabic and could not give Arabic equivalents for the loanwords that they could recognize.

Keywords: sociolinguistics, loanwords, borrowing, morphology, phonology, variation, Egyptian dialect

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151 Phonological Variation in the Speech of Grade 1 Teachers in Select Public Elementary Schools in the Philippines

Authors: M. Leonora D. Guerrero

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The study attempted to uncover the most and least frequent phonological variation evident in the speech patterns of grade 1 teachers in select public elementary schools in the Philippines. It also determined the lectal description of the participants based on Tayao’s consonant charts for American and Philippine English. Descriptive method was utilized. A total of 24 grade 1 teachers participated in the study. The instrument used was word list. Each column in the word list is represented by words with the target consonant phonemes: labiodental fricatives f/ and /v/ and lingua-alveolar fricative /z/. These phonemes were in the initial, medial, and final positions, respectively. Findings of the study revealed that the most frequent variation happened when the participants read words with /z/ in the final position while the least frequent variation happened when the participants read words with /z/ in the initial position. The study likewise proved that the grade 1 teachers exhibited the segmental features of both the mesolect and basilect. Based on these results, it is suggested that teachers of English in the Philippines must aspire to manifest the features of the mesolect, if not, the acrolect since it is expected of the academicians not to be displaying the phonological features of the acrolects since this variety is only used by the 'uneducated.' This is especially so with grade 1 teachers who are often mimicked by their students who classify their speech as the 'standard.'

Keywords: consonant phonemes, lectal description, Philippine English, phonological variation

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150 Phonological Characteristics of Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired Children

Authors: Akbar Darouie, Mamak Joulaie

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In regard of phonological skills development importance and its influence on other aspects of language, this study has been performed. Determination of some phonological indexes in children with hearing impairment and comparison with hearing children was the objective. A sample of convenience was selected from a rehabilitation center and a kindergarten in Karaj, Iran. Participants consisted of 12 hearing impaired and 12 hearing children (age range: 5 years and 6 months to 6 years and 6 months old). Hearing impaired children suffered from severe to profound hearing loss while three of them were cochlear implanted and the others were wearing hearing aids. Conversational speech of these children was recorded and 50 first utterances were selected to analyze. Percentage of consonant correct (PCC) and vowel correct (PVC), initial and final consonant omission error, cluster consonant omission error and syllabic structure variety were compared in two groups. Data were analyzed with t test (version 16th SPSS). Comparison between PCC and PVC averages in two groups showed a significant difference (P< 0/01). There was a significant difference about final consonant emission error (P<0/001) and initial consonant emission error (P<0/01) too. Also, the differences between two groups on cluster consonant omission were significant (P<0/001). Therefore, some changes were seen in syllabic structures in children with hearing impairment compared to typical group. This study demonstrates some phonological differences in Farsi language between two groups of children. Therefore, it seems, in clinical practices we must notice this issue.

Keywords: hearing impairment, phonology, vowel, consonant

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149 The Role of Ideophones: Phonological and Morphological Characteristics in Literature

Authors: Cristina Bahón Arnaiz

Abstract:

Many Asian languages, such as Korean and Japanese, are well-known for their wide use of sound symbolic words or ideophones. This is a very particular characteristic which enriches its lexicon hugely. Ideophones are a class of sound symbolic words that utilize sound symbolism to express aspects, states, emotions, or conditions that can be experienced through the senses, such as shape, color, smell, action or movement. Ideophones have very particular characteristics in terms of sound symbolism and morphology, which distinguish them from other words. The phonological characteristics of ideophones are vowel ablaut or vowel gradation and consonant mutation. In the case of Korean, there are light vowels and dark vowels. Depending on the type of vowel that is used, the meaning will slightly change. Consonant mutation, also known as consonant ablaut, contributes to the level of intensity, emphasis, and volume of an expression. In addition to these phonological characteristics, there is one main morphological singularity, which is reduplication and it carries the meaning of continuity, repetition, intensity, emphasis, and plurality. All these characteristics play an important role in both linguistics and literature as they enhance the meaning of what is trying to be expressed with incredible semantic detail, expressiveness, and rhythm. The following study will analyze the ideophones used in a single paragraph of a Korean novel, which add incredible yet subtle detail to the meaning of the words, and advance the expressiveness and rhythm of the text. The results from analyzing one paragraph from a novel, after presenting the phonological and morphological characteristics of Korean ideophones, will evidence the important role that ideophones play in literature. 

Keywords: ideophones, mimetic words, phonomimes, phenomimes, psychomimes, sound symbolism

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148 Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Exercises of Upper Extremities Assessment Using Microsoft Kinect Sensor and Color Marker in a Virtual Reality Environment

Authors: M. Owlia, M. H. Azarsa, M. Khabbazan, A. Mirbagheri

Abstract:

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises are a series of stretching techniques that are commonly used in rehabilitation and exercise therapy. Assessment of these exercises for true maneuvering requires extensive experience in this field and could not be down with patients themselves. In this paper, we developed software that uses Microsoft Kinect sensor, a spherical color marker, and real-time image processing methods to evaluate patient’s performance in generating true patterns of movements. The software also provides the patient with a visual feedback by showing his/her avatar in a Virtual Reality environment along with the correct path of moving hand, wrist and marker. Primary results during PNF exercise therapy of a patient in a room environment shows the ability of the system to identify any deviation of maneuvering path and direction of the hand from the one that has been performed by an expert physician.

Keywords: image processing, Microsoft Kinect, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, upper extremities assessment, virtual reality

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147 A Peer-Produced Community of Learning: The Case of Second-Year Algerian Masters Students at a Distance

Authors: Nihad Alem

Abstract:

Nowadays, distance learning (DL) is widely perceived as a reformed type of education that takes advantage of technology to give more appealing opportunities especially for learners whose life conditions impede their attendance to regular classrooms however, creating interactional environment for students to expand their learning community and alleviate the feeling of loneliness and isolation should receive more attention when designing a distance learning course. This research aims to explore whether the audio/video peer learning can offer pedagogical add-ons to the Algerian distance learners and what are the pros and cons of its application as an educational experience in a synchronous environment mediated by Skype. Data were collected using video recordings of six sessions, reflective logs, and in-depth semi-structured interviews and will be analyzed by qualitatively identifying and measuring the three constitutional elements of the educational experience of peer learning namely the social presence, the cognitive presence, and the facilitation presence using a modified community of inquiry coding template. The findings from this study will provide recommendations for effective peer learning educational experience using the facilitation presence concept.

Keywords: audio/visual peer learning, community of inquiry, distance learning, facilitation presence

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146 The Influence of Concreteness on English Compound Noun Processing: Modulation of Constituent Transparency

Authors: Turgut Coskun

Abstract:

'Concreteness effect' refers to faster processing of concrete words and 'compound facilitation' refers to faster response to compounds. In this study, our main goal was to investigate the interaction between compound facilitation and concreteness effect. The latter might modulate compound processing basing on constituents’ transparency patterns. To evaluate these, we created lists for compound and monomorphemic words, sub-categorized them into concrete and abstract words, and further sub-categorized them basing on their transparency. The transparency conditions were opaque-opaque (OO), transparent-opaque (TO), and transparent-transparent (TT). We used RT data from English Lexicon Project (ELP) for our comparisons. The results showed the importance of concreteness factor (facilitation) in both compound and monomorphemic processing. Important for our present concern, separate concrete and abstract compound analyses revealed different patterns for OO, TO, and TT compounds. Concrete TT and TO conditions were processed faster than Concrete OO, Abstract OO and Abstract TT compounds, however, they weren’t processed faster than Abstract TO compounds. These results may reflect on different representation patterns of concrete and abstract compounds.

Keywords: abstract word, compound representation, concrete word, constituent transparency, processing speed

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145 Consonant Harmony and the Challenges of Articulation and Perception

Authors: Froogh Shooshtaryzadeh, Pramod Pandey

Abstract:

The present study investigates place and manner harmony in typically developing (TD) children and children with phonological disorder (PD) who are acquiring Farsi as their first language. Five TD and five PD children are examined regarding their place and manner harmony patterns. Data is collected through a Picture-Naming Task using 132 pictures of different items designed to elicit the production of 132 different words. The examination of the data has indicated some similarities and differences in harmony patterns in PD and TD children. Moreover, the results of this study on the place and manner harmony have illustrated some differences with the results of the preceding studies on languages other than Farsi. The results of this study are discussed and compared with results from other studies. Optimality Theory is employed to explain some of the findings of this study.

Keywords: place harmony, manner harmony, phonological development, Farsi

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144 Understanding the Interactive Nature in Auditory Recognition of Phonological/Grammatical/Semantic Errors at the Sentence Level: An Investigation Based upon Japanese EFL Learners’ Self-Evaluation and Actual Language Performance

Authors: Hirokatsu Kawashima

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One important element of teaching/learning listening is intensive listening such as listening for precise sounds, words, grammatical, and semantic units. Several classroom-based investigations have been conducted to explore the usefulness of auditory recognition of phonological, grammatical and semantic errors in such a context. The current study reports the results of one such investigation, which targeted auditory recognition of phonological, grammatical, and semantic errors at the sentence level. 56 Japanese EFL learners participated in this investigation, in which their recognition performance of phonological, grammatical and semantic errors was measured on a 9-point scale by learners’ self-evaluation from the perspective of 1) two types of similar English sound (vowel and consonant minimal pair words), 2) two types of sentence word order (verb phrase-based and noun phrase-based word orders), and 3) two types of semantic consistency (verb-purpose and verb-place agreements), respectively, and their general listening proficiency was examined using standardized tests. A number of findings have been made about the interactive relationships between the three types of auditory error recognition and general listening proficiency. Analyses based on the OPLS (Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structure) regression model have disclosed, for example, that the three types of auditory error recognition are linked in a non-linear way: the highest explanatory power for general listening proficiency may be attained when quadratic interactions between auditory recognition of errors related to vowel minimal pair words and that of errors related to noun phrase-based word order are embraced (R2=.33, p=.01).

Keywords: auditory error recognition, intensive listening, interaction, investigation

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143 Preliminary Study of the Phonological Development in Three and Four Year Old Bulgarian Children

Authors: Tsvetomira Boycheva, Miglena Simonska

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The article presents the results of a research of phonological processes in three and four-year-old children. For the purpose of the study, an author's test was developed and conducted among 120 children. The study included three areas of research - at the level of words (96 words), at the level of sentence repetition (10 sentences) and at the level of generating own speech from a picture (15 pictures). The test also gives us additional information about the articulation errors of the assessed children. The main purpose of the icing is to analyze all phonological processes that occur at this age in Bulgarian children and to identify which are typical and atypical for this age. The results show that the most common phonology errors that children make are: sound substitution, an elision of sound, metathesis of sound, elision of a syllable, elision of consonants clustered in a syllable. All examined children were identified with the articulatory disorder from type bilabial lambdacism. Measuring the correlation between average length of repeated speech and average length of generated speech, the analysis proves that the more words a child can repeat in part “repeated speech,” the more words they can be expected to generate in part “generating a sentence.” The results of this study show that the task of naming a word provides sufficient and representative information to assess the child's phonology.

Keywords: assessment, phonology, articulation, speech-language development

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142 Language Skills in the Emergent Literacy of Spanish-Speaking Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Authors: Adriana Salgado, Sandra Castaneda, Ivan Perez

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Learning to read and write is a complex process involving several cognitive skills, contextual, and cultural environments. The basis of this development is linguistic skills, such as the ability to name and understand vocabulary, retell a story, phonological awareness, letter knowledge, among others. In children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one of the main concerns is related to language disorders. Nevertheless, most of the children with ASD are able to decode written information but have difficulties in reading comprehension. The research of these processes in the Spanish-speaking population is limited. However, the increasing prevalence of this diagnosis (1 in 115 children) in Mexico has implications at different levels. Educational research is an important area of interest in ASD children, such as emergent literacy. Reading and writing expand the possibilities of academic, cultural, and social information access. Taking this information into account, the objective of this research was to identify the relationship between language skills, alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and early reading and writing in ASD Spanish-speaking children. The method used for this research was based on tasks that were selected, adapted and in some cases designed to measure initial reading and writing, as well as language skills (naming, receptive vocabulary, and narrative skills), phonological awareness (similar phonological word pairs, beginning sound awareness and spelling) and letter knowledge, in a sample of 45 children (38 boys and 7 girls) with prior diagnosis of ASD. Descriptive analyses, as well as bivariate correlations, cluster analysis, and canonical correspondence, were obtained for the data results. Results showed that variability was large; however, it was possible to characterize the sample in low, medium, and high score groups regarding children performance. The low score group (46.7% of the sample), had a null or deficient performance in language skills and phonological awareness, some could identify up to five letters of the alphabet, showed no early reading skills but they could scribble. The middle score group was characterized by a highly variable performance in different tasks, with better language skills in receptive and naming vocabulary, some narrative, letter knowledge, and phonological awareness (beginning sound awareness) skills. The high score group, (24.4% of the sample) had the best performance in language skills in relation to the sample data, as well as in the rest of the measured skills. Finally, scores were canonically correlated between naming, receptive vocabulary, narrative, phonological awareness, letter knowledge and initial learning of reading and writing skills for the high score group and letter knowledge, naming and receptive vocabulary for the lower score group, which is consistent with previous research in typical and ASD children. In conclusion, the obtained data is consistent with previous studies. Despite large variability, it was possible to identify performance profiles and relations based on linguistic, phonological awareness, and letter knowledge skills. These skills were predictor variables of the initial development of reading and writing. The above has implications for a future program and strategies development that may benefit the acquisition of reading and writing in ASD children.

Keywords: autism, autism spectrum disorders, early literacy, emergent literacy

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141 Reciprocal Interferences in Bilingual English-Igbo Speaking Society: The Implications in Language Pedagogy

Authors: Ugwu Elias Ikechukwu

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Discussions on bilingualism have always dwelt on how the mother tongue interferes with the target language. This interference is considered a serious problem in second language learning. Usually, the interference has been phonological. But the objective of this research is to explore how the target language interferes with the mother tongue. In the case of the Igbo language, it interferes with English mostly at the phonological level while English interferes with Igbo at the realm of vocabulary. The result is a new language \"Engligbo\" which is a hybrid of English and Igbo. The Igbo language spoken by about 25 million people is one of the three most prominent languages in Nigeria. This paper discusses the phenomenal Engligbo, and other implications for Igbo learners of English. The method of analysis is descriptive. A number of recommendations were made that would help teachers handle problems arising from such mutual interferences.

Keywords: reciprocal interferences, bilingualism, implications, language pedagogy

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140 Effectiveness of an Unorthodox Intervention for Work-Family Interaction: A Field Experiment

Authors: Hassan Rasool

Abstract:

There is limited research in the intervention domain of work family interaction. We identified that meditation could be effective in coping work family conflict and nurturing work family facilitation across domains. We conducted pretest posttest control group field experiment on a sample of sixty employees to test the effectiveness of meditation in a financial sector organization. Empirical evidence confirms that the intervention was effective in coping work family conflict & nurturing facilitation across work & home domains. The intervention, also positively affected a known outcome (i.e. satisfaction at work and home) of work family interaction. Future research perspectives on the use of unorthodox interventions in the domain of work family interaction are also discussed.

Keywords: work family interaction, meditation, satisfaction, experiment

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139 Nutritional Value and Forage Quality Indicators in Some Rangeland’s Species at Different Vegetation Forms

Authors: Reza Dehghani Bidgoli

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Information on different rangeland plants’ nutritive values at various phonological stages is important in rangelands management. This information helps rangeland managers to choose proper grazing times to achieve higher animal performance without detrimental effects on the rangeland vegetations. Effects of various plant parts’ phonological stages and vegetation types on reserve carbohydrates and forage quality indicators were investigated during the 2009 and 2010. Plant samples were collected in a completely randomized block (CRB) design. The species included, grasses (Secale montanum and Festuco ovina), forbs (Lotus corniculatus and Sanguisorba minor), and shrubs (Kochia prosterata and Salsola rigida). Aerial plant parts’ samples were oven-dried at 80oC for 24 hours, then analyzed for soluble carbohydrates, crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), dry matter digestible (DMD), and metabolizable energy (ME). Results showed that plants at the seedling stage had more reserve carbohydrates and from the three vegetation types (grass, forbs, and shrub), forbs contained more soluble carbohydrates compared to the other two (grasses and shrubs). Differences in soluble carbohydrate contents of different species at various phonological stages in 2 years were statistically significant. The forage quality indicators (CP, ADF, DMD, and ME) in different species, in different vegetation types, in the 2 years were statistically significant, except for the CP.

Keywords: grazing, soluble carbohydrate, protein, fiber, metabolizeable energy

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138 Comparison between the Roller-Foam and Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Flexibility of Hamstrings Muscles

Authors: Paolo Ragazzi, Olivier Peillon, Paul Fauris, Mathias Simon, Raul Navarro, Juan Carlos Martin, Oriol Casasayas, Laura Pacheco, Albert Perez-Bellmunt

Abstract:

Introduction: The use of stretching techniques in the sports world is frequent and widely used for its many effects. One of the main benefits is the gain in flexibility, range of motion and facilitation of the sporting performance. Recently the use of Roller-Foam (RF) has spread in sports practice both at elite and recreational level for its benefits being similar to those observed in stretching. The objective of the following study is to compare the results of the Roller-Foam with the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNF) (one of the stretchings with more evidence) on the hamstring muscles. Study design: The design of the study is a single-blind, randomized controlled trial and the participants are 40 healthy volunteers. Intervention: The subjects are distributed randomly in one of the following groups; stretching (PNF) intervention group: 4 repetitions of PNF stretching (5seconds of contraction, 5 second of relaxation, 20 second stretch), Roller-Foam intervention group: 2 minutes of Roller-Foam was realized on the hamstring muscles. Main outcome measures: hamstring muscles flexibility was assessed at the beginning, during (30’’ of intervention) and the end of the session by using the Modified Sit and Reach test (MSR). Results: The baseline results data given in both groups are comparable to each other. The PNF group obtained an increase in flexibility of 3,1 cm at 30 seconds (first series) and of 5,1 cm at 2 minutes (the last of all series). The RF group obtained a 0,6 cm difference at 30 seconds and 2,4 cm after 2 minutes of application of roller foam. The results were statistically significant when comparing intragroups but not intergroups. Conclusions: Despite the fact that the use of roller foam is spreading in the sports and rehabilitation field, the results of the present study suggest that the gain of flexibility on the hamstrings is greater if PNF type stretches are used instead of RF. These results may be due to the fact that the use of roller foam intervened more in the fascial tissue, while the stretches intervene more in the myotendinous unit. Future studies are needed, increasing the sample number and diversifying the types of stretching.

Keywords: hamstring muscle, stretching, neuromuscular facilitation stretching, roller foam

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137 Phonological Encoding and Working Memory in Kannada Speaking Adults Who Stutter

Authors: Nirmal Sugathan, Santosh Maruthy

Abstract:

Background: A considerable number of studies have evidenced that phonological encoding (PE) and working memory (WM) skills operate differently in adults who stutter (AWS). In order to tap these skills, several paradigms have been employed such as phonological priming, phoneme monitoring, and nonword repetition tasks. This study, however, utilizes a word jumble paradigm to assess both PE and WM using different modalities and this may give a better understanding of phonological processing deficits in AWS. Aim: The present study investigated PE and WM abilities in conjunction with lexical access in AWS using jumbled words. The study also aimed at investigating the effect of increase in cognitive load on phonological processing in AWS by comparing the speech reaction time (SRT) and accuracy scores across various syllable lengths. Method: Participants were 11 AWS (Age range=19-26) and 11 adults who do not stutter (AWNS) (Age range=19-26) matched for age, gender and handedness. Stimuli: Ninety 3-, 4-, and 5-syllable jumbled words (JWs) (n=30 per syllable length category) constructed from Kannada words served as stimuli for jumbled word paradigm. In order to generate jumbled words (JWs), the syllables in the real words were randomly transpositioned. Procedures: To assess PE, the JWs were presently visually using DMDX software and for WM task, JWs were presented through auditory mode through headphones. The participants were asked to silently manipulate the jumbled words to form a Kannada real word and verbally respond once. The responses for both tasks were audio recorded using record function in DMDX software and the recorded responses were analyzed using PRAAT software to calculate the SRT. Results: SRT: Mann-Whitney test results demonstrated that AWS performed significantly slower on both tasks (p < 0.001) as indicated by increased SRT. Also, AWS presented with increased SRT on both the tasks in all syllable length conditions (p < 0.001). Effect of syllable length: Wilcoxon signed rank test was carried out revealed that, on task assessing PE, the SRT of 4syllable JWs were significantly higher in both AWS (Z= -2.93, p=.003) and AWNS (Z= -2.41, p=.003) when compared to 3-syllable words. However, the findings for 4- and 5-syllable words were not significant. Task Accuracy: The accuracy scores were calculated for three syllable length conditions for both PE and PM tasks and were compared across the groups using Mann-Whitney test. The results indicated that the accuracy scores of AWS were significantly below that of AWNS in all the three syllable conditions for both the tasks (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The above findings suggest that PE and WM skills are compromised in AWS as indicated by increased SRT. Also, AWS were progressively less accurate in descrambling JWs of increasing syllable length and this may be interpreted as, rather than existing as a uniform deficiency, PE and WM deficits emerge when the cognitive load is increased. AWNS exhibited increased SRT and increased accuracy for JWs of longer syllable length whereas AWS was not benefited from increasing the reaction time, thus AWS had to compromise for both SRT and accuracy while solving JWs of longer syllable length.

Keywords: adults who stutter, phonological ability, working memory, encoding, jumbled words

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