Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 339

Search results for: chlorinated solvents

339 Comparative Analysis on the Evolution of Chlorinated Solvents Pollution in Granular Aquifers and Transition Zones to Aquitards

Authors: José M. Carmona, Diana Puigserver, Jofre Herrero


Chlorinated solvents belong to the group of nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) and have been involved in many contamination episodes. They are carcinogenic and recalcitrant pollutants that may be found in granular aquifers as: i) pools accumulated on low hydraulic conductivity layers; ii) immobile residual phase retained at the pore-scale by capillary forces; iii) dissolved phase in groundwater; iv) sorbed by particulate organic matter; and v) stored into the matrix of low hydraulic conductivity layers where they penetrated by molecular diffusion. The transition zone between granular aquifers and basal aquitards constitute the lowermost part of the aquifer and presents numerous fine-grained interbedded layers that give rise to significant textural contrasts. These layers condition the transport and fate of contaminants and lead to differences from the rest of the aquifer, given that: i) hydraulic conductivity of these layers is lower; ii) DNAPL tends to accumulate on them; iii) groundwater flow is slower in the transition zone and consequently pool dissolution is much slower; iv) sorbed concentrations are higher in the fine-grained layers because of their higher content in organic matter; v) a significant mass of pollutant penetrates into the matrix of these layers; and vi) this contaminant mass back-diffuses after remediation and the aquifer becomes contaminated again. Thus, contamination sources of chlorinated solvents are extremely more recalcitrant in transition zones, which has far-reaching implications for the environment. The aim of this study is to analyze the spatial and temporal differences in the evolution of biogeochemical processes in the transition zone and in the rest of the aquifer. For this, an unconfined aquifer with a transition zone in the lower part was selected at Vilafant (NE Spain). This aquifer was contaminated by perchloroethylene (PCE) in the 80’s. Distribution of PCE and other chloroethenes in groundwater and porewater was analyzed in: a) conventional piezometers along the plume and in two multilevel wells at the source of contamination; and b) porewater of fine grained materials from cores recovered when drilled the two multilevel wells. Currently, the highest concentrations continue to be recorded in the source area in the transition zone. By contrast, the lowest concentrations in this area correspond to the central part of the aquifer, where flow velocities are higher and a greater washing of the residual phase initially retained has occurred. The major findings of the study were: i) PCE metabolites were detected in the transition zone, where conditions were more reducing than in the rest of the aquifer; ii) however, reductive dechlorination was partial since only the formation of cis-dicholoroethylene (DCE) was reached; iii) In the central part of the aquifer, where conditions were predominantly oxidizing, the presence of nitrate significantly hindered the reductive declination of PCE. The remediation strategies to be implemented should be directed to enhance dissolution of the source, especially in the transition zone, where it is more recalcitrant. For example, by combining chemical and bioremediation methods, already tested at the laboratory scale with groundwater and sediments of this site.

Keywords: chlorinated solvents, chloroethenes, DNAPL, partial reductive dechlorination, PCE, transition zone to basal aquitard

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338 Adsorption of Chlorinated Pesticides in Drinking Water by Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Hacer Sule Gonul, Vedat Uyak


Intensive use of pesticides in agricultural activity causes mixing of these compounds into water sources with surface flow. Especially after the 1970s, a number of limitations imposed on the use of chlorinated pesticides that have a carcinogenic risk potential and regulatory limit have been established. These chlorinated pesticides discharge to water resources, transport in the water and land environment and accumulation in the human body through the food chain raises serious health concerns. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted considerable attention from on all because of their excellent mechanical, electrical, and environmental characteristics. Due to CNT particles' high degree of hydrophobic surfaces, these nanoparticles play critical role in the removal of water contaminants of natural organic matters, pesticides and phenolic compounds in water sources. Health concerns associated with chlorinated pesticides requires the removal of such contaminants from aquatic environment. Although the use of aldrin and atrazine was restricted in our country, repatriation of illegal entry and widespread use of such chemicals in agricultural areas cause increases for the concentration of these chemicals in the water supply. In this study, the compounds of chlorinated pesticides such as aldrin and atrazine compounds would be tried to eliminate from drinking water with carbon nanotube adsorption method. Within this study, 2 different types of CNT would be used including single-wall (SWCNT) and multi-wall (MWCNT) carbon nanotubes. Adsorption isotherms within the scope of work, the parameters affecting the adsorption of chlorinated pesticides in water are considered as pH, contact time, CNT type, CNT dose and initial concentration of pesticides. As a result, under conditions of neutral pH conditions with MWCNT respectively for atrazine and aldrin obtained adsorption capacity of determined as 2.24 µg/mg ve 3.84 µg/mg. On the other hand, the determined adsorption capacity rates for SWCNT for aldrin and atrazine has identified as 3.91 µg/mg ve 3.92 µg/mg. After all, each type of pesticide that provides superior performance in relieving SWCNT particles has emerged.

Keywords: pesticide, drinking water, carbon nanotube, adsorption

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337 Transport of Reactive Carbo-Iron Composite Particles for in situ Groundwater Remediation Investigated at Laboratory and Field Scale

Authors: Sascha E. Oswald, Jan Busch


The in-situ dechlorination of contamination by chlorinated solvents in groundwater via zero-valent iron (nZVI) is potentially an efficient and prompt remediation method. A key requirement is that nZVI has to be introduced in the subsurface in a way that substantial quantities of the contaminants are actually brought into direct contact with the nZVI in the aquifer. Thus it could be a more flexible and precise alternative to permeable reactive barrier techniques using granular iron. However, nZVI are often limited by fast agglomeration and sedimentation in colloidal suspensions, even more so in the aquifer sediments, which is a handicap for the application to treat source zones or contaminant plumes. Colloid-supported nZVI show promising characteristics to overcome these limitations and Carbo-Iron Colloids is a newly developed composite material aiming for that. The nZVI is built onto finely ground activated carbon of about a micrometer diameter acting as a carrier for it. The Carbo-Iron Colloids are often suspended with a polyanionic stabilizer, and carboxymethyl cellulose is one with good properties for that. We have investigated the transport behavior of Carbo-Iron Colloids (CIC) on different scales and for different conditions to assess its mobility in aquifer sediments as a key property for making its application feasible. The transport properties were tested in one-dimensional laboratory columns, a two-dimensional model aquifer and also an injection experiment in the field. Those experiments were accompanied by non-invasive tomographic investigations of the transport and filtration processes of CIC suspensions. The laboratory experiments showed that a larger part of the CIC can travel at least scales of meters for favorable but realistic conditions. Partly this is even similar to a dissolved tracer. For less favorable conditions this can be much smaller and in all cases a particular fraction of the CIC injected is retained mainly shortly after entering the porous medium. As field experiment a horizontal flow field was established, between two wells with a distance of 5 meters, in a confined, shallow aquifer at a contaminated site in North German lowlands. First a tracer test was performed and a basic model was set up to define the design of the CIC injection experiment. Then CIC suspension was introduced into the aquifer at the injection well while the second well was pumped and samples taken there to observe the breakthrough of CIC. This was based on direct visual inspection and total particle and iron concentrations of water samples analyzed in the laboratory later. It could be concluded that at least 12% of the CIC amount injected reached the extraction well in due course, some of it traveling distances larger than 10 meters in the non-uniform dipole flow field. This demonstrated that these CIC particles have a substantial mobility for reaching larger volumes of a contaminated aquifer and for interacting there by their reactivity with dissolved contaminants in the pore space. Therefore they seem suited well for groundwater remediation by in-situ formation of reactive barriers for chlorinated solvent plumes or even source removal.

Keywords: carbo-iron colloids, chlorinated solvents, in-situ remediation, particle transport, plume treatment

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336 The Gasification of Acetone via Partial Oxidation in Supercritical Water

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, Kai-Ting Hsieh


Organic solvents find various applications in many industrial sectors and laboratories as dilution solvents, dispersion solvents, cleaners and even lubricants. Millions of tons of Spent Organic Solvents (SOS) are generated each year worldwide, prompting the need for more efficient, cleaner and safer methods for the treatment and resource recovery of SOS. As a result, acetone, selected as a model compound for SOS, was gasified in supercritical water to assess the feasibility of resource recovery of SOS by means of supercritical water processes. Experiments were conducted with an autoclave reactor. Gaseous product is mainly consists of H2, CO, CO2 and CH4. The effects of three major operating parameters, the reaction temperature, from 673 to 773K, the dosage of oxidizing agent, from 0.3 to 0.5 stoichiometric oxygen, and the concentration of acetone in the feed, 0.1 and 0.2M, on the product gas composition, yield and heating value were evaluated with the water density fixed at about 0.188g/ml.

Keywords: acetone, gasification, SCW, supercritical water

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335 Field Study of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Degradation in Contaminated Groundwater via Micron Zero-Valent Iron Coupled with Biostimulation

Authors: Naijin Wu, Peizhong Li, Haijian Wang, Wenxia Wei, Yun Song


Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) pollution poses a severe threat to human health and is persistent in groundwater. Although chemical reduction or bioremediation is effective, it is still hard to achieve their complete and rapid dechlorination. Recently, the combination of zero-valent iron and biostimulation has been considered to be one of the most promising strategies, but field studies of this technology are scarce. In a typical site contaminated by various types of CAHs, basic physicochemical parameters of groundwater, CAHs and their product concentrations, and microbial abundance and diversity were monitored after a remediation slurry containing both micron zero-valent iron (mZVI) and biostimulation components were directly injected into the aquifer. Results showed that groundwater could form and keep low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), a neutral pH, and anoxic conditions after different degrees of fluctuations, which was benefit for the reductive dechlorination of CAHs. The injection also caused an obvious increase in the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration and sulfate reduction. After 253 days post-injection, the mean concentration of total chlorinated ethylene (CEE) from two monitoring wells decreased from 304 μg/L to 8 μg/L, and total chlorinated ethane (CEA) decreased from 548 μg/L to 108 μg/L. Occurrence of chloroethane (CA) suggested that hydrogenolysis dechlorination was one of the main degradation pathways for CEA, and also hints that biological dechlorination was activated. A significant increase of ethylene at day 67 post-injection indicated that dechlorination was complete. Additionally, the total bacterial counts increased by 2-3 orders of magnitude after 253 days post-injection. And the microbial species richness decreased and gradually changed to anaerobic/fermentative bacteria. The relative abundance of potential degradation bacteria increased corresponding to the degradation of CAHs. This work demonstrates that mZVI and biostimulation can be combined to achieve the efficient removal of various CAHs from contaminated groundwater sources.

Keywords: chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, groundwater, field study, zero-valent iron, biostimulation

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334 Spent Paint Solvent Recoveries by Ionic Liquids: Potential for Industrial Application

Authors: Mbongeni Mabaso, Kandasamy Moodley, Gan Redhi


The recovery of industrially valuable organic solvents from liquid waste, generated in chemical processes, is economically crucial to countries which need to import organic solvents. In view of this, the main objective of this study was to determine the ability of selected ionic liquids, namely, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulphate, [EMIM] [ESO4] and 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulphate, [EMpy][ESO4] to recover aromatic components from spent paint solvents. Preliminary studies done on the liquid waste, received from a paint manufacturing company, showed that the aromatic components were present in the range 6 - 21 % by volume. The separation of the aromatic components was performed with the ionic liquids listed above. The phases, resulting from the separation of the mixtures, were analysed with a Gas Chromatograph (GC) coupled to a FID detector. Chromatograms illustrate that the chosen ZB-Wax-Plus column gave excellent separation of all components of interest from the mixtures, including the isomers of xylene. The concentrations of aromatics recovered from the spent solvents were found to be the % ranges 13-33 and 23-49 respectively for imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquids. These results also show that there is a significant correlation between π-character of ionic liquids and the level of extraction. It is therefore concluded that ionic liquids have the potential for macro-scale recovery of re-useable solvents present in liquid waste emanating from paint manufacture.

Keywords: synthesis, ionic liquid, imidazolium, pyridinium, extraction, aromatic solvents, spent paint organic solvents

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333 Aggregation of Butanediyl-1,4-Bis(Tetradecyldimethylammonium Bromide) (14–4–14) Gemini Surfactants in Presence of Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol

Authors: P. Ajmal Koya, Tariq Ahmad Wagay, K. Ismail


One of the fundamental property of surfactant molecules are their ability to aggregate in water or binary mixtures of water and organic solvents as an effort to minimize their unfavourable interaction with the medium. In this work, influence two co-solvents (ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG)) on the aggregation properties of a cationic gemini surfactant, butanediyl-1,4-bis(tetradecyldimethylammonium bromide) (14–4–14), has been studied by conductance and steady state fluorescence at 298 K. The weight percentage of two co-solvents varied in between 0 and 50 % at an interval of 5 % up to 20 % and then 10 % up to 50 %. It was found that micellization process is delayed by the inclusion of both the co-solvents; consequently, a progressive increase was observed in critical micelle concentration (cmc) and Gibbs free energy of micellization (∆G0m), whereas a rough increase was observed in the values of degree of counter ion dissociation (α) and a decrease was obtained in values of average aggregation number (Nagg) and Stern-Volmer constant (KSV). At low weight percentage (up to 15 %) of co-solvents, 14–4–14 geminis were found to be almost equally prone to micellization both in EG–water (EG–WR) and in PG–water (PG–WR) mixed media while at high weight percentages they are more prone to micellization in EG–WR than in PG–WR mixed media.

Keywords: aggregation number, gemini surfactant, micellization, non aqueous solvent

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332 On Block Vandermonde Matrix Constructed from Matrix Polynomial Solvents

Authors: Malika Yaici, Kamel Hariche


In control engineering, systems described by matrix fractions are studied through properties of block roots, also called solvents. These solvents are usually dealt with in a block Vandermonde matrix form. Inverses and determinants of Vandermonde matrices and block Vandermonde matrices are used in solving problems of numerical analysis in many domains but require costly computations. Even though Vandermonde matrices are well known and method to compute inverse and determinants are many and, generally, based on interpolation techniques, methods to compute the inverse and determinant of a block Vandermonde matrix have not been well studied. In this paper, some properties of these matrices and iterative algorithms to compute the determinant and the inverse of a block Vandermonde matrix are given. These methods are deducted from the partitioned matrix inversion and determinant computing methods. Due to their great size, parallelization may be a solution to reduce the computations cost, so a parallelization of these algorithms is proposed and validated by a comparison using algorithmic complexity.

Keywords: block vandermonde matrix, solvents, matrix polynomial, matrix inverse, matrix determinant, parallelization

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331 Corrosion Behvaior of CS1018 in Various CO2 Capture Solvents

Authors: Aida Rafat, Ramazan Kahraman, Mert Atilhan


The aggressive corrosion behavior of conventional amine solvents is one of main barriers against large scale commerizaliation of amine absorption process for carbon capture application. Novel CO2 absorbents that exhibit minimal corrosivity against operation conditions are essential to lower corrosion damage and control and ensure more robustness in the capture plant. This work investigated corrosion behavior of carbon steel CS1018 in various CO2 absrobent solvents. The tested solvents included the classical amines MEA, DEA and MDEA, piperazine activated solvents MEA/PZ, MDEA/PZ and MEA/MDEA/PZ as well as mixtures of MEA and Room Temperature Ionic Liquids RTIL, namely MEA/[C4MIM][BF4] and MEA/[C4MIM][Otf]. Electrochemical polarization technique was used to determine the system corrosiveness in terms of corrosion rate and polarization behavior. The process parameters of interest were CO2 loading and solution temperature. Electrochemical resulted showed corrosivity order of classical amines at 40°C is MDEA> MEA > DEA wherase at 80°C corrosivity ranking changes to MEA > DEA > MDEA. Corrosivity rankings were mainly governed by CO2 absorption capacity at the test temperature. Corrosivity ranking for activated amines at 80°C was MEA/PZ > MDEA/PZ > MEA/MDEA/PZ. Piperazine addition seemed to have a dual advanatge in terms of enhancing CO2 absorption capacity as well as nullifying corrosion. For MEA/RTIL mixtures, the preliminary results showed that the partial repalcement of aqueous phase in MEA solution by the more stable nonvolatile RTIL solvents reduced corrosion rates considerably.

Keywords: corrosion, amines, CO2 capture, piperazine, ionic liquids

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330 Determination of Antioxidant Activities of Sumac (Rhus Coriaria) Extracts with Different Solvents

Authors: F. T. Senberber, N. Tugrul, E. Moroydor Derun


As a nutraceutical, sumac (Rhus Coriaria) was extracted by using different solvents of methanol, ethanol, and water. The DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) method of free radical scavenging capacity was used to determine the effects of solvent on antioxidant activities of the plant. The total phenolic content was studied by The Folin Ciocalteu Reagent method. The antioxidant activities of extracts exhibit minor changes in different solvents and varied in the range of 84.3–86.4 %. The total phenolic contents are affected by the selected solvent. The highest total phenolic content was determined at the liquid phase of water and it was estimated as 26.3 mg/g in gallic acid.

Keywords: DPPH, solvent, sumac, total phenolic content

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329 An Eco-Friendly Preparations of Izonicotinamide Quaternary Salts in Deep Eutectic Solvents

Authors: Dajana Gašo-Sokač, Valentina Bušić


Deep eutectic solvents (DES) are liquids composed of two or three safe, inexpensive components, often interconnected by noncovalent hydrogen bonds which produce eutectic mixture whose melting point is lower than that of each component. No data in literature have been found on the quaternization reaction in DES. The use of DES have several advantages: they are environmentally benign and biodegradable, easy for purification and simple for preparation. An environmentally sustainable method for preparing quaternary salts of izonicotinamide and substituted 2-bromoacetophenones was demonstrated here using choline chloride-based DES. The quaternization reaction was carried out by three synthetic approaches: conventional method, microwave and ultrasonic irradiation. We showed that the highest yields were obtained by the microwave method.

Keywords: deep eutectic solvents, izonicotinamide salts, microwave synthesis, ultrasonic irradiation

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328 Absence of Malignancy in Oral Epithelial Cells from Individuals Occupationally Exposed to Organic Solvents Working in the Shoe Industry

Authors: B. González-Yebra, B. Flores-Nieto, P. Aguilar-Salinas, M. Preciado Puga, A. L. González Yebra


The monitoring of populations occupationally exposed to organic solvents has been an important issue for several shoe factories for years since the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has advised on the potential carcinogenic risk of chemicals related to occupations. In order to detect if exposition to organic solvents used in some Mexican shoe factories contributes to oral carcinogenesis, we performed monitoring in three factories. Occupational exposure was determined by using monitors 3M. Organic solvents were assessed by gas chromatography. Then, we recruited 30 shoe workers (30.2 ± 8.4 years) and 10 unexposed subjects (43.3 ± 11.2 years) for the micronuclei (MN) test and immunodetection of some cancer biomarkers (ki-67, p16, caspase-3) in scraped oral epithelial cells. Monitored solvents detected were acetone, benzene, hexane, methyl ethyl ketone, and toluene in acceptable levels according to Official Mexican Norm. We found by MN test higher incidence of nuclear abnormalities (karyorrhexis, pycnosis, karyolysis, condensed chromatin, and macronuclei) in the exposed group than the non-exposed group. On the other hand, we found, a negative expression for Ki-67 and p16 in exfoliated epithelial cells from exposed and non-exposed to organic solvents subjects. Only caspase-3 shown positive patter of expression in 9/30 (30%) exposed subjects, and we detected high karyolysis incidence in caspase-3 subjects (p = 0.021). The absence of expression of proliferation markers p16 and ki-67 and presence of apoptosis marker caspase-3 are indicating the absence of malignancy in oral epithelial cells and low risk for oral cancer. It is a fact that the MN test is a very effective method to detect nuclear abnormalities in exfoliated buccal cells from subjects that have been exposed to organic solvents in the shoe industry. However, in order to improve this tool and predict cancer risk is it is mandatory to implement complementary tests as other biomarkers that can help to detect malignancy in individuals occupationally exposed.

Keywords: biomarkers, oral cancer, organic solvents, shoe industries

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327 COSMO-RS Prediction for Choline Chloride/Urea Based Deep Eutectic Solvent: Chemical Structure and Application as Agent for Natural Gas Dehydration

Authors: Tayeb Aissaoui, Inas M. AlNashef


In recent years, green solvents named deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been found to possess significant properties and to be applicable in several technologies. Choline chloride (ChCl) mixed with urea at a ratio of 1:2 and 80 °C was the first discovered DES. In this article, chemical structure and combination mechanism of ChCl: urea based DES were investigated. Moreover, the implementation of this DES in water removal from natural gas was reported. Dehydration of natural gas by ChCl:urea shows significant absorption efficiency compared to triethylene glycol. All above operations were retrieved from COSMOthermX software. This article confirms the potential application of DESs in gas industry.

Keywords: COSMO-RS, deep eutectic solvents, dehydration, natural gas, structure, organic salt

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326 Investigation of Deep Eutectic Solvents for Microwave Assisted Extraction and Headspace Gas Chromatographic Determination of Hexanal in Fat-Rich Food

Authors: Birute Bugelyte, Ingrida Jurkute, Vida Vickackaite


The most complicated step of the determination of volatile compounds in complex matrices is the separation of analytes from the matrix. Traditional analyte separation methods (liquid extraction, Soxhlet extraction) require a lot of time and labour; moreover, there is a risk to lose the volatile analytes. In recent years, headspace gas chromatography has been used to determine volatile compounds. To date, traditional extraction solvents have been used in headspace gas chromatography. As a rule, such solvents are rather volatile; therefore, a large amount of solvent vapour enters into the headspace together with the analyte. Because of that, the determination sensitivity of the analyte is reduced, a huge solvent peak in the chromatogram can overlap with the peaks of the analyts. The sensitivity is also limited by the fact that the sample can’t be heated at a higher temperature than the solvent boiling point. In 2018 it was suggested to replace traditional headspace gas chromatographic solvents with non-volatile, eco-friendly, biodegradable, inexpensive, and easy to prepare deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Generally, deep eutectic solvents have low vapour pressure, a relatively wide liquid range, much lower melting point than that of any of their individual components. Those features make DESs very attractive as matrix media for application in headspace gas chromatography. Also, DESs are polar compounds, so they can be applied for microwave assisted extraction. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of applying deep eutectic solvents for microwave assisted extraction and headspace gas chromatographic determination of hexanal in fat-rich food. Hexanal is considered one of the most suitable indicators of lipid oxidation degree as it is the main secondary oxidation product of linoleic acid, which is one of the principal fatty acids of many edible oils. Eight hydrophilic and hydrophobic deep eutectic solvents have been synthesized, and the influence of the temperature and microwaves on their headspace gas chromatographic behaviour has been investigated. Using the most suitable DES, microwave assisted extraction conditions and headspace gas chromatographic conditions have been optimized for the determination of hexanal in potato chips. Under optimized conditions, the quality parameters of the prepared technique have been determined. The suggested technique was applied for the determination of hexanal in potato chips and other fat-rich food.

Keywords: deep eutectic solvents, headspace gas chromatography, hexanal, microwave assisted extraction

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325 Separation of Chlorinated Plastics and Immobilization of Heavy Metals in Hazardous Automotive Shredder Residue

Authors: Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Nguyen Thi Thanh Truc, Byeong-Kyu Lee


In the present study, feasibility of the selective surface hydrophilization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by microwave treatment was evaluated to facilitate the separation from automotive shredder residue (ASR), by the froth flotation. The combination of 60 sec microwave treatment with PAC, a sharp and significant decrease about 16.5° contact angle of PVC was observed in ASR plastic compared with other plastics. The microwave treatment with the addition of PAC resulted in a synergetic effect for the froth flotation, which may be a result of the 90% selective separation of PVC from ASR plastics, with 82% purity. While, simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 dispersion mixture immobilized 95-100% of heavy metals in ASR soil/residues. The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. Microwave treatment can be a simple and effective method for PVC separation from ASR plastics.

Keywords: automotive shredder residue, chlorinated plastics, hazardous waste, heavy metals, immobilization, separation

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324 Novel Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles from Type IV Deep Eutectic Solvents

Authors: Lorenzo Gontrani, Marilena Carbone, Domenica Tommasa Donia, Elvira Maria Bauer, Pietro Tagliatesta


One of the fields where DES shows remarkable added values is the synthesis Of inorganic materials, in particular nanoparticles. In this field, the higher- ent and highly-tunable nano-homogeneities of DES structure give origin to a marked templating effect, a precious role that has led to the recent bloom of a vast number of studies exploiting these new synthesis media to prepare Nanomaterials and composite structures of various kinds. In this contribution, the most recent developments in the field will be reviewed, and some ex-citing examples of novel metal oxide nanoparticles syntheses using non-toxic type-IV Deep Eutectic Solvents will be described. The prepared materials possess nanometric dimensions and show flower-like shapes. The use of the pre- pared nanoparticles as fluorescent materials for the detection of various contaminants is under development.

Keywords: metal deep eutectic solvents, nanoparticles, inorganic synthesis, type IV DES, lamellar

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323 Glycerol-Based Bio-Solvents for Organic Synthesis

Authors: Dorith Tavor, Adi Wolfson


In the past two decades a variety of green solvents have been proposed, including water, ionic liquids, fluorous solvents, and supercritical fluids. However, their implementation in industrial processes is still limited due to their tedious and non-sustainable synthesis, lack of experimental data and familiarity, as well as operational restrictions and high cost. Several years ago we presented, for the first time, the use of glycerol-based solvents as alternative sustainable reaction mediums in both catalytic and non-catalytic organic synthesis. Glycerol is the main by-product from the conversion of oils and fats in oleochemical production. Moreover, in the past decade, its price has substantially decreased due to an increase in supply from the production and use of fatty acid derivatives in the food, cosmetics, and drugs industries and in biofuel synthesis, i.e., biodiesel. The renewable origin, beneficial physicochemical properties and reusability of glycerol-based solvents, enabled improved product yield and selectivity as well as easy product separation and catalyst recycling. Furthermore, their high boiling point and polarity make them perfect candidates for non-conventional heating and mixing techniques such as ultrasound- and microwave-assisted reactions. Finally, in some reactions, such as catalytic transfer-hydrogenation or transesterification, they can also be used simultaneously as both solvent and reactant. In our ongoing efforts to design a viable protocol that will facilitate the acceptance of glycerol and its derivatives as sustainable solvents, pure glycerol and glycerol triacetate (triacetin) as well as various glycerol-triacetin mixtures were tested as sustainable solvents in several representative organic reactions, such as nucleophilic substitution of benzyl chloride to benzyl acetate, Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of iodobenzene and phenylboronic acid, baker’s yeast reduction of ketones, and transfer hydrogenation of olefins. It was found that reaction performance was affected by the glycerol to triacetin ratio, as the solubility of the substrates in the solvent determined product yield. Thereby, employing optimal glycerol to triacetin ratio resulted in maximum product yield. In addition, using glycerol-based solvents enabled easy and successful separation of the products and recycling of the catalysts.

Keywords: glycerol, green chemistry, sustainability, catalysis

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322 Effect of Solvents in the Extraction and Stability of Anthocyanin from the Petals of Caesalpinia pulcherrima for Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

Authors: N. Prabavathy, R. Balasundaraprabhu, S. Shalini, Dhayalan Velauthapillai, S. Prasanna, N. Muthukumarasamy


Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has become a significant research area due to their fundamental and scientific importance in the area of energy conversion. Synthetic dyes as sensitizer in DSSC are efficient and durable but they are costlier, toxic and have the tendency to degrade. Natural sensitizers contain plant pigments such as anthocyanin, carotenoid, flavonoid, and chlorophyll which promote light absorption as well as injection of charges to the conduction band of TiO2 through the sensitizer. But, the efficiency of natural dyes is not up to the mark mainly due to instability of the pigment such as anthocyanin. The stability issues in vitro are mainly due to the effect of solvents on extraction of anthocyanins and their respective pH. Taking this factor into consideration, in the present work, the anthocyanins were extracted from the flower Caesalpinia pulcherrima (C. pulcherrimma) with various solvents and their respective stability and pH values are discussed. The usage of citric acid as solvent to extract anthocyanin has shown good stability than other solvents. It also helps in enhancing the sensitization properties of anthocyanins with Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods. The IPCE spectra show higher photovoltaic performance for dye sensitized TiO2nanorods using citric acid as solvent. The natural DSSC using citric acid as solvent shows a higher efficiency compared to other solvents. Hence citric acid performs to be a safe solvent for natural DSSC in boosting the photovoltaic performance and maintaining the stability of anthocyanins.

Keywords: Caesalpinia pulcherrima, citric acid, dye sensitized solar cells, TiO₂ nanorods

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321 Stabilizing Effects of Deep Eutectic Solvents on Alcohol Dehydrogenase Mediated Systems

Authors: Fatima Zohra Ibn Majdoub Hassani, Ivan Lavandera, Joseph Kreit


This study explored the effects of different organic solvents, temperature, and the amount of glycerol on the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-catalysed stereoselective reduction of different ketones. These conversions were then analyzed by gas chromatography. It was found that when the amount of deep eutectic solvents (DES) increases, it can improve the stereoselectivity of the enzyme although reducing its ability to convert the substrate into the corresponding alcohol. Moreover, glycerol was found to have a strong stabilizing effect on the ADH from Ralstonia sp. (E. coli/ RasADH). In the case of organic solvents, it was observed that the best conversions into the alcohols were achieved with DMSO and hexane. It was also observed that temperature decreased the ability of the enzyme to convert the substrates into the products and also affected the selectivity. In addition to that, the recycling of DES up to three times gave good conversions and enantiomeric excess results and glycerol showed a positive effect in the stability of various ADHs. Using RasADH, a good conversion and enantiomeric excess into the S-alcohol were obtained. It was found that an enhancement of the temperature disabled the stabilizing effect of glycerol and decreased the stereoselectivity of the enzyme. However, for other ADHs a temperature increase had an opposite positive effect, especially with ADH-T from Thermoanaerobium sp. One of the objectives of this study was to see the effect of cofactors such as NAD(P) on the biocatlysis activities of ADHs.

Keywords: alcohol dehydrogenases, DES, gas chromatography, RasADH

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320 Typology of the Physic-Chemical Quality of the Water of the Area of Touggourt Case: Aquifers of the Intercalary Continental and the Terminal Complex, S-E of Algeria

Authors: Habes Sameh, Bettahar Asma, Nezli Imad Eddine


The region of Touggourt is situated in the southern part is Algeria, it receives important quantities of waters, the latter are extracted from the fossil groundwater (the Intercalary Continental and the Terminal Complex). The mineralization of these waters of the Terminal Complex is between 3 and 6,5 g/l and for waters of Intercalary Continental is 1,8 and 8,7 g/l, thus it constitutes an obstacle as for its use. To highlight the origins of this mineralization, we used the hydrochemical tool. So the chemical analyses in our ownership, were treated by means of the software "Statistica", what allowed us to realize an analysis in main components (ACP), the latter showed a competition between sodic or magnesian chlorinated water and calcic bicarbonate water, rich in potassium for the TC, while for the IC, we have a competition between sodic or calcic chlorinated and magnesian water treated with copper sulphate waters. The simulation realized thermodynamics showed a variation of the index of saturation which do not exceed zero, for waters of two aquifer TC and IC, so indicating one under saturation of waters towards minerals, highlighting the influence of the geologic formation in the outcrop on the quality of waters. However, we notice that these waters remain acceptable for the irrigation of plants but must be treated before what are consumed by the human being.

Keywords: ACP, intercalary, continental, mineralization, SI, Terminal Complex

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319 Influence of Cationic Surfactant (TTAB) on the Rate of Dipeptide (Gly-DL-Asp) Ninhydrin Reaction in Absence and Presence of Organic Solvents

Authors: Mohd. Akram, A. A. M. Saeed


Surfactants are widely used in our daily life either directly in household and personal care products or indirectly in the industrial processes. The kinetics of the interaction of glycyl-DL-aspartic acid (Gly-DL-Asp) with ninhydrin has been investigated spectrophotometrically in aqueous and organic-solvent media in the absence and presence of cationic surfactant of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB). The study was carried out under different experimental conditions. The first and fractional order-rate were observed for [Gly-DL-Asp] and [ninhydrin], respectively. The reaction was enhanced about four-fold by TTAB micelles. The effect of organic solvents was studied at a constant concentration of TTAB and showed an increase in the absorbance as well as the rate constant for the formation of product (Ruhemann's purple). The results obtained in micellar media are treated quantitatively in terms of pseudo-phase and Piszkiewicz cooperativity models. The Arrhenius and Eyring equations are valid for the reaction over the range of temperatures used and different activation parameters (Ea, ∆H#, ∆S#, and ∆G#) have been evaluated.

Keywords: glycyl-DL-aspartic acid, ninhydrin, organic solvents, TTAB

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318 Evaluation of the Quality of Groundwater in the Zone of the Irrigated Perimeter Guelma-Bouchegouf, Northeast of Algeria

Authors: M. Benhamza, M. Touati, M. Aissaoui


The Guelma-Bouchegouf irrigated area is located in the north-east of the country; it extends about 80 km. It was commissioned in 1996, with an irrigable area of 9250 ha, it spreads on both banks of the Seybouse Wadi and it is subdivided into five autonomous distribution sectors. In order to assess the state of groundwater quality, physico-chemical and organic analyzes were carried out during the low water period in November 2017, at the level of fourteen wells in the Guelma-Bouchegouf irrigation area. The interpretation of the results of the chemical analyzes shows that the waters of the study area belong to two dominant chemical facies: sulphated-chlorinated-calcium and Sulfated-chlorinated-sodium. The mineral quality of the groundwater in the study area shows that Ca²⁺, Cl⁻ and SO₄²⁻ indicate little to significant pollution, Na⁺ and Mg²⁺ show moderate to significant mineralization of water, closely correlated with very high conductivities. NO₃⁻ and NH⁴⁺ show little to significant pollution throughout the study area. Phosphate represents a significant pollution, with excessive values exceeding the allowable standard. Phosphate concentrations indicate pollution caused by agricultural practices in the irrigated area, following the use of phosphates in the form of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

Keywords: Algeria, groundwater, irrigated perimeter, pollution

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317 Comparative Analysis of Petroleum Ether and Aqueous Extraction Solvents on Different Stages of Anopheles Gambiae Using Neem Leaf and Neem Stem

Authors: Tochukwu Ezechi Ebe, Fechi Njoku-Tony, Ifeyinwa Mgbenena


Comparative analysis of petroleum ether and aqueous extraction solvents on different stages of Anopheles gambiae was carried out using neem leaf and neem stem. Soxhlet apparatus was used to extract each pulverized plant part. Each plant part extract from both solvents were separately used to test their effects on the developmental stages of Anopheles gambiae. The result showed that the mean mortality of extracts from petroleum ether extraction solvent was higher than that of aqueous extract. It was also observed that mean mortality decreases with increase in developmental stage. Furthermore, extracts from neem leaf was found to be more susceptible than extracts from neem stem using same extraction solvent.

Keywords: petroleum ether, aqueous, developmental, stages, extraction, Anopheles gambiae

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316 Predicting the Solubility of Aromatic Waste Petroleum Paraffin Wax in Organic Solvents to Separate Ultra-Pure Phase Change Materials (PCMs) by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Fathi Soliman


With the ultimate goal of developing the separation of n-paraffin as phase change material (PCM) by means of molecular dynamic simulations, we attempt to predict the solubility of aromatic n-paraffin in two organic solvents: Butyl Acetate (BA) and Methyl Iso Butyl Ketone (MIBK). A simple model of aromatic paraffin: 2-hexadecylantharacene with amorphous molecular structure and periodic boundary conditions was constructed. The results showed that MIBK is the best solvent to separate ultra-pure phase change materials and this data was compatible with experimental data done to separate ultra-pure n-paraffin from waste petroleum aromatic paraffin wax, the separated n-paraffin was characterized by XRD, TGA, GC and DSC, moreover; data revealed that the n-paraffin separated by using MIBK is better as PCM than that separated using BA.

Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation, n-paraffin, organic solvents, phase change materials, solvent extraction

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315 Solvent Extraction in Ionic Liquids: Structuration and Aggregation Effects on Extraction Mechanisms

Authors: Sandrine Dourdain, Cesar Lopez, Tamir Sukhbaatar, Guilhem Arrachart, Stephane Pellet-Rostaing


A promising challenge in solvent extraction is to replace the conventional organic solvents, with ionic liquids (IL). Depending on the extraction systems, these new solvents show better efficiency than the conventional ones. Although some assumptions based on ions exchanges have been proposed in the literature, these properties are not predictable because the involved mechanisms are still poorly understood. It is well established that the mechanisms underlying solvent extraction processes are based not only on the molecular chelation of the extractant molecules but also on their ability to form supra-molecular aggregates due to their amphiphilic nature. It is therefore essential to evaluate how IL affects the aggregation properties of the extractant molecules. Our aim is to evaluate the influence of IL structure and polarity on solvent extraction mechanisms, by looking at the aggregation of the extractant molecules in IL. We compare extractant systems that are well characterized in common solvents and show thanks to SAXS and SANS measurements, that in the absence of IL ion exchange mechanisms, extraction properties are related to aggregation.

Keywords: solvent extraction in Ionic liquid, aggregation, Ionic liquids structure, SAXS, SANS

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314 Extractive Desulfurization of Fuels Using Choline Chloride-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents

Authors: T. Zaki, Fathi S. Soliman


Desulfurization process is required by most, if not all refineries, to achieve ultra-low sulfur fuel, that contains less than 10 ppm sulfur. A lot of research works and many effective technologies have been studied to achieve deep desulfurization process in moderate reaction environment, such as adsorption desulfurization (ADS), oxidative desulfurization (ODS), biodesulfurization and extraction desulfurization (EDS). Extraction desulfurization using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) is considered as simple, cheap, highly efficient and environmentally friend process. In this work, four DESs were designed and synthesized. Choline chloride (ChCl) was selected as typical hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA), and ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol (Gl), urea (Ur) and thiourea (Tu) were selected as hydrogen bond donors (HBD), from which a series of deep eutectic solvents were synthesized. The experimental data showed that the synthesized DESs showed desulfurization affinities towards the thiophene species in cyclohexane solvent. Ethylene glycol molecules showed more affinity to create hydrogen bond with thiophene instead of choline chloride. Accordingly, ethylene glycol choline chloride DES has the highest extraction efficiency.

Keywords: DES, desulfurization, green solvent, extraction

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313 Mentha piperita Formulations in Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents: Phenolic Profile and Biological Activity

Authors: Tatjana Jurić, Bojana Blagojević, Denis Uka, Ružica Ždero Pavlović, Boris M. Popović


Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) represent a class of modern systems that have been developed as a green alternative to toxic organic solvents, which are commonly used as extraction media. It has been considered that hydrogen bonding is the main interaction leading to the formation of NADES. The aim of this study was phytochemical characterization and determination of the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Mentha piperita leaf extracts obtained by six choline chloride-based NADES. NADES were prepared by mixing choline chloride with different hydrogen bond donors in 1:1 molar ratio following the addition of 30% (w/w) water. The mixtures were then heated (60 °C) and stirred (650 rpm) until the clear homogenous liquids were obtained. The Mentha piperita extracts were prepared by mixing 75 mg of peppermint leaves with 1 mL of NADES following by the heating and stirring (60 °C, 650 rpm) within 30 min. The content of six phenolics in extracts was determined using HPLC-PDA. The dominant compounds presented in peppermint leaves - rosmarinic acid and luteolin 7-O-glucoside, were extracted by NADES at a similar level as 70% ethanol. The microdilution method was applied to test the antibacterial activity of extracts. Compared with 70% ethanol, all NADES systems showed higher antibacterial activity towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram -), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram +), Escherichia coli (Gram -), and Salmonella enterica (Gram -), especially NADES containing organic acids. The majority of NADES extracts showed a better ability to neutralize DPPH radical than conventional solvent and similar ability to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ ions in FRAP assay. The obtained results introduce NADES systems as the novel, sustainable, and low-cost solvents with a variety of applications.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, green extraction, natural deep eutectic solvents, polyphenols

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312 Sustainable and Efficient Recovery of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Polymer from Cupriavidus necator Using Environment Friendly Solvents

Authors: Geeta Gahlawat, Sanjeev Kumar Soni


An imprudent use of environmentally hazardous petrochemical-based plastics and limited availability of fossil fuels have provoked research interests towards production of biodegradable plastics - polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHAs). However, the industrial application of PHAs based products is primarily restricted by their high cost of recovery and extraction protocols. Moreover, solvents used for the extraction and purification are toxic and volatile which causes adverse environmental hazards. Development of efficient downstream recovery strategies along with utilization of non-toxic solvents will accelerate their commercialization. In this study, various extraction strategies were designed for sustainable and cost-effective recovery of PHAs from Cupriavidus necator using non-toxic environment friendly solvents viz. 1,2-propylene carbonate, ethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, butyl acetate. The effect of incubation time i.e. 10, 30 and 50 min and temperature i.e. 60, 80, 100, 120°C was tested to identify the most suitable solvent. PHAs extraction using a recyclable solvent, 1,2 propylene carbonate, showed the highest recovery yield (90%) and purity (93%) at 120°C and 30 min incubation. Ethyl acetate showed the better capacity to recover PHAs from cells than butyl acetate. Extraction with ethyl acetate exhibited high recovery yield and purity of 96% and 92%, respectively at 100°C. Effect of non-toxic surfactant such as linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid (LAS) was also studied at 40, 60 and 80°C, and detergent pH range of 3.0, 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 for the extraction of PHAs from the cells. LAS gave highest yield of 86% and purity of 88% at temperature 80°C and 5.0 pH.

Keywords: polyhydroxyalkanoates, Cupriavidus necator, extraction, recovery yield

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311 Dehalogenation of Aromatic Compounds in Wastewater by Bacterial Cultures

Authors: Anne Elain, Magali Le Fellic


Halogenated Aromatic Compounds (HAC) are major organic pollutants that are detected in several environmental compartments as a result of their widespread use as solvents, pesticides and other industrial chemicals. The degradation of HAC simultaneously at low temperature and under saline conditions would be useful for remediation of polluted sites. Hence, microbial processes based on the metabolic activities of anaerobic bacteria are especially attractive from an economic and environmental point of view. Metabolites are generally less toxic, less likely to bioaccumulate and more susceptible for further degradation. Studies on biological reductive dehalogenation have largely been restricted to chlorinated compounds while relatively few have focussed on other HAC i.e., fluorinated, brominated or iodinated compounds. The objectives of the present work were to investigate the biodegradation of a mixture of triiodoaromatic molecules in industrial wastewater by an enriched bacterial consortium. Biodegradation of the mixture was studied during batch experiments in an anaerobic reactor. The degree of mineralization and recovery of halogen were monitored by HPLC-UV, TOC analysis and potentiometric titration. Providing ethanol as an electron donor was found to stimulate anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of HAC with a deiodination rate up to 12.4 mg.L-1 per day. Sodium chloride even at high concentration (10 mM) was found to have no influence on the degradation rates nor on the microbial viability. An analysis of the 16S rDNA (MicroSeq®) revealed that at least 6 bacteria were predominant in the enrichment, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas monteilii, Kocuria rhizophila, Ochrobacterium anthropi, Ralstonia pickettii and Rhizobium rhizogenes.

Keywords: halogenated aromatics, anaerobic biodegradation, deiodination, bacterial consortium

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310 Devulcanization of Waste Rubber Tyre Utilizing Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ultrasonic Energy

Authors: Ricky Saputra, Rashmi Walvekar, Mohammad Khalid, Kaveh Shahbaz, Suganti Ramarad


This particular study of interest aims to study the effect of coupling ultrasonic treatment with eutectic solvents in devulcanization process of waste rubber tyre. Specifically, three different types of Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES) were utilized, namely ChCl:Urea (1:2), ChCl:ZnCl₂ (1:2) and ZnCl₂:urea (2:7) in which their physicochemical properties were analysed and proven to have permissible water content that is less than 3.0 wt%, degradation temperature below 200ᵒC and freezing point below 60ᵒC. The mass ratio of rubber to DES was varied from 1:20-1:40, sonicated for 1 hour at 37 kHz and heated at variable time of 5-30 min at 180ᵒC. Energy dispersive x-rays (EDX) results revealed that the first two DESs give the highest degree of sulphur removal at 74.44 and 76.69% respectively with optimum heating time at 15 minutes whereby if prolonged, reformation of crosslink network would be experienced. Such is supported by the evidence shown by both FTIR and FESEM results where di-sulfide peak reappears at 30 minutes and morphological structures from 15 to 30 minutes change from smooth with high voidage to rigid with low voidage respectively. Furthermore, TGA curve reveals similar phenomena whereby at 15 minutes thermal decomposition temperature is at the lowest due to the decrease of molecular weight as a result of sulphur removal but increases back at 30 minutes. Type of bond change was also analysed whereby it was found that only di-sulphide bond was cleaved and which indicates partial-devulcanization. Overall, the results show that DES has a great potential to be used as devulcanizing solvent.

Keywords: crosslink network, devulcanization, eutectic solvents, reformation, ultrasonic

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