Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2561

Search results for: vocabulary teaching

2561 Observing Vocabulary Teaching Strategies in English Classrooms in Saudi Schools

Authors: Mohammed Hassan Alshaikhi

Abstract:

Teaching vocabulary is a fundamental step in helping students to develop a good grasp of language. Exploring new strategies is an essential part of improving the teaching of vocabulary. The study aimed to explore the teaching vocabulary strategies in Saudi primary classrooms (aged 11 and 12 years old) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The study was based on qualitative data collected from a large-scale case study, which utilised observations at eight male state and private primary schools during the academic year 2016-2017. The observations were transcribed, coded and entered into Nvivo software to be organised and analysed. Varying teaching vocabulary strategies were explored, and then they were circulated to many English teachers to be used in their classes.

Keywords: case study, English language, Saudi teachers, teaching vocabulary strategies

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2560 Methodological Issues of Teaching Vocabulary in a Technical University

Authors: Elza Salakhova

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to consider some common difficulties encountered in teaching vocabulary in technical higher educational institutions. It deals with the problem of teaching special vocabulary in the process of teaching a foreign language. There have been analyzed some problems in teaching a foreign language to learners of a technical higher establishment. There are some recommendations for teachers to motivate their students to learn and master a foreign language through learning terminology.

Keywords: professionally-oriented study, motivation, technical university, foreign language

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2559 The Use of Semantic Mapping Technique When Teaching English Vocabulary at Saudi Schools

Authors: Mohammed Hassan Alshaikhi

Abstract:

Vocabulary is essential factor of learning and mastering any languages, and it helps learners to communicate with others and to be understood. The aim of this study was to examine whether semantic mapping technique was helpful in terms of improving student's English vocabulary learning comparing to the traditional technique. The students’ age was between 11 and 13 years old. There were 60 students in total who participated in this study. 30 students were in the treatment group (target vocabulary items were taught with semantic mapping). The other 30 students were in the control group (the target vocabulary items were taught by a traditional technique). A t-test was used with the results of pre-test and post-test in order to examine the outcomes of using semantic mapping when teaching vocabulary. The results showed that the vocabulary mastery in the treatment group was increased more than the control group.

Keywords: English language, learning vocabulary, Saudi teachers, semantic mapping, teaching vocabulary strategies

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2558 EFL Saudi Students' Use of Vocabulary via Twitter

Authors: A. Alshabeb

Abstract:

Vocabulary is one of the elements that links the four skills of reading, writing, speaking, and listening and is very critical in learning a foreign language. This study aims to determine how Saudi Arabian EFL students learn English vocabulary via Twitter. The study adopts a mixed sequential research design in collecting and analysing data. The results of the study provide several recommendations for vocabulary learning. Moreover, the study can help teachers to consider the possibilities of using Twitter further, and perhaps to develop new approaches to vocabulary teaching and to support students in their use of social media.

Keywords: social media, twitter, vocabulary, web 2

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2557 Comparison Learning Vocabulary Implicitly and Explicitly

Authors: Akram Hashemi

Abstract:

This study provided an empirical evidence for learners of elementary level of language proficiency to investigate the potential role of contextualization in vocabulary learning. Prior to the main study, pilot study was performed to determine the reliability and validity of the researcher-made pretest and posttest. After manifesting the homogeneity of the participants, the participants (n = 90) were randomly assigned into three equal groups, i.e., two experimental groups and a control group. They were pretested by a vocabulary test, in order to test participants' pre-knowledge of vocabulary. Then, vocabulary instruction was provided through three methods of visual instruction, the use of context and the use of conventional techniques. At the end of the study, all participants took the same posttest in order to assess their vocabulary gain. The results of independent sample t-test indicated that there is a significant difference between learning vocabulary visually and learning vocabulary contextually. The results of paired sample t-test showed that different teaching strategies have significantly different impacts on learners’ vocabulary gains. Also, the contextual strategy was significantly more effective than visual strategy in improving students’ performance in vocabulary test.

Keywords: vocabulary instruction, explicit instruction, implicit instruction, strategy

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2556 Using Happening Performance in Vocabulary Teaching

Authors: Mustafa Gultekin

Abstract:

It is believed that drama can be used in language classes to create a positive atmosphere for students to use the target language in an interactive way. Thus, drama has been extensively used in many settings in language classes. Although happening has been generally used as a performance art of theatre, this new kind of performance has not been widely known in language teaching area. Therefore, it can be an innovative idea to use happening in language classes, and thus a positive environment can be created for students to use the language in an interactive way. Happening can be defined as an art performance that puts emphasis on interaction in an audience. Because of its interactive feature, happening can also be used in language classes to motivate students to use the language in an interactive environment. The present study aims to explain how a happening performance can be applied to a learning environment to teach vocabulary in English. In line with this purpose, a learning environment was designed for a vocabulary presentation lesson. At the end of the performance, students were asked to compare the traditional way of teaching and happening performance in terms of effectiveness. It was found that happening performance provided the students with a more creative and interactive environment to use the language. Therefore, happening can be used in language classrooms as an innovative tool for education.

Keywords: English, happening, language learning, vocabulary teaching

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2555 Motivation on Vocabulary and Reading Skill via Teacher-Created Website for Thai Students

Authors: P. Klinkesorn, S. Yordchim, T. Gibbs, J. Achariyopas

Abstract:

Vocabulary and reading skill were examined in terms of teaching and learning via teacher-created website. The aims of this study are 1) to survey students’ opinions on the teacher-created website for learning vocabulary and reading skill 2) to survey the students’ motivation for learning vocabulary and reading skill through the teacher-created website. Motivation was applied to the results of the questionnaires and interview forms. Finding suggests that Teacher-Created Website can increase students’ motivation to read more, build up a large stock of vocabulary and improve their understanding of the vocabulary. Implications for developing both social engagement and emotional satisfaction are discussed.

Keywords: motivation, teacher-created website, Thai students, vocabulary and reading skill

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2554 Using Music: An Effective Medium of Teaching Vocabulary in ESL Classroom

Authors: Takwa Jahan

Abstract:

Music can be used in ESL classroom to create a learning environment. As literature abounds with positive statements, music can be used as a vehicle for second language acquisition. Music can be applied as an instrument to help second language learners to acquire vocabulary, grammar, spelling and other four skills and to expand cultural knowledge. Vocabulary learning is perceived boring by learners. As listening to music and singing songs are enjoyable to students, it can be used effectively to acquire vocabulary in second language. This paper reports a study to find out how music exhilarates vocabulary acquisition as the learners stay relaxed and thus learning becomes more enjoyable. For conducting my research two groups of fifty students- music and non-music group were formed. Data were collected through class observation, test, questionnaires, and interview. The finding shows that music group acquired much amount of vocabulary than the non-music group. They enjoyed vocabulary learning activities based on listening songs.

Keywords: effective instrument, ESL classroom, music, relax environment, vocabulary learning

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2553 The Effect of Language and Literature Integration on the Teaching of English Vocabulary and Grammar in Secondary Schools in Zamfara State, Nigeria

Authors: Umar Bello

Abstract:

Literature has become an invaluable subject which has added a great value and contribution to the teaching of English language and the discovery of many other developed ideas. Literature produces an exhilarating impulse that imprints a lasting picture on the mind of a learner. Many researchers have devised various means and approaches to language Teaching methods which remain unconvinging and which yield little result, but it has remained unconvincing because it has only produced little results. Devicing a method that eliminates monotony and boredome to learners is a good factor that enhances students’ motivation to learning. In this sense, literature and language become unavoidable components that aid intellectual development. This study examines the indispensability of literature as a means of English Language teaching to secondary school classes. The researcher has developed many instructive activities which are believed will help students to improve their study in grammar and vocabulary. The researcher has used quasi-experimental approach using experimental group and control group to find out how literature enhances the students grammar as well as their vocabulary. The findings revealed a positive performance in the experimental group doing better than the control group using simple percentage. The results make it clear that literature allows learners to pay more attention and develop more interest to their studies. In giving a perspicacious linguistic development, literature therefore remains an essential tool for language teaching classrooms, thereby enhancing their grammatical and vocabulary usage.

Keywords: teaching vocabulary, integration, poetry, classroom

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2552 Grounding Chinese Language Vocabulary Teaching and Assessment in the Working Memory Research

Authors: Chan Kwong Tung

Abstract:

Since Baddeley and Hitch’s seminal research in 1974 on working memory (WM), this topic has been of great interest to language educators. Although there are some variations in the definitions of WM, recent findings in WM have contributed vastly to our understanding of language learning, especially its effects on second language acquisition (SLA). For example, the phonological component of WM (PWM) and the executive component of WM (EWM) have been found to be positively correlated with language learning. This paper discusses two general, yet highly relevant WM findings that could directly affect the effectiveness of Chinese Language (CL) vocabulary teaching and learning, as well as the quality of its assessment. First, PWM is found to be critical for the long-term learning of phonological forms of new words. Second, EWM is heavily involved in interpreting the semantic characteristics of new words, which consequently affects the quality of learners’ reading comprehension. These two ideas are hardly discussed in the Chinese literature, both conceptual and empirical. While past vocabulary acquisition studies have mainly focused on the cognitive-processing approach, active processing, ‘elaborate processing’ (or lexical elaboration) and other effective learning tasks and strategies, it is high time to balance the spotlight to the WM (particularly PWM and EWM) to ensure an optimum control on the teaching and learning effectiveness of such approaches, as well as the validity of this language assessment. Given the unique phonological, orthographical and morphological properties of the CL, this discussion will shed some light on the vocabulary acquisition of this Sino-Tibetan language family member. Together, these two WM concepts could have crucial implications for the design, development, and planning of vocabularies and ultimately reading comprehension teaching and assessment in language education. Hopefully, this will raise an awareness and trigger a dialogue about the meaning of these findings for future language teaching, learning, and assessment.

Keywords: Chinese Language, working memory, vocabulary assessment, vocabulary teaching

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2551 The Role of Vocabulary in Reading Comprehension

Authors: Engku Haliza Engku Ibrahim, Isarji Sarudin, Ainon Jariah Muhamad

Abstract:

It is generally agreed that many factors contribute to one’s reading comprehension and there is consensus that vocabulary size one of the main factors. This study explores the relationship between second language learners’ vocabulary size and their reading comprehension scores. 130 Malay pre-university students of a public university participated in this study. They were students of an intensive English language programme doing preparatory English courses to pursue bachelors degree in English. A quantitative research method was employed based on the Vocabulary Levels Test by Nation (1990) and the reading comprehension score of the in-house English Proficiency Test. A review of the literature indicates that a somewhat positive correlation is to be expected though findings of this study can only be explicated once the final analysis has been carried out. This is an ongoing study and it is anticipated that results of this research will be finalized in the near future. The findings will help provide beneficial implications for the prediction of reading comprehension performance. It also has implications for the teaching of vocabulary in the ESL context. A better understanding of the relationship between vocabulary size and reading comprehension scores will enhance teachers’ and students’ awareness of the importance of vocabulary acquisition in the L2 classroom.

Keywords: vocabulary size, vocabulary learning, reading comprehension, ESL

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2550 Chinese Vocabulary Acquisition and Mobile Assisted Language Learning

Authors: Yuqing Sun

Abstract:

Chinese has been regarded as one of the most difficult languages in learning due to its complex spelling structure, difficult pronunciation, as well as its varying forms. Since vocabulary acquisition is the basic process to acquire a language, to express yourself, to compose a sentence, and to conduct a communication, so learning the vocabulary is of great importance. However, the vocabulary contains pronunciation, spelling, recognition and application which may seem as a huge work. This may pose a question for the language teachers (language teachers in China who teach Chinese to the foreign students): How to teach them in an effective way? Traditionally, teachers have no choice but teach it all by themselves, then with the development of technology, they can use computer as a tool to help them (Computer Assisted Language Learning or CALL). Now, they move into the Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) method to guide their teaching, upon which the appraisal is convincing. It diversifies the learning material and the way of output, which can activate learners’ curiosity and accelerate their understanding. This paper will focus on actual case studies occurring in the universities in China of teaching the foreign students to learn Chinese, and the analysis of the utilization of WeChat channel as an example of MALL model to explore the active role of MALL to enhance the effectiveness of Chinese vocabulary acquisition.

Keywords: Chinese, vocabulary acquisition, MALL, case

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2549 The Application of Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching EFL Students to Understand Spoken Coinages: Based on an Experiment with Speakers of Russian

Authors: Ekaterina Lukianchenko

Abstract:

The present article addresses the nuances of teaching English vocabulary to Russian-speaking students. The experiment involving 39 participants aged 17 to 21 proves that the key to understanding spoken coinages is not only the knowledge of their constituents, but rather the understanding of the context and co-text. The volunteers who took part knew the constituents, but did not know the meaning of the words. The assumption of the authors consists in the fact that the structure of the concept has a direct relation with the form of the particular vocabulary unit, but its form is secondary to its meaning, if the word is a spoken coinage, which is partly proved by the fact that in modern slang words have multiple meanings, as well as one notion can have various embodiments that have virtually nothing in common. The choice of vocabulary items that youngsters use is not exactly arbitrary, but, even if complex nominals are taken into consideration, whose meaning seems clear, as it looks like a sum of their constituents’ meanings, they are still impossible to understand without any context or co-text, as a lot of them are idiomatic, non-transparent. It is further explained what methods might be effective in teaching students how to deal with new words they encounter in real-life situations and how student’s knowledge of vocabulary might be enhanced.

Keywords: spoken language, cognitive linguistics, complex nominals, nominals with the incorporated object, concept, EFL, communicative language teaching

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2548 Using Vocabulary Instructional Materials in Improving the Grade Four Students' Learning in Science

Authors: Shirly May Balais

Abstract:

This study aims to evaluate the effects of vocabulary instruction in improving the students’ learning in science. The teacher-researcher utilized the vocabulary instructional materials in enriching the science vocabulary of grade four learners. The students were also given an achievement test to determine the effects of vocabulary instructional materials. The assessment indicated that students had shown improvement in comprehension and science literacy. This also helps the students to grasp, understand, and communicate appropriate science concepts and the integration of imagery makes learning science fun. In this research, descriptive qualitative methods and observation interviews were used to describe the effects of using vocabulary instructional materials in improving the science vocabulary of grade four learners. The students’ perceptions were studied, analyzed, and interpreted qualitatively.

Keywords: instruction, learning, science, vocabulary

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2547 A Comparison of the First Language Vocabulary Used by Indonesian Year 4 Students and the Vocabulary Taught to Them in English Language Textbooks

Authors: Fitria Ningsih

Abstract:

This study concerns on the process of making corpus obtained from Indonesian year 4 students’ free writing compared to the vocabulary taught in English language textbooks. 369 students’ sample writings from 19 public elementary schools in Malang, East Java, Indonesia and 5 selected English textbooks were analyzed through corpus in linguistics method using AdTAT -the Adelaide Text Analysis Tool- program. The findings produced wordlists of the top 100 words most frequently used by students and the top 100 words given in English textbooks. There was a 45% match between the two lists. Furthermore, the classifications of the top 100 most frequent words from the two corpora based on part of speech found that both the Indonesian and English languages employed a similar use of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and prepositions. Moreover, to see the contextualizing the vocabulary of learning materials towards the students’ need, a depth-analysis dealing with the content and the cultural views from the vocabulary taught in the textbooks was discussed through the criteria developed from the checklist. Lastly, further suggestions are addressed to language teachers to understand the students’ background such as recognizing the basic words students acquire before teaching them new vocabulary in order to achieve successful learning of the target language.

Keywords: corpus, frequency, English, Indonesian, linguistics, textbooks, vocabulary, wordlists, writing

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2546 To Gamify Learning English Academic Vocabulary Through Interactive Web-Based E-Books: International Students

Authors: Rabea Alfahad

Abstract:

Learning English academic vocabulary poses a challenge on learning English.In this study, we harnessed interactive web-based e-books, and usedgamification and collaborative responsive writingto teach English academic vocabulary. We recruited 50 international students to investigate the impact of gamification on the participants’ learning gains. In so doing, the participants were randomly assigned to two groups: one group learned English academic vocabulary with gamification, and the second group learnedthem with traditional instructional methods. We used a pre/posttest to gauge the students’ cognitive attainment. We then administered independent samples t-test to find out the impact of gamification on learning academic vocabulary. We also employed an IMMS to collect data regarding the motivational level of the students. We administered a MANOVA test to measure the motivational level of the students in both groups. The results of this study suggested that …

Keywords: english language learners, technologhy integration, teaching, gamification

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2545 Learning Vocabulary with SkELL: Developing a Methodology with University Students in Japan Using Action Research

Authors: Henry R. Troy

Abstract:

Corpora are becoming more prevalent in the language classroom, especially in the development of dictionaries and course materials. Nevertheless, corpora are still perceived by many educators as difficult to use directly in the classroom, a process which is also known as “data-driven learning” (DDL). Action research has been identified as a method by which DDL’s efficiency can be increased, but it is also an approach few studies on DDL have employed. Studies into the effectiveness of DDL in language education in Japan are also rare, and investigations focused more on student and teacher reactions rather than pre and post-test scores are rarer still. This study investigates the student and teacher reactions to the use of SkELL, a free online corpus designed to be user-friendly, for vocabulary learning at a university in Japan. Action research is utilized to refine the teaching methodology, with changes to the method based on student and teacher feedback received via surveys submitted after each of the four implementations of DDL. After some training, the students used tablets to study the target vocabulary autonomously in pairs and groups, with the teacher acting as facilitator. The results show that the students enjoyed using SkELL and felt it was effective for vocabulary learning, while the teaching methodology grew in efficiency throughout the course. These findings suggest that action research can be a successful method for increasing the efficacy of DDL in the language classroom, especially with teachers and students who are new to the practice.

Keywords: action research, corpus linguistics, data-driven learning, vocabulary learning

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2544 Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test in Indian ESL Context

Authors: Vijaya

Abstract:

This paper reports the results of a study that measures the level of receptive vocabularies using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) in an ESL context. PPVT is a popular standardized test used to measure the vocabulary level of L1 learners. In this study, PPVT was administered to fourteen 9 to 11 year old Indian ESL learners from the fifth standard from a school in Hyderabad. Their performance is compared with the age appropriate performance of L1 learners. Their performance on noun versus verb items is also compared. The results are discussed concerning the learning goals set by the National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) position paper on Teaching of English in India.

Keywords: national council for educational research and training, India, PPVT, second language acquistion, vocabulary acquisition

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2543 Explaining Listening Comprehension among L2 Learners of English: The Contribution of Vocabulary Knowledge and Working Memory Capacity

Authors: Ahmed Masrai

Abstract:

Listening comprehension constitutes a considerable challenge for the second language (L2) learners, but a little is known about the explanatory power of different variables in explaining variance in listening comprehension. Since research in this area, to the researcher's knowledge, is relatively small in comparison to that focusing on the relationship between reading comprehension and factors such as vocabulary and working memory, there is a need for studies that are seeking to fill the gap in our knowledge about the specific contribution of working memory capacity (WMC), aural vocabulary knowledge and written vocabulary knowledge to explaining listening comprehension. Among 130 English as foreign language learners, the present study examines what proportion of the variance in listening comprehension is explained by aural vocabulary knowledge, written vocabulary knowledge, and WMC. Four measures were used to collect the required data for the study: (1) A-Lex, a measure of aural vocabulary knowledge; (2) XK-Lex, a measure of written vocabulary knowledge; (3) Listening Span Task, a measure of WMC and; (4) IELTS Listening Test, a measure of listening comprehension. The results show that aural vocabulary knowledge is the strongest predictor of listening comprehension, followed by WMC, while written vocabulary knowledge is the weakest predictor. The study discusses implications for the explanatory power of aural vocabulary knowledge and WMC to listening comprehension and pedagogical practice in L2 classrooms.

Keywords: listening comprehension, second language, vocabulary knowledge, working memory

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2542 Improving Vocabulary and Listening Comprehension via Watching French Films without Subtitles: Positive Results

Authors: Yelena Mazour-Matusevich, Jean-Robert Ancheta

Abstract:

This study is based on more than fifteen years of experience of teaching a foreign language, in my case French, to the English-speaking students. It represents a qualitative research on foreign language learners’ reaction and their gains in terms of vocabulary and listening comprehension through repeatedly viewing foreign feature films with the original sountrack but without English subtitles. The initial idea emerged upon realization that the first challenge faced by my students when they find themselves in a francophone environment has been their lack of listening comprehension. Their inability to understand colloquial speech affects not only their academic performance, but their psychological health as well. To remedy this problem, I have designed and applied for many years my own teaching method based on one particular French film, exceptionally suited, for the reasons described in detail in the paper, for the intermediate-advanced level foreign language learners. This project, conducted together with my undergraduate assistant and mentoree J-R Ancheta, aims at showing how the paralinguistic features, such as characters’ facial expressions, settings, music, historical background, images provided before the actual viewing, etc., offer crucial support and enhance students’ listening comprehension. The study, based on students’ interviews, also offers special pedagogical techniques, such as ‘anticipatory’ vocabulary lists and exercises, drills, quizzes and composition topics that have proven to boost students’ performance. For this study, only the listening proficiency and vocabulary gains of the interviewed participants were assessed.

Keywords: comprehension, film, listening, subtitles, vocabulary

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2541 Signed Language Phonological Awareness: Building Deaf Children's Vocabulary in Signed and Written Language

Authors: Lynn Mcquarrie, Charlotte Enns

Abstract:

The goal of this project was to develop a visually-based, signed language phonological awareness training program and to pilot the intervention with signing deaf children (ages 6 -10 years/ grades 1 - 4) who were beginning readers to assess the effects of systematic explicit American Sign Language (ASL) phonological instruction on both ASL vocabulary and English print vocabulary learning. Growing evidence that signing learners utilize visually-based signed language phonological knowledge (homologous to the sound-based phonological level of spoken language processing) when reading underscore the critical need for further research on the innovation of reading instructional practices for visual language learners. Multiple single-case studies using a multiple probe design across content (i.e., sign and print targets incorporating specific ASL phonological parameters – handshapes) was implemented to examine if a functional relationship existed between instruction and acquisition of these skills. The results indicated that for all cases, representing a variety of language abilities, the visually-based phonological teaching approach was exceptionally powerful in helping children to build their sign and print vocabularies. Although intervention/teaching studies have been essential in testing hypotheses about spoken language phonological processes supporting non-deaf children’s reading development, there are no parallel intervention/teaching studies exploring hypotheses about signed language phonological processes in supporting deaf children’s reading development. This study begins to provide the needed evidence to pursue innovative teaching strategies that incorporate the strengths of visual learners.

Keywords: American sign language phonological awareness, dual language strategies, vocabulary learning, word reading

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2540 Raising Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) Scores through Purpose-Driven Vocabulary Acquisition

Authors: Edward Sarich, Jack Ryan

Abstract:

In contrast to learning new vocabulary incidentally in one’s first language, foreign language vocabulary is often acquired purposefully, because a lack of natural exposure requires it to be studied in an artificial environment. It follows then that foreign language vocabulary may be more efficiently acquired if it is purpose-driven, or linked to a clear and desirable outcome. The research described in this paper relates to the early stages of what is seen as a long-term effort to measure the effectiveness of a methodology for purpose-driven foreign language vocabulary instruction, specifically by analyzing whether directed studying from high-frequency vocabulary lists leads to an improvement in Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) scores. The research was carried out in two sections of a first-year university English composition class at a small university in Japan. The results seem to indicate that purposeful study from relevant high-frequency vocabulary lists can contribute to raising TOEIC scores and that the test preparation methodology used in this study was thought by students to be beneficial in helping them to prepare to take this high-stakes test.

Keywords: corpus vocabulary, language asssessment, second language vocabulary acquisition, TOEIC test preparation

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2539 Contentious Issues Concerning the Methodology of Using the Lexical Approach in Teaching ESP

Authors: Elena Krutskikh, Elena Khvatova

Abstract:

In tertiary settings expanding students’ vocabulary and teaching discursive competence is seen as one of the chief goals of a professional development course. However, such a focus often is detrimental to students’ cognitive competences, such as analysis, synthesis, and creative processing of information, and deprives students of motivation for self-improvement and self-development of language skills. The presentation is going to argue that in an ESP course special attention should be paid to reading/listening which can promote understanding and using the language as a tool for solving significant real world problems, including professional ones. It is claimed that in the learning process it is necessary to maintain a balance between the content and the linguistic aspect of the educational process as language acquisition is inextricably linked with mental activity and the need to express oneself is a primary stimulus for using a language. A study conducted among undergraduates indicates that they place a premium on quality materials that motivate them and stimulate their further linguistic and professional development. Thus, more demands are placed on study materials that should contain new information for students and serve not only as a source of new vocabulary but also prepare them for real tasks related to professional activities.

Keywords: critical reading, english for professional development, english for specific purposes, high order thinking skills, lexical approach, vocabulary acquisition

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2538 Neuroplasticity in Language Acquisition in English as Foreign Language Classrooms

Authors: Sabitha Rahim

Abstract:

In the context of teaching vocabulary of English as Foreign Language (EFL), the confluence of memory and retention is one of the most significant factors in students' language acquisition. The progress of students engaged in foreign language acquisition is often stymied by vocabulary attrition, which leads to learners' lack of confidence and motivation. However, among other factors, little research has investigated the importance of neuroplasticity in Foreign Language acquisition and how underused neural pathways lead to the loss of plasticity, thereby affecting the learners’ vocabulary retention and motivation. This research explored the effect of enhancing vocabulary acquisition of EFL students in the Foundation Year at King Abdulaziz University through various methods and neuroplasticity exercises that reinforced their attention, motivation, and engagement. It analyzed the results to determine if stimulating the brain of EFL learners by various physical and mental activities led to the improvement in short and long term memory in vocabulary retention. The main data collection methods were student surveys, assessment records of teachers, student achievement test results, and students' follow-up interviews. A key implication of this research is for the institutions to consider having multiple varieties of student activities promoting brain plasticity within the classrooms as an effective tool for foreign language acquisition. Building awareness among the faculty and adapting the curriculum to include activities that promote brain plasticity ensures an enhanced learning environment and effective language acquisition in EFL classrooms.

Keywords: language acquisition, neural paths, neuroplasticity, vocabulary attrition

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2537 Receptive Vocabulary Development in Adolescents and Adults with Down Syndrome

Authors: Esther Moraleda Sepúlveda, Soraya Delgado Matute, Paula Salido Escudero, Raquel Mimoso García, M Cristina Alcón Lancho

Abstract:

Although there is some consensus when it comes to establishing the lexicon as one of the strengths of language in people with Down Syndrome (DS), little is known about its evolution throughout development and changes based on age. The objective of this study was to find out if there are differences in receptive vocabulary between adolescence and adulthood. In this research, 30 people with DS between 11 and 40 years old, divided into two age ranges (11-18; 19 - 30) and matched in mental age, were evaluated through the Peabody Vocabulary Test. The results show significant differences between both groups in favor of the group with the oldest chronological age and a direct correlation between chronological age and receptive vocabulary development, regardless of mental age. These data support the natural evolution of the passive lexicon in people with DS.

Keywords: down syndrome, language, receptive vocabulary, adolescents, adults

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2536 A Comparative Analysis of Body Idioms in Two Romance Languages and in English Aiming at Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

Authors: Marilei Amadeu Sabino

Abstract:

Before the advent of Cognitive Linguistics, metaphor was considered a stylistic issue, but now it is viewed as a critical component of everyday language and a fundamental mechanism of human conceptualizations of the world. It means that human beings' conceptual system (the way we think and act) is metaphorical in nature. Another interesting hypothesis in Cognitive Linguistics is that cognition is embodied, that is, our cognition is influenced by our experiences in the physical world: the mind is connected to the body and the body influences the mind. In this sense, it is believed that many conceptual metaphors appear to be potentially universal or near-universal, because people across the world share certain bodily experiences. In these terms, many metaphors may be identical or very similar in several languages. Thus, in this study, we analyzed some somatic (also called body) idioms of Italian and Portuguese languages, in order to investigate the proportion in which their metaphors are the same, similar or different in both languages. It was selected hundreds of Italian idioms in dictionaries and indicated their corresponding idioms in Portuguese. The analysis allowed to conclude that much of the studied expressions are really structurally, semantically and metaphorically identical or similar in both languages. We also contrasted some Portuguese and Italian somatic expressions to their corresponding English idioms to have a multilingual perspective of the issue, and it also led to the conclusion that the most common idioms based on metaphors are probably those that have to do with the human body. Although this is mere speculation and needs more study, the results found incite relevant discussions on issues that matter Foreign and Second Language Teaching and Learning, including the retention of vocabulary. The teaching of the metaphorically different body idioms also plays an important role in language learning and teaching as it will be shown in this paper. Acknowledgments: FAPESP – São Paulo State Research Support Foundation –the financial support offered (proc. n° 2017/02064-7).

Keywords: body idioms, cognitive linguistics, metaphor, vocabulary teaching and learning

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2535 Comparing the Contribution of General Vocabulary Knowledge and Academic Vocabulary Knowledge to Learners' Academic Achievement

Authors: Reem Alsager, James Milton

Abstract:

Coxhead’s (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) believed to be essential for students pursuing higher education and helps differentiate English for Academic Purposes (EAP) from General English as a course of study, and it is thought to be important for comprehending English academic texts. It has been described that AWL is an infrequent, discrete set of vocabulary items unreachable from general language. On the other hand, it has been known for a period of time that general vocabulary knowledge is a good predictor of academic achievement. This study, however, is an attempt to measure and compare the contribution of academic knowledge and general vocabulary knowledge to learners’ GPA and examine what knowledge is a better predictor of academic achievement and investigate whether AWL as a specialised list of infrequent words relates to the frequency effect. The participants were comprised of 44 international postgraduate students in Swansea University, all from the School of Management, following the taught MSc (Master of Science). The study employed the Academic Vocabulary Size Test (AVST) and the XK_Lex vocabulary size test. The findings indicate that AWL is a list based on word frequency rather than a discrete and unique word list and that the AWL performs the same function as general vocabulary, with tests of each found to measure largely the same quality of knowledge. The findings also suggest that the contribution that AWL knowledge provides for academic success is not sufficient and that general vocabulary knowledge is better in predicting academic achievement. Furthermore, the contribution that academic knowledge added above the contribution of general vocabulary knowledge when combined is really small and noteworthy. This study’s results are in line with the argument and suggest that it is the development of general vocabulary size is an essential quality for academic success and acquiring the words of the AWL will form part of this process. The AWL by itself does not provide sufficient coverage, and is probably not specialised enough, for knowledge of this list to influence this general process. It can be concluded that AWL as an academic word list epitomizes only a fraction of words that are actually needed for academic success in English and that knowledge of academic vocabulary combined with general vocabulary knowledge above the most frequent 3000 words is what matters most to ultimate academic success.

Keywords: academic achievement, academic vocabulary, general vocabulary, vocabulary size

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2534 Effective Strategies for Teaching English Language to Beginners in Primary Schools in Nigeria

Authors: Halima Musa Kamilu

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effective strategies for teaching English language to learners in primary schools in Nigeria. English language development is the systematic use of instructional strategies designed to promote the acquisition of English by pupils in primary schools whose primary language is not English. Learning a second language is through total immersion. These strategies support this learning method, allowing pupils to have the knowledge of English language in a pattern similar to the way they learned their native language through regular interaction with others who already know the language. The focus is on fluency and learning to speak English in a social context with native speakers. The strategies allow for effective acquisition. The paper also looked into the following areas: visuals that reinforce spoken or written words, employ gestures for added emphasis, adjusting of speech, stressing of high-frequency vocabulary words, use of fewer idioms and clarifying the meaning of words or phrases in context, stressing of participatory learning and maintaining a low anxiety level and boosting of enthusiasm. It recommended that the teacher include vocabulary words that will make the content more comprehensible to the learner.

Keywords: effective, strategies, teaching, beginners and primary schools

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2533 Philosophical Foundations of Education at the Kazakh Languages by Aiding Communicative Methods

Authors: Duisenova Marzhan

Abstract:

This paper considers the looking from a philosophical point of view the interactive technology and tiered developing Kazakh language teaching primary school pupils through the method of linguistic communication, content and teaching methods formed in the education system. The values determined by the formation of new practical ways that could lead to a novel qualitative level and solving the problem. In the formation of the communicative competence of elementary school students would be to pay attention to other competencies. It helps to understand the motives and needs socialization of students, the development of their cognitive abilities and participate in language relations arising from different situations. Communicative competence is the potential of its own in pupils creative language activity. In this article, the Kazakh language teaching in primary school communicative method is presented. The purpose of learning communicative method, personal development, effective psychological development of the child, himself-education, expansion and growth of language skills and vocabulary, socialization of children, the adoption of the laws of life in the social environment, analyzed the development of vocabulary richness of the language that forms the erudition to ensure continued improvement of education of the child.

Keywords: communicative, culture, training, process, method, primary, competence

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2532 EFL Vocabulary Learning Strategies among Students in Greece, Their Preferences and Internet Technology

Authors: Theodorou Kyriaki, Ypsilantis George

Abstract:

Vocabulary learning has attracted a lot of attention in recent years, contrary to the neglected part of the past. Along with the interest in finding successful vocabulary teaching strategies, many scholars focused on locating learning strategies used by language learners. As a result, more and more studies in the area of language pedagogy have been investigating the use of strategies in vocabulary learning by different types of learners. A common instrument in this field is the questionnaire, a tool of work that was enriched by questions involving current technology, and it was further implemented to a sample of 300 Greek students whose age varied from 9 and 17 years. Strategies located were grouped into the three categories of memory, cognitive, and compensatory type and associations between these dependent variables were investigated. In addition, relations between dependent and independent variables (such as age, sex, type of school, cultural background, and grade in English) were pursued to investigate the impact on strategy selection. Finally, results were compared to findings of other studies in the same field to contribute to a hypothesis of ethnic differences in strategy selection. Results initially discuss preferred strategies of all participants and further indicate that: a) technology affects strategy selection while b) differences between ethnic groups are not statistically significant. A number of successful strategies are presented, resulting from correlations of strategy selection and final school grade in English.

Keywords: acquisition of English, internet technology, research among Greek students, vocabulary learning strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 436