Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 345

Search results for: Quranic arabic

345 Investigating the Influences of Long-Term, as Compared to Short-Term, Phonological Memory on the Word Recognition Abilities of Arabic Readers vs. Arabic Native Speakers: A Word-Recognition Study

Authors: Insiya Bhalloo

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It is quite common in the Muslim faith for non-Arabic speakers to be able to convert written Arabic, especially Quranic Arabic, into a phonological code without significant semantic or syntactic knowledge. This is due to prior experience learning to read the Quran (a religious text written in Classical Arabic), from a very young age such as via enrolment in Quranic Arabic classes. As compared to native speakers of Arabic, these Arabic readers do not have a comprehensive morpho-syntactic knowledge of the Arabic language, nor can understand, or engage in Arabic conversation. The study seeks to investigate whether mere phonological experience (as indicated by the Arabic readers’ experience with Arabic phonology and the sound-system) is sufficient to cause phonological-interference during word recognition of previously-heard words, despite the participants’ non-native status. Both native speakers of Arabic and non-native speakers of Arabic, i.e., those individuals that learned to read the Quran from a young age, will be recruited. Each experimental session will include two phases: An exposure phase and a test phase. During the exposure phase, participants will be presented with Arabic words (n=40) on a computer screen. Half of these words will be common words found in the Quran while the other half will be words commonly found in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) but either non-existent or prevalent at a significantly lower frequency within the Quran. During the test phase, participants will then be presented with both familiar (n = 20; i.e., those words presented during the exposure phase) and novel Arabic words (n = 20; i.e., words not presented during the exposure phase. ½ of these presented words will be common Quranic Arabic words and the other ½ will be common MSA words but not Quranic words. Moreover, ½ the Quranic Arabic and MSA words presented will be comprised of nouns, while ½ the Quranic Arabic and MSA will be comprised of verbs, thereby eliminating word-processing issues affected by lexical category. Participants will then determine if they had seen that word during the exposure phase. This study seeks to investigate whether long-term phonological memory, such as via childhood exposure to Quranic Arabic orthography, has a differential effect on the word-recognition capacities of native Arabic speakers and Arabic readers; we seek to compare the effects of long-term phonological memory in comparison to short-term phonological exposure (as indicated by the presentation of familiar words from the exposure phase). The researcher’s hypothesis is that, despite the lack of lexical knowledge, early experience with converting written Quranic Arabic text into a phonological code will help participants recall the familiar Quranic words that appeared during the exposure phase more accurately than those that were not presented during the exposure phase. Moreover, it is anticipated that the non-native Arabic readers will also report more false alarms to the unfamiliar Quranic words, due to early childhood phonological exposure to Quranic Arabic script - thereby causing false phonological facilitatory effects.

Keywords: modern standard arabic, phonological facilitation, phonological memory, Quranic arabic, word recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
344 Corpus Linguistic Methods in a Theoretical Study of Quran Verb Tense and Aspect in Translations from Arabic to English

Authors: Jawharah Alasmari

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In inflectional morphology of verb, tense and aspect indicate action’s time either past/present or future and their period whether completed or not. The usage and meaning of tense and aspect differ in Arabic and English, therefore is no simple one -to- one mapping from an Arabic verb inflected form an appropriate English translation depends on a range of features, including immediate and wider context of use. The Quranic Arabic Corpus includes seven alternative expertly crafted English translations of each Arabic verses, which provides a test dataset for the study of appropriate Arabic to English translations of verb tense and aspect. We applied Corpus Linguistics Methods in a theoretical study of exemplary verbs, to elicit candidate verbal contexts which influence the choice of English inflection for each verse.

Keywords: Corpus linguistics methods, Arabic verb, tense and aspect, English translations

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
343 Integrating Accreditation and Quality Assurance Exercises into the Quranic School System in the South-Western Nigeria

Authors: Popoola Sulaimon Akorede, Muinat A. Agbabiaka-Mustapha

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The Quranic / piazza school where the rudiments of Islam are being imparted from the teaching of Arabic/ Quranic alphabets which later metamorphosized to higher fundamental principles of Islam is the major determinant of the existence of Islam in any part of south western Nigeria. In other words, one can successfully say that where there is a few or non-existence of such schools in that part of the country, the practice of the religion of Islam would be either very low or not existing at all. However, it has been discovered in the modern worlds that several challenges are militating against the development of these schools and among these challenges are poor admission policy, inadequate facilities such as learning environment and instructional materials, curriculum inadequacy and the management and the administration of the schools which failed to change in order to meet the modern contemporary Educational challenges. The focus of this paper therefore is to improve the conditions of these basic Islamic schools through the introduction of quality assurance and integrating accreditation Exercise to improve their status in order to enhance economic empowerment and to further their educational career in the future so that they will be able to compete favourably among the graduates of conventional universities. The scope of this study is limited to only seven (7) states of yorubaland and with only three (3) proprietors/ schools from each state which are Lagos, Oyo, Ogun, Osun, Ekiti, Ondo and parts of Kwara State. The study revealed that quality assurance as well as accreditation exercise are lacking in all the local Arabic/Quranic schools. Suggestions are proffered towards correcting the anomalies in these schools so that they can meet the modern Educational standard.

Keywords: accreditation, quality assurance, Quranic schools, South-western Nigeria

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342 Preserving Digital Arabic Text Integrity Using Blockchain Technology

Authors: Zineb Touati Hamad, Mohamed Ridda Laouar, Issam Bendib

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With the massive development of technology today, the Arabic language has gained a prominent position among the languages most used for writing articles, expressing opinions, and also for citing in many websites, defying its growing sensitivity in terms of structure, language skills, diacritics, writing methods, etc. In the context of the spread of the Arabic language, the Holy Quran represents the most prevalent Arabic text today in many applications and websites for citation purposes or for the reading and learning rituals. The Quranic verses / surahs are published quickly and without cost, which may cause great concern to ensure the safety of the content from tampering and alteration. To protect the content of texts from distortion, it is necessary to refer to the original database and conduct a comparison process to extract the percentage of distortion. The disadvantage of this method is that it takes time, in addition to the lack of any guarantee on the integrity of the database itself as it belongs to one central party. Blockchain technology today represents the best way to maintain immutable content. Blockchain is a distributed database that stores information in blocks linked to each other through encryption, where the modification of each block can be easily known. To exploit these advantages, we seek in this paper to justify the use of this technique in preserving the integrity of Arabic texts sensitive to change by building a decentralized framework to authenticate and verify the integrity of the digital Quranic verses/surahs spread on websites.

Keywords: arabic text, authentication, blockchain, integrity, quran, verification

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
341 Arabic Literature as a Tool for Educational Transformation in Nigeria

Authors: Abdulfatah A Raji

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This paper started with the definitions of literature, Arabic literature, transformation and went further to highlight the components of educational transformation. The general history of Arabic literature was discussed with focus on how it undergoes some transformations from pre-Islamic period through Quranic era, Abbasid literature to renaissance period in which the modernization of Arabic literature started in Egypt. It also traces the spread of Arabic literature in Nigeria from the pre-colonial era during the Kanuri rulers to Jihad of Usman Dan Fodio and the development of literature which manifested to the Teacher’s Colleges and Bayero University in Northern Nigeria. Also, the establishment of primary and post-primary schools by Muslim organizations in many cities and towns of the Western part of Nigeria. Literary criticism was also discussed in line with Arabic literature. Poetry work of eminent poets were cited to show its importance in line with educational transformation in Nigerian literature and lessons from the cited Arabic poetry works were also highlighted to include: motivation to behave well and to tolerate others, better spirits of interaction, love and co-existence among different sexes, religion etc. All these can help in developing a better educational transformation in Nigeria which can in turn help in how to conduct researches for national development. The paper recommended compulsory Arabic literature at all levels of the nations’ educational system as well as publication of Arabic books and journals to encourage peace in this era of conflicts and further transform Nigeria’s educational system for better.

Keywords: Arabic, literature, peace, development, Nigeria

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340 A Comparative Study of Milton’s Paradise Lost and the Quran in Islam

Authors: Najmeh Dehghanitafti

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Paradise Lost, John Milton's epic poem of theology and cosmology, gained substantial critical attention in the twentieth century. Milton's illustration of Satan and Eve and his allusions to the Bible can be an interesting source of criticism for the scholars who try to analyze Milton's works in terms of religious studies. Therefore, various studies of Paradise Lost try to investigate this epic in terms of religions beyond Christianity. Paradise Lost's comparison with religious books such as the Qur’an in Islam in terms of character illustration created multiple translations of this epic into Arabic. Accordingly, this paper aims to compare Miltonic Satan versus Quranic Iblis based on Inani’s translation of Paradise Lost into Arabic. This study also tries to investigate Miltonic and Quranic view of Eve to find out the similarities and differences between Christianity and Islam in terms of feminism.

Keywords: Eve, feminism, Iblis, Paradise Lost, Satan, The Quran

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
339 Altasreef: Automated System of Quran Verbs for Urdu Language

Authors: Haq Nawaz, Muhammad Amjad Iqbal, Kamran Malik

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"Altasreef" is an automated system available for Web and Android users which provide facility to the users to learn the Quran verbs. It provides the facility to the users to practice the learned material and also provide facility of exams of Arabic verbs variation focusing on Quran text. Arabic is a highly inflectional language. Almost all of its words connect to roots of three, four or five letters which approach the meaning of all their inflectional forms. In Arabic, a verb is formed by inserting the consonants into one of a set of verb patterns. Suffixes and prefixes are then added to generate the meaning of number, person, and gender. The active/passive voice and perfective aspect and other patterns are than generated. This application is designed for learners of Quranic Arabic who already have learn basics of Arabic conjugation. Application also provides the facility of translation of generated patterns. These translations are generated with the help of rule-based approach to give 100% results to the learners.

Keywords: NLP, Quran, Computational Linguistics, E Learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
338 Arabic Quran Search Tool Based on Ontology

Authors: Mohammad Alqahtani, Eric Atwell

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This paper reviews and classifies most of the important types of search techniques that have been applied on the holy Quran. Then, it addresses the limitations in these techniques. Additionally, this paper surveys most existing Quranic ontologies and what are their deficiencies. Finally, it explains a new search tool called: A semantic search tool for Al Quran based on Qur’anic ontologies. This tool will overcome all limitations in the existing Quranic search applications.

Keywords: holy Quran, natural language processing (NLP), semantic search, information retrieval (IR), ontology

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337 An Analytical Study on the Impact of Cultural and Literary Heritage on the Contemporary Arabic Novel

Authors: Sharafat Karimi, Jamil Jafari

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The impact of Western Literature on other nations' pieces of literature (including Arabic) has caused critics to ignore the importance of Arabic cultural & literary heritage in the formation of contemporary Arabic fiction; but on the contrary, an important part of literary genres in any society, especially fiction has been formed in the past and depends on ancient literary events. The current paper, utilizing the descriptive-analytical method and by means of library studies, tries to challenge those critics who regard Western Literature as the only effective factor on the appearance of Arabic fiction. Furthermore, this research tries to find out effective Islamic-Arabic elements on the development of Arabic novel by the investigation of some fictional works. The results show that in addition to regarding Western literature as an important factor, Arab novelists have applied their heritage, culture, and ancient history, either written or orally transmitted to the current generation, in their innovations. Among great historical works containing moral stories, allegorical legends, myths, tales of heroes, and folklore, we can refer to Arabian Nights, Kalila & Dimna, romantic stories, historical puzzles, history of Islam, history of ancient Egypt, Maqama, and Quranic stories. Famous novels like 'Hadith Isa ibn-Hisham', 'Layali Alif Layla', 'Abas al-Aqdar', 'Radoubis', 'Ahlam Shahrzad, and 'Alam Bela Kharaet' were compiled on the basis of ancient literary heritage not only in the theme but also in the structure; so one can conclude that the ancient literary-cultural heritage and Islamic-Arabian history have been influential on Arabic novel appearance and development.

Keywords: Arabic fictional literature, culture, heritage, history, language, novel

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336 Validating the Arabic Communicative Development Inventory for Assessing the Development of Language in Arabic-Speaking Children

Authors: Alshaimaa Abdelwahab, Allegra Cattani, Caroline Floccia

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Assessing children’s language is fundamental for changing their developmental outcome as it gives a chance for a quick and early intervention with the suitable planning and monitoring program. The importance of language assessment lies in helping to find the right test fit for purpose, in addition to achievement and proficiency. This study examines the validity of a new Arabic assessment tool, the Arabic Communicative Development Inventory ‘Arabic CDI’. It assesses the development of language in Arabic children in different Arabic countries, allowing to detect children with language delay. A concurrent validity is set to compare the Arabic CDI to the Arabic Language test. Twenty-three typically developing Egyptian healthy children and their mothers participated in this study. Their age is 24 months (+ or -) two weeks. The sample included 13 males and 10 females. Mothers completed the Arabic CDI either before or after the Arabic Language Test was conducted with the child. The score for comprehension in the Arabic CDI (M= 52.7, SD= 9.7) and words understood in the Arabic Language Test (M= 59.6, SD= 12.5) were strongly and positively correlated (r= .62, p= .002). At the same time, the scores for production in the Arabic CDI (M= 38.4, SD= 14.8) and words expressed in the Arabic Language Test (M= 52.1, SD= 16.3) were also strongly and positively correlated (r= .82, p= .000). The new Arabic CDI is an adequate tool for assessing the development of comprehension and production at Arabic children. In addition, it could be used for detecting children with language impairment. Standardization of the Arabic CDI across 18 different Arabic dialects in children aged 8 to 30 months is underway.

Keywords: Arabic CDI, assessing children, language development, language impairment

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
335 A Syntactic Approach to Applied and Socio-Linguistics in Arabic Language in Modern Communications

Authors: Adeyemo Abduljeeel Taiwo

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This research is an attempt that creates a conducive atmosphere of a phonological and morphological compendium of Arabic language in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) for modern day communications. The research is carried out with the chief aim of grammatical analysis of the two broad fields of Arabic linguistics namely: Applied and Socio-Linguistics. It draws a pictorial record of Applied and Socio-Linguistics in Arabic phonology and morphology. Thematically, it postulates and contemplates to a large degree, the theory of concord in contemporary modern Arabic language acquisition. It utilizes an analytical method while it portrays Arabic as a Semitic language that promotes linguistics and syntax among the scholars of the fields.

Keywords: Arabic language, applied linguistics, socio-linguistics, modern communications

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
334 Arabic Text Representation and Classification Methods: Current State of the Art

Authors: Rami Ayadi, Mohsen Maraoui, Mounir Zrigui

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In this paper, we have presented a brief current state of the art for Arabic text representation and classification methods. We decomposed Arabic Task Classification into four categories. First we describe some algorithms applied to classification on Arabic text. Secondly, we cite all major works when comparing classification algorithms applied on Arabic text, after this, we mention some authors who proposing new classification methods and finally we investigate the impact of preprocessing on Arabic TC.

Keywords: text classification, Arabic, impact of preprocessing, classification algorithms

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
333 Arabic Light Stemmer for Better Search Accuracy

Authors: Sahar Khedr, Dina Sayed, Ayman Hanafy

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Arabic is one of the most ancient and critical languages in the world. It has over than 250 million Arabic native speakers and more than twenty countries having Arabic as one of its official languages. In the past decade, we have witnessed a rapid evolution in smart devices, social network and technology sector which led to the need to provide tools and libraries that properly tackle the Arabic language in different domains. Stemming is one of the most crucial linguistic fundamentals. It is used in many applications especially in information extraction and text mining fields. The motivation behind this work is to enhance the Arabic light stemmer to serve the data mining industry and leverage it in an open source community. The presented implementation works on enhancing the Arabic light stemmer by utilizing and enhancing an algorithm that provides an extension for a new set of rules and patterns accompanied by adjusted procedure. This study has proven a significant enhancement for better search accuracy with an average 10% improvement in comparison with previous works.

Keywords: Arabic data mining, Arabic Information extraction, Arabic Light stemmer, Arabic stemmer

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
332 Aspects of Diglossia in Arabic Language Learning

Authors: Adil Ishag

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Diglossia emerges in a situation where two distinctive varieties of a language are used alongside within a certain community. In this case, one is considered as a high or standard variety and the second one as a low or colloquial variety. Arabic is an extreme example of a highly diglossic language. This diglossity is due to the fact that Arabic is one of the most spoken languages and spread over 22 Countries in two continents as a mother tongue, and it is also widely spoken in many other Islamic countries as a second language or simply the language of Quran. The geographical variation between the countries where the language is spoken and the duality of the classical Arabic and daily spoken dialects in the Arab world on the other hand; makes the Arabic language one of the most diglossic languages. This paper tries to investigate this phenomena and its relation to learning Arabic as a first and second language.

Keywords: Arabic language, diglossia, first and second language, language learning

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331 The Current Use of Computer Technology in Arabic Language

Authors: Saad Alkahtani

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This study aims to identify the extent to which the faculty members who teach Arabic to speakers of other languages in Arabic language institutes at Saudi universities use computer technologies such as language laboratories, websites, software programs, and learning management system (LMS). It also seeks to identify critical difficulties that hinder the use of these technologies by faculty members. The population of the study consisted of 103 faculty members in four Arabic language institutes at Saudi universities. The results of the study showed a disparity in the use of computer technologies in teaching Arabic to non-native speakers. The means of degree of use ranged from 1.20 through 2.83. The study also identified difficulties limiting the use of computer technology in teaching Arabic. And the means of averages of difficulty of use ranged from 1.50 to 2.89. The differences were not statistically significant among the institutes (at 0.05).

Keywords: Arabic language programs, computer technology, using technology in teaching Arabic language, Arabic as a second language, computer skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
330 Quranic Recitation Listening Relate to Memory Processing, Language Selectivity and Attentional Process

Authors: Samhani Ismail, Tahamina Begum, Faruque Reza, Zamzuri Idris, Hafizan Juahir, Jafri Malin Abdullah

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Holy Quran, a rhymed prosed scripture has a complete literary structure that exemplifies the peak of literary beauty. Memorizing of its verses could enhance one’s memory capacity and cognition while those who are listening to its recitation it is also believed that the Holy Quran alter brainwave producing neuronal excitation engaging with cognitive processes. 28 normal healthy subjects (male =14 & female = 14) were recruited and EEG recording was done using 128-electrode sensor net (Electrical Geosics, Inc.) with the impedance of ≤ 50kΩ. They listened to Sura Fatiha recited by Sheikh Qari Abdul Basit bin Abdus Samad. Arabic news and no sound were chosen as positive and negative control, respectively. The waveform was analysed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to get the power in frequency bands. Bilateral frontal (F7, F8) and temporal region (T7, T8) showed decreased power significantly in alpha wave band in respondent stimulated by Sura Fatihah recitation reflects acoustic attention processing. However, decreased in alpha power in selective attention to memorized, and in familial but not memorized language, reveals the memorial processing in long-term memory. As a conclusion, Quranic recitation relates both cognitive element of memory and language in its listeners and memorizers.

Keywords: auditory stimulation, cognition, EEG, linguistic, memory, Quranic recitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
329 An Enhanced Support Vector Machine Based Approach for Sentiment Classification of Arabic Tweets of Different Dialects

Authors: Gehad S. Kaseb, Mona F. Ahmed

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Arabic Sentiment Analysis (SA) is one of the most common research fields with many open areas. Few studies apply SA to Arabic dialects. This paper proposes different pre-processing steps and a modified methodology to improve the accuracy using normal Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification. The paper works on two datasets, Arabic Sentiment Tweets Dataset (ASTD) and Extended Arabic Tweets Sentiment Dataset (Extended-AATSD), which are publicly available for academic use. The results show that the classification accuracy approaches 86%.

Keywords: Arabic, classification, sentiment analysis, tweets

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
328 Arabic Text Classification: Review Study

Authors: M. Hijazi, A. Zeki, A. Ismail

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An enormous amount of valuable human knowledge is preserved in documents. The rapid growth in the number of machine-readable documents for public or private access requires the use of automatic text classification. Text classification can be defined as assigning or structuring documents into a defined set of classes known in advance. Arabic text classification methods have emerged as a natural result of the existence of a massive amount of varied textual information written in the Arabic language on the web. This paper presents a review on the published researches of Arabic Text Classification using classical data representation, Bag of words (BoW), and using conceptual data representation based on semantic resources such as Arabic WordNet and Wikipedia.

Keywords: Arabic text classification, Arabic WordNet, bag of words, conceptual representation, semantic relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
327 Holy Quran’s Hermeneutics from Self-Referentiality to the Quran by Quran’s Interpretation

Authors: Mohammad Ba’azm

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The self-referentiality method as the missing ring of the Qur’an by Qur’an’s interpretation has a precise application at the level of the Quranic vocabulary, but after entering the domain of the verses, chapters and the whole Qur’an, it reveals its defect. Self-referentiality cannot show the clear concept of the Quranic scriptures, unlike the Qur’an by Qur’an’s interpretation method that guides us to the comprehension and exact hermeneutics. The Qur’an by Qur’an’s interpretation is a solid way of comprehension of the verses of the Qur'an and does not use external resources to provide implications and meanings with different theoretical and practical supports. In this method, theoretical supports are based on the basics and modalities that support and validate the legitimacy and validity of the interpretive method discussed, and the practical supports also relate to the practitioners of the religious elite. The combination of these two methods illustrates the exact understanding of the Qur'an at the level of Quranic verses, chapters, and the whole Qur’an. This study by examining the word 'book' in the Qur'an shows the difference between the two methods, and the necessity of attachment of these, in order to attain a desirable level for comprehensions meaning of the Qur'an. In this article, we have proven that by aspects of the meaning of the Quranic words, we cannot say any word has an exact meaning.

Keywords: Qur’an’s hermeneutic, self-referentiality, The Qur’an by Qur’an’s Interpretation, polysemy

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
326 Challenges Being Faced by Students of Arabic and Islamic Studies in Tetiary Institutions in Nigeria: Case Study of Some Selected Tetiary Instutions of Yobe State, Nigeria

Authors: Muhammad Alhaji Maidugu

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The role played by Arabic and Islamic Studies in the history of Nigeria - particularly Northern part of the country - cannot be overemphasized. Before the British colonialism, Arabic language was the official language in some of the great empires in Nigeria such as the Kanem Borno Empire. Islam, on the other hand, is the state religion. Both the rulers and the ruled were deeply involved in the pursuit of Arabic and Islamic knowledge traveling as far as Egypt, Saudia Arabia for scholarship. Their homes are like a modern library where Islamic books are kept and used to teach the community the different fields of Arabic and Islamic Studies. Scholars of Arabic and Islamic Studies were highly regarded and well respected in the society as they were the decision makers, diplomats and advisers to the authorities. Unfortunately, the colonizers used their influence and force to replace this language with a foreign language. In fact, they tried to exterminate it. Arabic became less important in the country. Arabic and Islamic Students became less significant and anybody studying Arabic or Islamic Studies is looked down at with disdain, and the course is considered unprofessional. This paper aims at casting a glance in the position of Arabic and Islamic Studies in Yobe State, Nigeria and social, political, economical and moral challenges faced by the students at institutions of learning.

Keywords: challenges, students of Arabic and Islamic studies, tertiary, institutions, Yobe

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
325 A Supervised Approach for Word Sense Disambiguation Based on Arabic Diacritics

Authors: Alaa Alrakaf, Sk. Md. Mizanur Rahman

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Since the last two decades’ Arabic natural language processing (ANLP) has become increasingly much more important. One of the key issues related to ANLP is ambiguity. In Arabic language different pronunciation of one word may have a different meaning. Furthermore, ambiguity also has an impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of Machine Translation (MT). The issue of ambiguity has limited the usefulness and accuracy of the translation from Arabic to English. The lack of Arabic resources makes ambiguity problem more complicated. Additionally, the orthographic level of representation cannot specify the exact meaning of the word. This paper looked at the diacritics of Arabic language and used them to disambiguate a word. The proposed approach of word sense disambiguation used Diacritizer application to Diacritize Arabic text then found the most accurate sense of an ambiguous word using Naïve Bayes Classifier. Our Experimental study proves that using Arabic Diacritics with Naïve Bayes Classifier enhances the accuracy of choosing the appropriate sense by 23% and also decreases the ambiguity in machine translation.

Keywords: Arabic natural language processing, machine learning, machine translation, Naive bayes classifier, word sense disambiguation

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324 Gesture in the Arabic and Malay Languages a Comparative Study

Authors: Siti Sara binti Hj Ahmad, Adil Elshiekh Abdalla

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The Arabic and Malay languages belong to different language’s families; while the Arabic language descends from the Semitic language, Malay belongs to the Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) family. Hence, the grammatical systems of the two languages differ from each other. Arabic, being a language found in the heart of the dessert, and Malay is the language found in the heart of thick equatorial forests, is another source of vital cultural differences. Consequently, it is expected that this situation will create differences in the ways of how speakers of the two languages perceive the world around them, convey and understand their messages. On the other hand, as the majority of the speakers of Malay language are Muslims, Arabic language found its way in this region; currently, Arabic is widely taught in school, some terms of it found their way in the Malay language. Accordingly, the Arabic language and culture have widely penetrated into the Malay language. This study is proposed with the aim to find out the differences and similarities between the two languages, in the term of the nonverbal communication. The result of this study will be of high significance, as it will help in enhancing the mutual understanding between the speakers of these languages. The comparative analysis approach will be utilized in this study.

Keywords: gesture, Arabic language, Malay language, comparative analysis

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323 Spoken Rhetoric in Arabic Heritage

Authors: Ihab Al-Mokrani

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The Arabic heritage has two types of spoken rhetoric: the first type which al-Jaahiz calls “the rhetoric of the sign,” which means body language, and the rhetoric of silence which is of no less importance than the rhetoric of the sign, the speaker’s appearance and movements, etc. The second type is the spoken performance of utterances which bears written rhetoric arts like metaphor, simile, metonymy, etc. Rationale of the study: First: in spite of the factual existence of rhetorical phenomena in the Arabic heritage, there has been no contemporary study handling the spoken rhetoric in the Arabic heritage. Second: Arabic Civilization is originally a spoken one. Comparing the Arabic culture and civilization, from one side, to the Greek, roman or Pharaonic cultures and civilizations, from the other side, shows that the latter cultures and civilizations started and flourished written while the former started among illiterate people who had no interest in writing until recently. That sort of difference on the part of the Arabic culture and civilization created a rhetoric different from rhetoric in the other cultures and civilizations. Third: the spoken nature of the Arabic civilization influenced the Arabic rhetoric in the sense that specific rhetorical arts have been introduced matching that spoken nature. One of these arts is the art of concision which compensates for the absence of writing’s means of preserving the text. In addition, this interprets why many of the definitions of the Arabic rhetoric were defining rhetoric as the art of concision. Also, this interprets the fact that the literary genres known in the Arabic culture were limited by the available narrow space like poetry, anecdotes, and stories, while the literary genres in the Greek culture were of wide space as epics and drama. This is not of any contrast to the fact that some Arabic poetry would exceed 100 lines of poetry as Arabic poetry was based on the line organic unity, which means that every line could stand alone with a full meaning that is not dependent on the rest of the poem; and that last aspect has never happened in any culture other than the Arabic culture.

Keywords: Arabic rhetoric, spoken rhetoric, Arabic heritage, culture

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322 Contemporary Arabic Novel Probing the Self and the Other: A Contrapuntal Study of Identity, Sexuality, and Fundamentalism

Authors: Jihan Mahmoud

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This paper examines the role played by Arabic novelists in revolutionary change in the Arab world, discussing themes of identity, sexuality and fundamentalism as portrayed in a selection of modern and contemporary Arabic novels that are either written in English or translated from Arabic into English. It particularly focuses on the post-Naguib Mahfouz era. Taking my cue from the current political changes in the Arab world, starting with 9/11/ terrorist attacks in the USA and the UK, the ‘Arab Spring’ revolutions, the rise of political Islam and the emergence of Isis, the Islamic state in Iraq and the Levant, the study analyses the differences in the ways contemporary Arab novelists from different Arabic countries represent the interaction between identity, sexual politics and fundamentalist ideas in the Arab world, with a specific focus on the overlap between literature, religion and international politics in the region. It argues that the post-Mahfouz era marked a new phase in the development of the political Arabic novel not only as a force of resistance against political-religious oppression, but as a call for revolution as well. Thus, the Arabic novel reshapes values and prompts future action.

Keywords: Arabic novel, Islam, politics, sexuality

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321 Language Literacy Attrition: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Ahmad Al-Issa

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Our world is now operating under the auspices of globalization with its attendant language of ‘global English.' In many parts of the world, the need for English is often accepted without much thought given to native languages. Indeed, this is the current situation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), with English encroaching into all areas of society, and especially forcefully into the education sector, where English as a medium of instruction (EMI) is on the rise. At the same time, Arabic literacy (i.e., the ability to read and write in Arabic) is declining among the UAE youth. Using a mixed-methods design, a study was conducted to gain insights into the use of Arabic by Emirati University students. The study examines how often Emiratis, males and females, use their native language (Arabic) in their daily lives, how they view their reading and writing skills in Arabic vis-à-vis their English literacy skills, and the extent to which they can demonstrate their literacy skills in Arabic. Clear evidence emerged showing that while Arabic as a dialect continues to be spoken on a daily basis, Arabic literacy is unquestionably losing ground. This was found to be motivated by educational, political, societal, and personal forces. These findings and their implications to language policy and existing bilingualism programs will be discussed. Suggestions for further research will also be made.

Keywords: Arabic, globalization, global English, literacy attrition, United Arab Emirates

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
320 Hybrid SVM/DBN Model for Arabic Isolated Words Recognition

Authors: Elyes Zarrouk, Yassine Benayed, Faiez Gargouri

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This paper presents a new hybrid model for isolated Arabic words recognition. To do this, we apply Support Vectors Machine (SVM) as an estimator of posterior probabilities within the Dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN). This paper deals a comparative study between DBN and SVM/DBN systems for multi-dialect isolated Arabic words. Performance using SVM/DBN is found to exceed that of DBNs trained on an identical task, giving higher recognition accuracy for four different Arabic dialects. In fact, the average of recognition rates for the four dialects with SVM/DBN was 87.67% while 83.01% with DBN.

Keywords: dynamic Bayesian networks, hybrid models, supports vectors machine, Arabic isolated words

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319 Women Participation in Politics: Rights and Challenges: The Quranic Perspective

Authors: Abdul Azeez Badmus

Abstract:

The extent to which women are allowed to express their liberty and freedom are varying in human society. Islam’s basic view of women postulates a complimentary function as the creator has created every living thing in pairs based on the foundation of complimentary functions, so the human species is not exceptional. It is also ubiquitous contention whether women should participate in politics or not; the limit to which women should participate in politics is another problem. This paper attempts to suggest a possible solution to the questions mentioned above, to review the level of participation of women in politics since the beginning of Islam and the Quranic injunctions that seem to have allowed or disallowed that. The paper adopts a historical and analytical approach, with special reference to the Quranic, Sunna, juristic opinions, and historical events. The paper advocates for proper reference to the authentic Islamic sources in determining the right and obligations of women in society.

Keywords: politics, right, challenges, Qur’ān, perspective

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318 Poem and Novel Translations from Arabic to Turkish Done between the Years of 1980-2015

Authors: Gürkan Dağbaşı

Abstract:

Translation is a vitally important activity like as the expression the thought and emotions of humanbeing, providing reciprocal cultural transfer, shaping future by establishing a connection with the past, and like as being exist in an other language. Translation is also an important instrument providing cross-cultural coalescence between nations. Although the first translations from Arabic to Turkish was restricted to only religious texts, over time, the importance of translation was found out via translations of works about literature. Later on, some literature genres like novel and poems were also translated from Arabic to Turkish. Works of many men of Arabic literature were translated to Turkish, including Nejib Mahfuz, owner of Nobel Prize, Tawfiq al-Hakim, Adonis, Gibran Khalil Gibran and etc. In this study, novels and poems translated from Arabic to Turkish between 1980-2015 years are examined.

Keywords: poem, novel, Arabic, translation

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317 Psychoanalytical Foreshadowing: The Application of a Literary Device in Quranic Narratology

Authors: Fateme Montazeri

Abstract:

Literary approaches towards the text of the Quran predate the modern period. Suyuti (d.1505)’s encyclopedia of Quranic sciences, Al-Itqan, provides a notable example. In the modern era, the study of the Quranic rhetorics received particular attention in the second half of the twentieth century by Egyptian scholars. Amin Al-Khouli (d. 1966), who might be considered the first to argue for the necessity of applying a literary-rhetorical lens toward the tafseer, Islamic exegesis, and his students championed the literary analysis as the most effective approach to the comprehension of the holy text. Western scholars continued the literary criticism of the Islamic scripture by applying to the Quran similar methodologies used in biblical studies. In the history of the literary examination of the Quran, the scope of the critical methods applied to the Quranic text has been limited. For, the rhetorical approaches to the Quran, in the premodern as well as the modern period, concerned almost exclusively with the lexical layer of the text, leaving the narratological dimensions insufficiently examined. Recent contributions, by Leyla Ozgur Alhassen, for instance, attempt to fill this lacunae. This paper aims at advancing the studies of the Quranic narratives by investigating the application of a literary device whose role in the Quranic stories remains unstudied, that is, “foreshadowing.” This paper shall focus on Chapter 12, “Surah al-Yusuf,” as its case study. Chapter 12, the single chapter that includes the story of Joseph in one piece, contains several instances in which the events of the story are foreshadowed. As shall be discussed, foreshadowing occurs either through a monolog or dialogue whereby one or more of the characters allude to the future happenings or through the manner in which the setting is described. Through a close reading of the text, it will be demonstrated that the usage of the rhetorical tool of foreshadowing meets a dual purpose: on the one hand, foreshadowing prepares the reader/audience for the upcoming events in the plot, and on the other hand, it highlights the psychological dimensions of the characters, their thoughts, intentions, and disposition. In analyzing the story, this study shall draw on psychoanalytical criticism to explore the layers of meanings embedded in the Quranic narrative that are unfolded through foreshadowing.

Keywords: foreshadowing, quranic narrative, literary criticism, surah yusuf

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316 An Analytic Comparison between Arabic and English Prosodies: Poetical Feet and Meters

Authors: Jamil Jafari, Sharafat Karimi

Abstract:

The Arabic Language has a complicated system of prosody invented by the great grammarian Khalil Ibn Ahmad Farahidi. He could extract 15 meters out of his innovative five circles, which were used in Arabic poetry of the 7th and 8th centuries. Then after a while, his student Akhfash added or compensated another meter to his tutor's meters, so overall, we now have 16 different meters in Arabic poetry. These meters have been formed by various combinations of 8 different feet and each foot is combined of rudimentary units called Sabab and Wated which are combinations of movement (/) and silent (ʘ) letters. On the other hand in English, we are dealing with another system of metrical prosody. In this language, feet are consisted of stressed and unstressed syllables and are of six types: iamb, trochee, dactyl, anapest, spondee, and pyrrhic. Using the descriptive-analytic method, in this research we aim at making a comparison between Arabic and English systems of metrical prosody to investigate their similarities and differences. The results show that both of them are quantitative and both of them rely on syllables in afoot. But unlike Arabic, English is utilizing another rhyme system and the number of feet in a line differs from Arabic; also, its feet are combined of stressed and unstressed syllables, while those of Arabic is a combination of movement and silent letters.

Keywords: Arabic prosody, English prosody, foot, meter, poetry

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